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Article
Publication date: 20 January 2022

Berna Rahi, Fatima Bilal Kawtharani, Ali M. Hassan and Hussein F. Hassan

The aim is to evaluate the nutritive value of vended machine items at university campuses in Lebanon and to explore the factors associated with the use of vending machines

Abstract

Purpose

The aim is to evaluate the nutritive value of vended machine items at university campuses in Lebanon and to explore the factors associated with the use of vending machines among students.

Design/methodology/approach

Campuses (n = 32) were screened for the presence of vending machines, and items sold in those machines (n = 21) were observed and assessed for their nutritive value. Also, a convenient sample of 603 students completed a web-based questionnaire investigating the association between the use of vending machines with the eating habits and body composition. Independent t-tests or chi-square, in addition to non-parametric test (Mann–Whitney) were conducted. Significance level of 0.05 was used.

Findings

Vending machine snacks sold in 20 out of 21 universities were high in sugar (32.1 g/100 g), fat (29 g/100 g) and saturated fat (10.5 g/100 g), while for beverages, 20% of the universities had them high in sugar (9.5 g/100 ml), fat (2.9 g/100 g) and saturated fat (1.7 g/100 g). The use of vending machines around campus was associated with significantly higher weekly consumption of crisps, savory snacks and milk. The majority of the participants were vending machine users (77.1%). Vending machine users had a higher weekly consumption of crisps and savory snacks (3.6 ± 4.3 vs 2.3 ± 3.3; p = 0.008) and a higher weekly consumption of milk (4.0 ± 4.2 vs 3.0 ± 3.6; p = 0.036).

Originality/value

No study has determined the nutritive value of vending machines in universities in Lebanon, nor investigated the associated factors with their use.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2021

Dobromir Stoyanov

This study identifies the conventional elements of the vending marketing mix and how they vary across academic segments in the context of a typical French university.

Abstract

Purpose

This study identifies the conventional elements of the vending marketing mix and how they vary across academic segments in the context of a typical French university.

Design/methodology/approach

To determine the elements of the vending marketing mix, the author conducts interviews with international industry experts and undertake 170 direct observations at various universities to verify the differences between the marketing mix proposals of dissimilar target markets.

Findings

The results reveal significant variances across all elements of the marketing mix, with distribution characteristics being the most frequently adapted element across various markets, followed by promotion- and product-related parameters, while pricing characteristics are most commonly standardised.

Research limitations/implications

Vending operators should pay particular attention to marketing decisions related to the product assortment length, selection of appropriate locations, availability of smart payment options and feedback communication channels. The results reveal significant variances across all elements of the marketing mix indicating that vending operators apply strategies to reach different market segments. However, there is a high degree of standardisation within vending channels.

Originality/value

Though vending channels are an important retail format, prior studies do not investigate their marketing mixes. This is the first attempt to empirically establish the conventional elements of the vending marketing mix and to measure its variation across customer segments.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2015

Nicholas A. Meisel and Christopher B. Williams

The purpose of this study/paper is to present the design and implementation of a novel vending machine concept based on desktop-scale extrusion additive manufacturing…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study/paper is to present the design and implementation of a novel vending machine concept based on desktop-scale extrusion additive manufacturing (AM). Due to cost, access to AM technologies at academic institutions tends to be limited to upper-level courses to support project-based coursework. However, with the decreasing cost of desktop-scale AM technology, there is potential to improve student access to such technologies and provide more opportunities for AM education.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors present the design and implementation of an AM “vending machine” that is powered by desktop-scale extrusion-based AM systems. This system intends to provide students broad, unrestricted access to entry-level AM tools and promote informal learning opportunities.

Findings

Student users of the AM vending machine are found to be primarily engineering majors at various levels in their studies. Manufactured parts are evenly split between functional and decorative parts, though 75 per cent of students are creating their own designs rather than simply printing found design files.

Research limitations/implications

Future work will focus on improving the system’s ease-of-maintenance, lowering the barrier to entry with a simpler user interface and establishing a method for better recording part and user information.

Practical implications

The interface of the AM vending machine lowers the barrier of entry into engaging with AM and places this emerging technology in a familiar and “safe” context. It provides students at various levels and disciplines the opportunity to fabricate parts for classroom and personal projects.

Social implications

A “vending machine” system may have far-reaching implications for public access and use of AM. Such broad access has the potential to further educate and impassion the public about the potential of AM.

Originality/value

This work represents the creation and assessment of the world’s first AM vending machine.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2010

Samantha Kibblewhite, Sue Bowker and Huw R. Jenkins

A healthy, balanced and nutritious diet for children and young people is essential for normal growth and development. Vending machines can be a source of food and drink…

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1074

Abstract

Purpose

A healthy, balanced and nutritious diet for children and young people is essential for normal growth and development. Vending machines can be a source of food and drink high in fat, sugar and salt, and can undermine healthy eating messages. The purpose of this paper is to examine the contents of vending machines available in the vicinity of paediatric wards and paediatric out‐patient departments in hospitals in Wales.

Design/methodology/approach

Questionnaires are completed by staff in the Department of Child Health in each NHS Trust in Wales. This paper summarises the results.

Findings

Most vending machines found in the vicinity of paediatric wards and paediatric out‐patient departments in hospitals in Wales contain a majority of foods high in fat salt and sugar. Only a few contain over 50 per cent of drinks classified as healthy.

Research limitations/implications

There is no universally agreed definition of healthy food as related to individual products. This study looks at the availability of foods and drinks classified as “unhealthy” but does not look at the overall diet of the children in the ward.

Practical implications

The results of this study should encourage NHS Trusts to consider the contents of vending machines in the vicinity of paediatric wards and paediatric out‐patient departments in hospitals.

Originality/value

There is much rhetoric around the potential of vending machines to contribute to an unhealthy diet. This is the first paper to identify specific problems with hospital vending machines.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Donald Grunewald and Philip Baron

This case concerns a decision to become an entrepreneur by entering the vending machine business. A high school teacher wants to supplement his income, and a part‐time…

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868

Abstract

This case concerns a decision to become an entrepreneur by entering the vending machine business. A high school teacher wants to supplement his income, and a part‐time business seems an attractive possibility. The case points up issues involved in such a decision and raises the matter of information required to make such a choice. The underlying issue is the problem of what needs to be known to enter a business, what factors should be considered, and the importance of approaching the matter systematically.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2020

Lucy Zarina Campbell, Michael Pitt and Peter Mclennan

The experiment introduces nutritional labelling, healthier products and product placement designs to the hospital vending machines, to promote healthy lifestyles.

Abstract

Purpose

The experiment introduces nutritional labelling, healthier products and product placement designs to the hospital vending machines, to promote healthy lifestyles.

Design/methodology/approach

The site where this experiment happens is a major London hospital, serving over a million patients every year. In the experiment, the hospital’s snack and drink vending machines are redesigned. The impact on product sales are then analysed using robust statistical methods.

Findings

Nutritional labelling has a statistically significant impact on product sales. Less of the unhealthiest products are sold. Healthier products and product placement designs have a larger impact but with less statistical significance. They require further testing.

Research limitations/implications

Experts in service operations can use this experiment’s regression modelling methods. The methods are ideal for measuring change over time in counting data sets in complex real world environments.

Practical implications

There are suggestions for practical vending service change in this research. They are in line and add a practical example to Government policy guidance.

Social implications

People using the redesigned vending machines have more opportunity for healthy lifestyle choices.

Originality/value

The experiment provides statistical evidence in support of catering for healthier lifestyles.

Details

Facilities , vol. 39 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1987

Successful planning of a corporate catering facility depends on a thorough appraisal of staff needs and expectations — and on the level of subsidy management is prepared…

Abstract

Successful planning of a corporate catering facility depends on a thorough appraisal of staff needs and expectations — and on the level of subsidy management is prepared to commit to service. As we pointed out in a previous Facilities article (Vol 2/No 7/July 1984), the style of your catering operation will be a direct reflection of the degree and quality of care your organisation extends to its employees and a direct influence on staff productivity and morale. This month we start a new series to help facilities managers specify, cost and manage their catering operation and provide the right style and quality of service to staff.

Details

Facilities, vol. 5 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1967

The long‐awaited regulations to provide statutory compositional requirements for the ever‐increasing range of meat products have at last arrived; presented in the form of…

Abstract

The long‐awaited regulations to provide statutory compositional requirements for the ever‐increasing range of meat products have at last arrived; presented in the form of a triology—The Canned Meat Product Regulations, The Meat Pie and Sausage Roll Regulations and The Sausage and Other Meat Product Regulations—all of which apply to England and Wales only; presumably the Scottish counterparts, modified for the geographical variations in commodities, will appear in due course. The Meat Pie and Sausage Roll Regulations come into operation on May 31 1968; the other two on May 31 1969.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 69 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2012

Magdalena Nowak, Yvonne Jeanes and Sue Reeves

Leisure centres and health clubs are ideal places for promoting healthy lifestyle. They promote physical exercise and many activities for children, such as swimming, soft…

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1014

Abstract

Purpose

Leisure centres and health clubs are ideal places for promoting healthy lifestyle. They promote physical exercise and many activities for children, such as swimming, soft play areas, crèche, and team sports. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the food environment for children in leisure centres and health clubs in London.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 67 venues were visited. All food and drink options were recorded and the proportion of “healthy” options was calculated according to the School Food Trust criteria and Nutrient Profiling Model.

Findings

In total, 96 per cent of the venues had vending machines and 51 per cent had onsite restaurants/cafés. According to The School Food Trust criteria, only 13 per cent of vending machine drinks, 77.2 per cent of meals, and 24 per cent of snacks would be allowed in school canteens.

Research limitations/implications

The study revealed that a low proportion of healthy foods and drinks were offered to children in Leisure centres in London. However, the survey was only extended to venues in the capital.

Practical implications

The results of the study suggest that new recommendations such as the Healthy Food Code of Good Practice, omitted leisure centres. The findings presented here could provide scientific evidence for campaigns and interventions aimed at improving the quality and the appropriateness of foods and drinks offered to children.

Originality/value

The paper shows that health campaigns and legislation should target leisure centres and health clubs, in order to improve the food and drinks facilities and promote healthy eating, particularly in light of the upcoming Olympic Games in London 2012.

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2009

Michele Hampshire and Cathy E. Sanford

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the current status and challenges of providing library services to commuter populations living in the fastest‐growing region of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the current status and challenges of providing library services to commuter populations living in the fastest‐growing region of the San Francisco Bay Area, where the closest library building can be more than 20 miles distant.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper describes the impetus for, and experience of, introducing to the USA familiar ATM‐style technology adapted to lend books.

Findings

The paper suggests ways to correct inequities in delivery of library services to those who are disadvantaged by lack of proximity to a library building.

Originality/value

The paper provides an example of a library implementing, testing, evaluating, and expanding an innovative service.

Details

New Library World, vol. 110 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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