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Book part
Publication date: 2 October 2001

Michael C. Case and Max G. Lay

Abstract

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Handbook of Transport Systems and Traffic Control
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-61-583246-0

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Article
Publication date: 17 January 2022

Leila Hashemi, Armin Mahmoodi, Milad Jasemi, Richard C. Millar and Jeremy Laliberté

In the present research, location and routing problems, as well as the supply chain, which includes manufacturers, distributor candidate sites and retailers, are explored…

Abstract

Purpose

In the present research, location and routing problems, as well as the supply chain, which includes manufacturers, distributor candidate sites and retailers, are explored. The goal of addressing the issue is to reduce delivery times and system costs for retailers so that routing and distributor location may be determined.

Design/methodology/approach

By adding certain unique criteria and limits, the issue becomes more realistic. Customers expect simultaneous deliveries and pickups, and retail service start times have soft and hard time windows. Transportation expenses, noncompliance with the soft time window, distributor construction, vehicle purchase or leasing, and manufacturing costs are all part of the system costs. The problem's conceptual model is developed and modeled first, and then General Algebraic Modeling System software (GAMS) and Multiple Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGAII) algorithms are used to solve it in small dimensions.

Findings

According to the mathematical model's solution, the average error of the two suggested methods, in contrast to the exact answer, is less than 0.7%. In addition, the performance of algorithms in terms of deviation from the GAMS exact solution is pretty satisfactory, with a divergence of 0.4% for the biggest problem (N = 100). As a result, NSGAII is shown to be superior to MOSPSO.

Research limitations/implications

Since this paper deals with two bi-objective models, the priorities of decision-makers in selecting the best solution were not taken into account, and each of the objective functions was given an equal weight based on the weighting procedures. The model has not been compared or studied in both robust and deterministic modes. This is because, with the exception of the variable that indicates traffic mode uncertainty, all variables are deterministic, and the uncertainty character of demand in each level of the supply chain is ignored.

Practical implications

The suggested model's conclusions are useful for any group of decision-makers concerned with optimizing production patterns at any level. The employment of a diverse fleet of delivery vehicles, as well as the use of stochastic optimization techniques to define the time windows, demonstrates how successful distribution networks are in lowering operational costs.

Originality/value

According to a multi-objective model in a three-echelon supply chain, this research fills in the gaps in the link between routing and location choices in a realistic manner, taking into account the actual restrictions of a distribution network. The model may reduce the uncertainty in vehicle performance while choosing a refueling strategy or dealing with diverse traffic scenarios, bringing it closer to certainty. In addition, two modified MOPSO and NSGA-II algorithms are presented for solving the model, with the results compared to the exact GAMS approach for medium- and small-sized problems.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2022

Tang Daifen

Under the big data background, there are many influencing factors for investors of new energy vehicles (NEV), and government subsidies promote the sustainable development…

Abstract

Purpose

Under the big data background, there are many influencing factors for investors of new energy vehicles (NEV), and government subsidies promote the sustainable development of the new energy vehicle industry. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to provide solutions for the sustainable development of NEV.

Design/methodology/approach

The sustainable marketing strategy of NEV in China is put forward. This paper first analyzes the subsidy policy effect of NEV under the background of big data. It then establishes the online optimal leasing strategy under multiple strategy choices and the online leasing strategy of multiple vehicles under the inflation market.

Findings

With the fixed cost of NEV in each lease period, the optimal competition ratio of online decision-makers will continue to decrease with the increase of the difference between prepaid funds and government subsidies. In the decision-making of renting and purchasing multiple vehicles, the general strategy competition ratio is 2.922, while the optimal competition ratio of the online renting and purchasing strategy proposed by the research is 2.723.

Research limitations/implications

The research is limited by the limited data and information collected, so the optimal decision-making model has some limitations. The authors need to find more representative data to optimize the model.

Practical implications

As an emerging industry, NEV have developed rapidly in recent years. Based on the online algorithm and competitive ratio theory, this paper solves the decision-making problem of operators and gives the optimal strategy to promote the green development of the new energy vehicle industry.

Originality/value

This paper proposes the optimal strategy for online investors of new energy vehicle operators by combining online algorithm and competitive ratio theory. The numerical analysis results of the optimal online model under multi strategy selection show that with the same difference between prepaid funds and government subsidies, the time point will be delayed and the time point will be advanced as the cost of leasing NEV in each period increases.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 24 December 2021

Lishengsa Yue, Mohamed Abdel-Aty and Zijin Wang

This study aims to evaluate the influence of connected and autonomous vehicle (CAV) merging algorithms on the driver behavior of human-driven vehicles on the mainline.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the influence of connected and autonomous vehicle (CAV) merging algorithms on the driver behavior of human-driven vehicles on the mainline.

Design/methodology/approach

Previous studies designed their merging algorithms mostly based on either the simulation or the restricted field testing, which lacks consideration of realistic driving behaviors in the merging scenario. This study developed a multi-driver simulator system to embed realistic driving behavior in the validation of merging algorithms.

Findings

Four types of CAV merging algorithms were evaluated regarding their influences on driving safety and driving comfort of the mainline vehicle platoon. The results revealed significant variation of the algorithm influences. Specifically, the results show that the reference-trajectory-based merging algorithm may outperform the social-psychology-based merging algorithm which only considers the ramp vehicles.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time to evaluate a CAV control algorithm considering realistic driver interactions rather than by the simulation. To achieve the research purpose, a novel multi-driver driving simulator was developed, which enables multi-drivers to simultaneously interact with each other during a virtual driving test. The results are expected to have practical implications for further improvement of the CAV merging algorithm.

Details

Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-9802

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2010

Chen Mei

The purpose of this paper is to develop a capacitance vehicle weighing device. The key part of this device is the capacitance vehicle weighing sensor. This paper discusses…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a capacitance vehicle weighing device. The key part of this device is the capacitance vehicle weighing sensor. This paper discusses the static and dynamic performance test of capacitance vehicle weighing sensor with emphasis, and provides theoretical analysis, in order to provide the tests and theoretical basis for the popularization and application of the vehicle weighing device.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper gives an introduction to the weighing sensor in respects of the structure design and measuring principles, with the emphasis on the static and dynamic performance of the testing processes. Then, the paper provides the corresponding testing processes and data with theoretical analysis.

Findings

This weighing sensor can be applied to static as well as dynamic tests thus the capacitance vehicle weighing device is practical and worthy of promotion and popularization.

Originality/value

The capacitance vehicle weighing device is characterized by its simple structure, simple measuring circuits, strong reliability in anti‐interference, small size and low cost. The static performance is of little repetitive error, and the use of software may efficiently solve the problems of non‐linearity and hysteresis. In dynamic measurement, the speed, acceleration and vibration of the vehicle produce little effect on the result, which can be neglected, thus being able to overcome the disadvantages of the traditional weighing method which is of low speed and great errors.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

Tzong‐Ru Lee and Ji‐Hwa Ueng

In a modern business environment, employees are a key resource to a company. Hence, the competitiveness of a company depends largely on its ability to treat employees…

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3096

Abstract

In a modern business environment, employees are a key resource to a company. Hence, the competitiveness of a company depends largely on its ability to treat employees fairly. Fairness can be attained by using the load‐balancing methodology. Develops an integer programming model for vehicle routing problems. There are two objectives, first, to minimize the total distance, and second, to balance the workload among employees as much as possible. We also develop a heuristic algorithm to solve the problems. The findings show that the proposed heuristic algorithm performs well to our 11 test cases.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 29 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Nkgatho Sylvester Tlale

In this paper, two omni‐directional mobile vehicles are designed and controlled implementing distributed mechatronics controllers. Omni‐directionality is the ability of…

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1510

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, two omni‐directional mobile vehicles are designed and controlled implementing distributed mechatronics controllers. Omni‐directionality is the ability of mobile vehicle to move instantaneously in any direction. It is achieved by implementing Mecanum wheels in one vehicle and conventional wheels in another vehicle. The control requirements for omni‐directionality using the two above‐mentioned methods are that each wheel must be independently driven, and that all the four wheels must be synchronized in order to achieve the desired motion of each vehicle.

Design/methodology/approach

Distributed mechatronics controllers implementing Controller Area Network (CAN) modules are used to satisfy the control requirements of the vehicles. In distributed control architectures, failures in other parts of the control system can be compensated by other parts of the system. Three‐layered control architecture is implemented for; time‐critical tasks, event‐based tasks, and task planning. Global variables and broadcast communication is used on CAN bus. Messages are accepted in individual distributed controller modules by subscription.

Findings

Increase in the number of distributed modules increases the number of CAN bus messages required to achieve smooth working of the vehicles. This requires development of higher layer to manage the messages on the CAN bus.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of the research is that analysis of the distributed controllers that were developed is complex, and that there are no universally accepted tool for conducting the analysis. The other limitation is that teh mathematical models of the mobile robot that have been developed need to be verified.

Practical implications

In the design of omni‐directional vehicles, reliability of the vehicle can be improved by modular design of mechanical system and electronic system of the wheel modules and the sensor modules.

Originality/value

The paper tries to show the advantages of distributed controller for omni‐directional vehicles. To the author's knowledge, that is a new concept.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2009

Daisuke Chugo, Kuniaki Kawabata, Hayato Kaetsu, Hajime Asama and Taketoshi Mishima

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new wheel control scheme for wheeled vehicle with passive linkage mechanism which realizes high step‐overcoming performance.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new wheel control scheme for wheeled vehicle with passive linkage mechanism which realizes high step‐overcoming performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Developing wheeled vehicle realizes omni‐directional motion on flat floor using special wheels and passes over non‐flat ground using the passive suspension mechanism. The vehicle changes its body shape and wheel control references according to ground condition when it runs over the rough terrain.

Findings

Utilizing the proposed wheel control scheme, the slip ratio and the disturbance ratio of the wheel reduce when the vehicle passes over the step and its step‐overcoming performance is improved.

Originality/value

The paper's key idea is modification of its kinematic model referring to the body configuration dynamically and using this model for wheel control of the vehicle. The controller adjusts the wheel control references when the vehicle passes over the rough terrain changing the body shape and reduces the slippage and the rotation error of wheels.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

Dang Luo and Jing Zhang

According to the nature and source of alternative energy, types of new energy vehicle include hybrid electric vehicle, pure electric vehicle, fuel cell vehicles, natural…

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604

Abstract

Purpose

According to the nature and source of alternative energy, types of new energy vehicle include hybrid electric vehicle, pure electric vehicle, fuel cell vehicles, natural gas vehicle, coal‐to‐alcohol vehicle, bio‐fuel vehicle, clean diesel vehicle and so on. At present, all kinds of new energy vehicle are flourishing, but in the near future it is not sure what kind of new energy vehicle that national policies will support, so the risk of new energy vehicle project is large. This paper aims to address this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Grey target decision‐making mainly was used in the choice of programs. First, the decision‐making matrix and the index weight are determined after establishing the decision‐making index system; then the positive clout and the negative clout are determined; the distance to the positive clout and the negative clout for every decision‐making program are calculated; finally, the composite distance to clout is obtained and programs sorted in light of the size of composite distance to target centre.

Findings

This paper analyzed the operating conditions of new energy vehicle in Zhengzhou and Xinxiang; and then elaborated the modelling steps of weighted grey target decision with both the positive clout and the negative clout, and used in recent decision‐making the new energy vehicle in Henan Province. It not only makes more comprehensive and rational decision‐making, but also extends the application of the grey target decision model in practice.

Practical implications

In the recent two years of formulating national and local relevant preferential policies, the enthusiasm of enterprises to participate and the level of consumer awareness are further improved; as an international trend, the development of a new energy vehicle is inevitable.

Social implications

It helps to make scientific decision‐making. The study proposes a theoretical guidance to carry out the new energy vehicle project in Henan Province.

Originality/value

This paper elaborates the modelling steps of weighted grey target decision‐making based on positive clout and negative clout, and established the model of grey target decision‐making according to the selected index; finally, it analyzes the recent development route of a new energy vehicle in Henan Province and puts forward some suggestions.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Samir A. El Mowafi and Ahmed Gamal Atalla

The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential sustainable transportation strategies for Cairo in terms of their impact on emissions over the next ten years. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential sustainable transportation strategies for Cairo in terms of their impact on emissions over the next ten years. The considered strategies include using cleaner fuel, implementing inspection and maintenance programs and adopting emission standards for new vehicles.

Design/methodology/approach

The strategies were evaluated in terms of the expected reductions of particulate matter (PM) and ozone precursors due to the future implementation. Emissions were estimated utilizing a mix of the relevant national and international. Accordingly, a three‐phase integrated strategy is recommended, considering the local technical and institutional aspects.

Findings

In case of no actions taken, emissions of PM and ozone precursors could increase at the year 2013 by 95 and 50 percent, respectively. Implementing the proposed integrated strategy could result in reducing the emissions of PM and ozone precursors by about 53 and 49 percent, respectively.

Practical implications

The proposed strategy is applicable because the targets are set considering the local aspects. However, the estimated emission reductions could almost compensate for the increase in the fleet size over the time. Therefore, achieving real reductions of emissions requires additional strategies to be considered.

Originality/value

Owing to the lack of local emission factors and measurements, this original work highlights the expected impacts of the potential strategies for controlling vehicle emissions in Cairo. Also, the findings indicate the need to consider other additional strategies in the long term planning process.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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