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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2020

Yawei Fu and Sin Huei Ng

The purpose of this paper is twofold to examine the factors that contribute to local bias of venture capital in China and to explore the relationship between local bias…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold to examine the factors that contribute to local bias of venture capital in China and to explore the relationship between local bias and performance of venture capital institutions.

Design/methodology/approach

Local bias was measured in line with the model developed by Cumming and Dai (2010). Regression techniques were performed for our long-term cross-sectional data to analyse the potential determinants of local bias. This is followed by the Probit model to test the relationship between local preference and successful exit.

Findings

The overall finding indicated that local bias in China increased over time. The stiff competition among venture capital institutions reduced local bias, but the enhanced innovation capabilities of a particular geographical area amplified local bias because of the knowledge spillover effect. Finally, the results suggested that venture capital institutions with less local bias enjoy a greater likelihood of making successful exits.

Research limitations/implications

This study used successful venture capital exit as a proxy for venture capital institution’s performance because of the unavailability of information such as internal rate of return. Future research should try to adopt other way of measuring venture capital institution’s performance.

Practical implications

This study sheds light on the various possible causes of local bias that the policymakers need to be aware of. Despite the rapid rise of China’s venture capital market in recent years, venture capital institutions have yet to make inroads into the local high-tech industry. This study implies to the policymakers that to reverse this trend, they should formulate policies that foster the long-term performance of venture capital institutions, mitigate the severity of local bias and raise the competitiveness of the Chinese venture capital market.

Originality/value

Because of data limitations, there is currently lack of prior empirical research on local bias of Chinese venture capital institutions based on large-scale data. This study intends to fill the gap.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2020

Yonghong Jin, Meng Xu, Wei Wang and Yuqin Xi

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how venture capital institutions can use their syndicated investment network to help listed companies to achieve better performance

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how venture capital institutions can use their syndicated investment network to help listed companies to achieve better performance in mergers and acquisitions (M&A) activities.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper builds a fixed effect unbalanced panel regression model to study the impact of venture capital network on the M&A performance of listed companies.

Findings

Evidence indicated that the stronger the information resource acquisition ability of venture capital institutions in the network, the better the listed company's M&A performance supported; the stronger the information resource control ability of venture capital institutions in the network, the better the listed company's M&A performance supported; the higher the participation of venture capital institutions, the more significant the positive impact of information resource acquisition and information resource control abilities on M&A performance in the network.

Research limitations/implications

The data in this paper are from China's Growth Enterprise Market (GEM), other markets may be considered in the future research studies.

Practical implications

The research conclusions of this paper affirm the positive role played by venture capital institutions through syndicated investment in eliminating information asymmetry in M&A of invested companies. The information resource acquisition and control abilities and participation degree of the venture capital network have positively promoted the M&A performance of the invested enterprises.

Originality/value

The conclusions of this paper not only provide useful supplements to existing research literature on venture capital network functions and corporate M&A but also have certain guiding value for venture capital institutions and start-ups to better use venture capital practices to improve their capabilities and performance.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Isaac Ofoeda, Philip Gariba and Lordina Amoah

– The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between regulation of non-bank financial institutions (NBFIs) and their performance in Ghana.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between regulation of non-bank financial institutions (NBFIs) and their performance in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is performed using data derived from the Bank of Ghana Database during a five-year period, 2006-2010. Correlated panels corrected standard errors model is used to estimate the regression equation. Capital adequacy requirements and the restrictions on the ability of non-bank financial institutions (NBFIs) to take deposits are used as proxies for regulatory pressure. The study also used the return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE) as measures of NBFI performance.

Findings

Results of the study emerged with the evidence that there exists a positive relationship between minimum capital adequacy requirement of 10 per cent and profitability. This indicates that asking NBFIs to keep higher minimum capital adequacy ratio has resulted in improving their profitability. This suggests that capital regulation is an effective tool in enhancing the stability and the profitability of the financial services sector. In addition, the paper finds a positive relationship between regulatory pressure in terms of restrictions on deposits and NBFI profitability. This means that non-deposit-taking NBFIs have improved performance. This indicates that restricting NBFIs in terms of deposit-taking rather goes to increase profitability.

Originality/value

The value of this study is in respect of its contribution to the extant literature on financial regulation and performance of NBFIs.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 58 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2009

Lawton R. Burns, Rajiv J. Shah, Frank A. Sloan and Adam C. Powell

Change in ownership among U.S. community hospitals has been frequent and, not surprisingly, remains an important issue for both researchers and public policy makers. In…

Abstract

Change in ownership among U.S. community hospitals has been frequent and, not surprisingly, remains an important issue for both researchers and public policy makers. In the past, investor-owned hospitals were long suspected of pursuing financial over other goals, culminating in several reviews that found few differences between for-profit and nonprofit forms (Gray, 1986; Sloan, 2000; Sloan, Picone, Taylor, & Chou, 2001). Nevertheless, continuing to the present day, several states prohibit investor-ownership of community hospitals. Conversions to investor-ownership are only one of six types of ownership change, however, with relatively less attention paid to the other types (e.g., for-profit to nonprofit, public to nonprofit). This study has two parts. We first review the literature on the various types of ownership conversion among community hospitals. This review includes the rate at which conversions occur over time, the relative frequency in conversions between specific ownership categories and the observed effects of conversion on hospital operations (e.g., strategic direction and decision-making processes) and performance (e.g., access, quality, and cost). Overall, we find that the impact of ownership conversion on the different measures is mixed, with slightly greater evidence for positive effects on hospital efficiency. As one explanation for these findings, we suggest that the impact of ownership conversion on hospital performance may be mediated by changes in the hospital's strategic content and process. Such a hypothesis has not been proposed or examined in the literature. To address this gap, we next study the role of strategic reorientation following hospital conversion in a field study. We conceptualize ownership conversion within a strategic adaptation framework, and then analyze the changes in strategy content and process across sixteen hospitals that have undergone ownership conversions from nonprofit to for-profit, public to for-profit, public to nonprofit, and for-profit to nonprofit. The field study findings delineate the strategic paths and processes implemented by new owners post-conversion. We find remarkable similarity in the content of strategies undertaken but differences in the process of strategic decision making associated with different types of ownership changes. We also find three main performance effects: hospitals change ownership for financial reasons, experience increases in revenues and capital investment post-conversion, and pursue labor force reductions post-conversion. Membership in a multi-hospital system, however, may be a major determinant of both strategy content and decision-making process that is confounded with ownership change. That is, ownership conversion may mask the impact of system membership on a hospital's strategic actions. These findings may explain the pattern of performance effects observed in the literature on ownership conversions.

Details

Biennial Review of Health Care Management: Meso Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-673-7

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Book part
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Nigel Culkin and Richard Simmons

Abstract

Details

Mastering Brexits Through The Ages
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-897-2

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Book part
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Fumi Kitagawa and Susan Robertson

This chapter examines the processes of entrepreneurial network and capital formation at a university-based incubator. Incubators could help overcome start-up firms to gain…

Abstract

This chapter examines the processes of entrepreneurial network and capital formation at a university-based incubator. Incubators could help overcome start-up firms to gain access to entrepreneurial networks and credibility with external stakeholders, by supporting the entrepreneurial processes including the acquisition of variety of capitals and resources. However, the actual evidence on the effectiveness of incubators as a policy tool for business support has been rather contested. This chapter makes a contribution to the entrepreneurship literature by addressing the underlying processes of incubation as a key factor critical to achieve accelerated firm growth at the university-based technology incubator. Drawing on interviews and survey of start-up firms at a university-based incubator, co-evolution of business models with capital mobilisation and re-combination of resources is illustrated. The chapter concludes by arguing that more detailed processes and trajectories of ‘soft starter’ business model would contribute to the understanding and development of policy support for entrepreneurial processes.

Details

New Technology-Based Firms in the New Millennium
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-032-6

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Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2016

Abu Umar Faruq Ahmad

Sukuk are popular means for governments to raise money through sovereign issues, and for corporations to obtain finance through corporate sukuk offerings. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

Sukuk are popular means for governments to raise money through sovereign issues, and for corporations to obtain finance through corporate sukuk offerings. The purpose of this study is to critically examine the issues revolving around various aspects of sukuk such as regulation, performance and future challenges from different Asian market jurisdictions.

Methodology/approach

Using various sukuk structures and other literatures, this chapter critically investigates some general legal and regulatory requirements for sukuk issuance, its required infrastructure in various jurisdictions in addition to some other relevant important issues to generate cash flows and raise finance through Islamic capital market (ICM) operations without violating the tenets of Sharī’ah in sukuk structures which ultimately helps the economic growth of the Asian region.

Findings

The study finds that in many Asian countries, a separate and specialised regulatory framework, as demanded by sukuk, is lacking and this instrument is treated under the same regulations as of conventional capital markets and their instruments. Some of the regulations may be appropriate for ICM and sukuk, however, most of these regulations need proper modification in order to treat sukuk with clear understanding.

Practical implications

Being part of a niche and new area of Islamic finance in the global financial market a plethora of confusion exists regarding various aspects of sukuk including regulation, performance and future challenges particularly in Asian jurisdiction where sukuk are largely in operation. Findings from this study can be used as a reference to understand the need of the proper modification of conventional regulations, the performance of sukuk in better ways, and meeting other relevant challenges.

Originality/value

Although the demands for having specialised regulatory framework of sukuk, or at least amendments in the current framework for conventional bonds is gaining momentum worldwide in order to accommodate sukuk in the capital markets according to their peculiar nature, it has not caught much attention of researchers and practitioners involved with Islamic finance. Therefore, this study is expected to add value to regulation, standardisation and performance of sukuk in the Asian market, and it deals with the obstacles in the growth of sukuk, which were not extensively covered earlier by the researchers and the Islamic finance industry practitioners.

Details

Advances in Islamic Finance, Marketing, and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-899-8

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Sulait Tumwine, Richard Akisimire, Nixon Kamukama and Gad Mutaremwa

– The purpose of this paper is to develop an effective cost borrowing model of qualitative factors that are relevant to micro and small enterprises (SMEs) better performance.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an effective cost borrowing model of qualitative factors that are relevant to micro and small enterprises (SMEs) better performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A valid research instrument was utilized to conduct a survey on 359 SMEs (131 retail businesses, 125 service businesses, 48 farming businesses and 55 other businesses) and 897 respondents that are representative of 397 SMEs and 1,087 respondents. Correlation and regression analysis were conducted to ascertain the validity of the hypotheses.

Findings

It was established that cost of borrowing elements (interest rate and loan processing costs) are associated with SME performance. Furthermore, cost of borrowing as a whole accounts for 31.1 percent of the variation in performance Uganda’s SMEs.

Research limitations/implications

Only a single research methodological approach was employed, future research through interviews could be undertaken to triangulate. Multiple respondents in SMEs (owner, manager and cashier) were studied neglecting others. Furthermore, the study used the cross-sectional approach – a longitudinal approach should be employed to study the trend over years. Finally, cost of borrowing was studied and by the virtual of the results, there are other factors that contribute to SME performance that were not part of this study.

Practical implications

There is need to intensify initiatives to encourage greater understanding and acceptance of cost of borrowing, select appropriate elements that includes interest rate and loan processing costs in order to have affordable source of financing to establish and grow SMEs, provide employment, competitive and contribute to countries GDP.

Originality/value

This is the first paper in Sub-Saharan Africa to test empirically the relationship between cost of borrowing and performance of SMEs in the Ugandan context.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 January 2018

Oluwaseun Kolade

The purpose of this paper is to examine how a new entrepreneurship education (EE) intervention offered at conflict-ridden Maiduguri, Nigeria, is having transformative…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how a new entrepreneurship education (EE) intervention offered at conflict-ridden Maiduguri, Nigeria, is having transformative impacts through new venture creation and poverty reduction.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts a single case study approach, drawing from in-depth interviews of participants, experts, and facilitators of the entrepreneurship training, in addition to relevant memos and documents.

Findings

The findings indicate that the EE programme is, by generating awareness and facilitating skill development, contributing to new venture creation, poverty reduction, and positive change in mindset. However, the impact is limited by inadequate support through venture capital and limited facilities for business incubation.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited in its focus on EE provided for university undergraduates and graduates. Further research should explore interventions aimed at less-educated youth in the region, and in other conflict contexts.

Social implications

The study suggests that EE facilitates youth empowerment through venture creation, in the process transforming them from aggrieved outsiders to active stakeholders in societal peace and national prosperity.

Originality/value

The nascent theory of transformative entrepreneuring identifies poverty reduction and conflict resolution as the main mechanisms. This paper focuses on how EE triggers new venture creation, which in turn contributes to poverty reduction and overall change in mindset of otherwise unemployed and aggrieved youths.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 60 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1987

R.S. Thompson and M. Wright

In both the United States and Europe there has been a spectacular growth in the number and importance of management buy‐outs since the late 1970s. The typical…

Abstract

In both the United States and Europe there has been a spectacular growth in the number and importance of management buy‐outs since the late 1970s. The typical characteristics of these deals differ somewhat on either side of the Atlantic in ways which are outlined below. However, in each environment the term “buy‐out” refers essentially to the transfer of ownership of the assets of an existing firm — which may itself be an independent entity or a wholly‐owned subsidiary or division — to a new and especially established group of equity holders which intends to keep at least some of those assets in their former use. In the US buy‐outs have often involved very large asset transfers, indeed multi‐billion dollar deals have been quite frequent. The transaction is typically financed by a limited subscription of equity from specialist venture capitalists and perhaps from the firm's management, together with a very large input of debt capital. The latter has often been in the form of high coupon (so called “junk”) bonds. The characteristically high ratio of debt to equity in buy‐out finance has given rise to their American description as leveraged buy‐outs.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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