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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2008

Brian O'Neill and Alex Gillespie

A variety of brain pathologies can result in difficulties performing complex behavioural sequences. Assistive technology for cognition (ATC) attempts support of complex…

Abstract

A variety of brain pathologies can result in difficulties performing complex behavioural sequences. Assistive technology for cognition (ATC) attempts support of complex sequences with the aim of reducing disability. Traditional ATCs are cognitively demanding to use and thus have had poor uptake. A more intuitive interface may allow ATCs to reach their potential. Insights from psychological science may be useful to technologists in this area. We propose that an auditory‐verbal interface is more intuitive than a visual interface and reduces cognitive demands on users. Two experiments demonstrate a novel ATC, the General User Interface for Disorders of Execution (GUIDE). GUIDE is novel because it simulates normal conversational prompting to support task performance. GUIDE provides verbal prompts and questions and voice recognition allows the user to interact with the GUIDE. Research with non‐cognitively impaired participants and a single participant experiment involving a person with vascular dementia provide support for using interactive auditory‐verbal interfaces. Suggestions for the future development of auditory‐verbal interfaces are discussed.

Details

Journal of Assistive Technologies, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-9450

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Muhammad Nazrul Islam and Franck Tétard

The purpose of this empirical study was to address two important concerns of Web usability: how user-intuitive interface signs affect Web usability and how applying…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this empirical study was to address two important concerns of Web usability: how user-intuitive interface signs affect Web usability and how applying semiotics (i.e. the doctrine of signs) in user interface (UI) design and evaluation helps to improve usability.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical research approach is followed here to conduct three user tests. These tests were conducted on a Web application with 17 test participants. Data were gathered through laboratory-based think-aloud usability test, questionnaires and interviews. Following an empirical research approach, statistics and user behavior analysis were used to analyze the data.

Findings

This study explores two important concerns of UI design and evaluation. First, users’ interpretation accuracy of interface signs impact on Web usability. The study found that users’ interpretation of signs might be accurate, moderate, conflicting, erroneous or incapable; user-intuitive interface signs led participants to interpret signs’ meaning accurately; and users’ inaccurate interpretation of one or a few task-related interface sign(s) led users to usability problems, resulting in participants performing tasks with lower task-completion performance. Second, considering semiotics perception in UI design and evaluation is important to improve Web usability. This study showed that interface signs, when re-designed considering the semiotics guidelines, have increased the end-users’ interpretation accuracy and the interface signs’ intuitiveness. This study also provides a small set of semiotics guidelines for sign design and evaluation.

Originality/value

This study empirically demonstrated that signs’ intuitiveness impact on Web usability and that considering the semiotics perception in sign design and evaluation is important to improve Web usability. These outcomes are valuable in a number of ways to HCI researchers and practitioners: the results provide awareness of the importance of user-intuitive interface signs in UI design; practitioners can easily adopt the concept of interpretation accuracy classification to conduct a sign test to obtain an “overall impression of interface signs’ intuitiveness”; practitioners can easily adopt the methodological approach followed in this study to conduct usability test without additional resources; and the results raised important fundamental questions for future research such as “what does a practitioner need to be aware of when designing or evaluating interface signs?”

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

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Book part
Publication date: 17 September 2014

Stacy Creel

This study investigated the design of three online public library catalogs in light of the cognitive ability and success of children ages five to eight.

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigated the design of three online public library catalogs in light of the cognitive ability and success of children ages five to eight.

Methodology/approach

A quasi-experimental approach was employed to examine the influence of system design on children’s searching strategies and search success. Interviews were used to explore children’s rationale for using icons and taxonomies in the catalogs. Fifty one children from one public library participated in this study. Inferential statistics were utilized to whether significant differences existed between use of the catalogs and the children’s success in finding information.

Results

Use of images and text were helpful in searching the catalogs. Results of the ANOVA test indicated no significant difference among children’s searching success rates and the three catalogs. Additionally, the participants misidentified representations used in icons in all three catalogs and created valid search paths that did not produce results. There was a disconnect between the children’s cognitive abilities and the design representations of the three catalogs.

Limitations

The study took place in one location, thus one should not overgeneralize the findings. Use of assigned tasks may have affected children’s success rates. Children’s searching using printed cards of display screens from the three catalogs instead of real-time interaction with them is also a limitation.

Practical implications

Because of the children’s reliance on images, the choice of visual representations is crucial to successful searching. Interface designers should involve young users in the design of today’s online catalogs. They should also consider new forms of representations such as auditory icons, verbal mouse overs, and zooms.

Originality/value

In addition to addressing the need for research on young children’s information seeking and use of online catalogs in public libraries, this research focuses on the need for an additional layer of visual representation and highlights flaws in currently used catalog designs.

Details

New Directions in Children’s and Adolescents’ Information Behavior Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-814-3

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2013

Brian O'Neill, Catherine Best, Alex Gillespie and Lauren O'Neill

The purpose of this paper is to test the efficacy of an interactive verbal prompting technology (Guide) on supporting the morning routine. Data have already established…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the efficacy of an interactive verbal prompting technology (Guide) on supporting the morning routine. Data have already established the efficacy of such prompting during procedural tasks, but the efficacy of such prompting in tasks with procedural and motivational elements remains unexamined. Such tasks, such as getting out of bed in the morning and engaging in personal care, are often the focus of rehabilitation goals.

Design/methodology/approach

A single‐n study with a male (age 61) who had severe cognitive impairment and was having trouble completing the morning routine. An A−B−A′−B′−A″−B″ design was used, with the intervention phase occurring both in an in‐patient unit (B, B′) and in the participant's own home (B″).

Findings

Interactive verbal prompting technology (Guide) significantly reduced support worker prompting and number of errors in the in‐patient setting and in the participant's own home.

Research limitations/implications

The results suggest that interactive verbal prompting can be used to support motivational tasks such as getting out of bed and the morning routine. This study used a single subject experimental design and the results need to be confirmed in a larger sample.

Originality/value

This is the first report of use of interactive verbal prompting technology to support rehabilitation of a motivational task. It is also the first study to evaluate Guide in a domestic context.

Details

Social Care and Neurodisability, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-0919

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Book part
Publication date: 2 May 2006

Abstract

Details

Human Factors of Remotely Operated Vehicles
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-247-4

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Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2009

Alfred Ogle

This paper reviews the literature on hotel guest questionnaires, also commonly known in the industry as comment cards. Considered a hotel tradition, the ubiquitous…

Abstract

This paper reviews the literature on hotel guest questionnaires, also commonly known in the industry as comment cards. Considered a hotel tradition, the ubiquitous questionnaire remains the primary method employed by mainstream hotels to elicit and record guest feedback despite shortcomings in data reliability and response rates. Hence questionnaires play a key facilitation role in the collection of guest feedback (guest–hotel dyad in hotel communication). The paper traces the history of questionnaire utilization in the hotel industry, and examines evolutionary changes in terms of form and function. A typology of questionnaire genre is constructed. Used either independently or in combination with other methods, the traditional paper guest questionnaire has been complemented or even superseded by e-based variants. Obsolescence threatens the paper questionnaire as technology uptake permeates the hotel industry. This paper considers a “service innovation” by using the questionnaire as a communication tool along the hotel–guest dyad. A back-to-basics approach potentially yields a valuable and cost-efficient guest service encounter opportunity whilst mitigating questionnaire data deficiencies.

Details

Perspectives on Cross-Cultural, Ethnographic, Brand Image, Storytelling, Unconscious Needs, and Hospitality Guest Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-604-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2008

Chris Abbott

Abstract

Details

Journal of Assistive Technologies, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-9450

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2021

Fred Niederman

The purpose of this essay is to illustrate how project management “pull” and AI or analytics technology “push” are likely to result in incremental and disruptive evolution…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this essay is to illustrate how project management “pull” and AI or analytics technology “push” are likely to result in incremental and disruptive evolution of project management capabilities and practices.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is written as a critical essay reflecting the experience and reflections of the author with many ideas drawn from and extending selected items from project management, artificial intelligence (AI) and analytics literatures.

Findings

Neither AI nor sophisticated analytics is likely to elicit hands on attention from project managers, other than those producing AI or analytics-based artifacts or using these tools to create their products and services. However, through the conduit of packaged software support for project management, new tools and approaches can be expected to more effectively support current activities, to streamline or eliminate activities that can be automated, to extend current capabilities with the availability of increased data, computing capacity and mathematically based algorithms and to suggest ways to reconceive how projects are done and whether they are needed.

Research limitations/implications

This essay includes projections of possible, some likely and some unlikely, events and states that have not yet occurred. Although the hope and purpose are to alert readers to the possibilities of what may occur as logical extensions of current states, it is improbable that all such projections will come to pass at all or in the way described. Nonetheless, consideration of the future ranging from current trends, the interplay among intersecting trends and scenarios of future states can sharpen awareness of the effects of current choices regarding actions, decisions and plans improving the probability that the authors can move toward desired rather than undesired future states.

Practical implications

Project managers not involved personally with creating AI or analytics products can avoid mastering detailed skill sets in AI and analytics, but should scan for new software features and affordances that they can use enable new levels of productivity, net benefit creation and ability to sleep well at night.

Originality/value

This essay brings together AI, analytics and project management to imagine and anticipate possible directions for the evolution of the project management domain.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Mark Durkin, Gwyneth Mulholland and Aodheen McCartan

While technology continues to make a dramatic and profound impact in service industries and radically shapes how services are delivered relatively little is understood…

Abstract

Purpose

While technology continues to make a dramatic and profound impact in service industries and radically shapes how services are delivered relatively little is understood about the impact of advancing technology on customers; their expectations, perceptions and behaviours. As banking enters an increasingly digitised world this study reports on the views of 667 e-banking customers with respect to the perceived potential of social media to add value in retail banking relationships. The purpose of this paper is to propose that in order to realise this opportunity requires the case bank to embrace the second-order level changes required within socio-technical theory (STT) in order that such value can be co-created between the relational parties.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the lens of STT to interpret the findings drawn from the case bank’s e-banking customer base (n=5,500), it is argued that social media has the potential to fundamentally change customer-bank relationships and to add value to the way in which the parties interact with each other into the future. A survey methodology was adopted.

Findings

The findings presented indicate a wide spectrum of customers actively using transactional e-banking solutions in the case bank. The findings showed that those in the 15-30 age group saw “real-time/up-to-date information” as the main gain of their bank being on Facebook while their older colleagues in the 31-60 age group had a desire for different returns (“competitions, events”). That the analysis showed that age was the only significant determinant of Facebook appropriateness for the case bank, and in the context of the age-related preferences outlined above, the issue of segmentation is strongly highlighted.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the academic domain through a rare application of STT in a service context, offers implications for practice and highlights important areas for future research, inter alia; the role for new media in banking relationships, the impacts of new media on bank staff roles, where value now accrues in bank-customer communication, where social media fits in the promotional mix and relational strategies of banks and what are the issues emerging at the social-technical interface between both customers and staff and new technology and media.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

Stephen Jolly

Despite research spanning a 20‐year period (from 1950 to 1970), Ray L. Birdwhistell’s work on body language and theory of kinesics has been recorded only in occasional…

Abstract

Despite research spanning a 20‐year period (from 1950 to 1970), Ray L. Birdwhistell’s work on body language and theory of kinesics has been recorded only in occasional papers. Birdwhistell defined kinesics as “the study of body‐motion as related to the non‐verbal aspects of interpersonal communication”. He believed body‐motion communication to be systemic, a socially learned and communicative behaviour unless proven otherwise. The article extensively collates and analyses Birdwhistell’s work and theories. Birdwhistell was frequently forced to admit that a number of his theories were subject to some dispute. The article concludes that Birdwhistell’s work contains major flaws and the verdict of other researchers who have tried to develop his theories of kinesics has been damning.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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