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The aim of the paper is to develop a method to block hydroxyl groups of epoxy acrylate (AAEP) in vinyl ester resin (VER) and to study the influence of modified VER on…
The aim of the paper is to develop a method to block hydroxyl groups of epoxy acrylate (AAEP) in vinyl ester resin (VER) and to study the influence of modified VER on polyurethane/(VER) interpenetrating polymer network (PU/VER IPN).
The hydroxyl groups of AAEP in VER were blocked via different methods. Infra‐red spectroscopy was adopted to study the influence of the reagents, reaction temperature and feed molar ratio on the blocking effect of hydroxyl groups and the optimised technological parameters were determined. The PU/VER IPN and PU/modified VER IPN were prepared by simultaneous interpenetrating of VER (mixture of AAEP and butyl methacrylate with the mass ratio of 2/1) or modified VER and synthesised PU in their laboratory. The microstructure, dynamic mechanical properties and mechanical properties of PU/VER IPN and PU/modified VER IPN were compared.
The results showed that compared to unmodified IPN, because the hydroxyl groups in VER were blocked and no chemical cross‐linked structure existed between the two networks, the modified IPN showed dual‐continuous microsturcture with larger phase domain sizes between 20 and 50 nm. The effect damping temperature range of modified IPN was broadened and its damping performance was improved. The mechanical strength of modified IPNs decreased and their break elongation increased evidently.
The PU/modified VER IPN with excellent damping properties can be used in the applications where reduction of vibration and noise is desired.
The PU/modified VER IPN, in which no chemical cross‐linked structure existed between the two networks, was novel and its damping performance was improved and excellent.
Presents over sixty abstracts summarising the 1999 Employment Research Unit annual conference held at the University of Cardiff. Explores the multiple impacts of…
Presents over sixty abstracts summarising the 1999 Employment Research Unit annual conference held at the University of Cardiff. Explores the multiple impacts of globalization on work and employment in contemporary organizations. Covers the human resource management implications of organizational responses to globalization. Examines the theoretical, methodological, empirical and comparative issues pertaining to competitiveness and the management of human resources, the impact of organisational strategies and international production on the workplace, the organization of labour markets, human resource development, cultural change in organisations, trade union responses, and trans‐national corporations. Cites many case studies showing how globalization has brought a lot of opportunities together with much change both to the employee and the employer. Considers the threats to existing cultures, structures and systems.
India gained her political independence in 1947 from British rule. The new democracy chose non‐alignment, installed a large national government and legislated…
India gained her political independence in 1947 from British rule. The new democracy chose non‐alignment, installed a large national government and legislated protectionist policies, which kept out most foreign products that almost led to economic isolation. The political leaders believed that protectionism would make India self‐reliant and eventually improve the standard of living especially for the poorer Indians. While other Asian countries were encouraging foreign capital and multinationals, India was doing its best to keep them out (Business Asia, 2000). Although India moved towards self‐reliance, the lack of competition hindered the country’s own economic and technological developments. As a result the market was forced to accept local products that were often inferior or old‐fashioned. For example, until recently the leading car on India’s road was “Ambassador”, a reproduction of a British design from the early 1950s that was bulky and a gas‐guzzler.
This article is based on recent Ph.D research. The practices for appointing Vice Chancellors (VC’s) in Australian Universities were examined, together with the changing…
This article is based on recent Ph.D research. The practices for appointing Vice Chancellors (VC’s) in Australian Universities were examined, together with the changing role of the VC and new demographic patterns in VC backgrounds. A number of other issues were also examined, including the training and preparation of VC’s, mentoring and the changing skill base required to be effective in the role. In addition, the paradox was investigated of appointing academics from the ranks of individuals with non‐business backgrounds, to run large enterprises which are being compelled to adopt an increasingly business‐oriented focus.
Considers the effects on the mass media of China’s transition to a more open economy and the strategies which advertisers might use to overcome the problems it presents…
Considers the effects on the mass media of China’s transition to a more open economy and the strategies which advertisers might use to overcome the problems it presents. Describes the media available (including the unofficial “black route”, the official but restricted private sector “white route”, and the state “red route”) and lists the challenges which advertisers face in using them. Suggests some strategies and practices which can help to overcome them and some hypotheses on future media use. Calls for further research in this area.
Globalisation is generally defined as the “denationalisation of clusters of political, economic, and social activities” that destabilize the ability of the sovereign State to control activities on its territory, due to the rising need to find solutions for universal problems, like the pollution of the environment, on an international level. Globalisation is a complex, forceful legal and social process that take place within an integrated whole with out regard to geographical boundaries. Globalisation thus differs from international activities, which arise between and among States, and it differs from multinational activities that occur in more than one nation‐State. This does not mean that countries are not involved in the sociolegal dynamics that those transboundary process trigger. In a sense, the movements triggered by global processes promote greater economic interdependence among countries. Globalisation can be traced back to the depression preceding World War II and globalisation at that time included spreading of the capitalist economic system as a means of getting access to extended markets. The first step was to create sufficient export surplus to maintain full employment in the capitalist world and secondly establishing a globalized economy where the planet would be united in peace and wealth. The idea of interdependence among quite separate and distinct countries is a very important part of talks on globalisation and a significant side of today’s global political economy.
Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the American preemptive invasion and occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq and the subsequent prisoner abuse, such an existence seems to be farther and farther away from reality. The purpose of this work is to stop this dangerous trend by promoting justice, love, and peace through a change of the paradigm that is inconsistent with justice, love, and peace. The strong paradigm that created the strong nation like the U.S. and the strong man like George W. Bush have been the culprit, rather than the contributor, of the above three universal ideals. Thus, rather than justice, love, and peace, the strong paradigm resulted in in justice, hatred, and violence. In order to remove these three and related evils, what the world needs in the beginning of the third millenium is the weak paradigm. Through the acceptance of the latter paradigm, the golden mean or middle paradigm can be formulated, which is a synergy of the weak and the strong paradigm. In order to understand properly the meaning of these paradigms, however, some digression appears necessary.
Defines advertising and looks at the way it is part of the whole home environment. Considers the influence and power various media possess with particular emphasis on women. Addresses how advertising reinforces the existing power roles within society and questions if recent evidence shows any change in this position. Concludes that most individuals are aware of the unrealistic nature of some advertising but advertisers still often represent the “establishment” and stick to proven methods of success.
The paper aims to research the mechanics of voluntary export restraints (VERs). It first develops a comprehensive VER research agenda, subsequently covering a 1991 VER…
The paper aims to research the mechanics of voluntary export restraints (VERs). It first develops a comprehensive VER research agenda, subsequently covering a 1991 VER between the European Union (EU) and Japan that established “voluntary” quotas on Japanese cars until 1999.
Reflecting gaps in research, an overall VER research agenda is set up. Then, referring to the only source providing ex ante hypotheses on the specific EU/Japan VER, those hypotheses by Preusse are checked against available ex post data at the time of writing in 2002.
First, Japan has not exhausted any of its yearly quotas during and even accepted a cut of quota in some years – an outcome only partly influenced by lower than expected market growth in the relevant period. Then, the competitive power of the Japanese producers appears overestimated, while the European capability to catch up was underestimated. Potential “escape routes” such as transplants and third‐country imports fell short of estimations – providing no particular support for Preusse's efficiency effect hypothesis and competitive effect hypothesis.
Typical research limitations such as data source availability and actor accessibility notwithstanding, it is shown that the product upgrading effect often associated with VERs may happen independently of such agreements.
This first results‐based, hypothesis‐driven exploration of particular VER mechanisms supports the authors’ call for a dual, actor‐driven and multi‐disciplinary VER research approach. It holds promise for the potential avenues for related research.
The aims of this article is to analyse whether there are differences in green advertisement attitudes between high involved and low involved consumers, to compare high and…
The aims of this article is to analyse whether there are differences in green advertisement attitudes between high involved and low involved consumers, to compare high and low involvement consumer’s cognitive responses and affective responses towards advertisements and examine the extent of the importance on certain themes that both high involvement and low involvement consumers consider. Themes such as company image, environmental labels, and product recycling symbols. A random sample of 207 consumers was taken from Victoria (Australia). The study shows that there are differences between the two groups in terms of their attitude towards green advertising with respect to all the dimensions and the low involved customers appear to have a stronger disregard for the green advertising across all the perceptive measures towards green advertising. The findings provide useful insights to practitioners as to the type of themes preferred for green advertising.