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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2000

P. Clarys, P. Deriemaeker and M. Hebbelinck

The completeness of a vegetarian diet is often questioned. Nevertheless, the literature indicates that a well balanced vegetarian diet is often healthier since the…

1865

Abstract

The completeness of a vegetarian diet is often questioned. Nevertheless, the literature indicates that a well balanced vegetarian diet is often healthier since the prevalence of prosperity diseases is significantly lower in vegetarians compared to omnivores. A total of 24 vegetarian students were examined regarding food intake, several critical blood parameters, physical performance and anthropometrical measures. The vegetarian population was compared with 24 omnivorous students for the same parameters. A lower energy intake for the vegetarians compared to the non‐vegetarians was found. The distribution of the three macronutrients differed significantly between the two populations. Vitamin intake was comparable and within the recommended daily intake. A similar profile was found for the mineral intake. The blood profile showed significantly lower vitamin B12 values for the vegetarians compared to the non‐vegetarians but values were within the recommended limits. Physical performance and anthropometric were completely comparable between the two populations.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Rachel Louise Reid and Allan Hackett

The recent food scares combined with the wide body of literature suggesting improved health status of vegetarians has apparently fuelled the growth in the number of…

2140

Abstract

The recent food scares combined with the wide body of literature suggesting improved health status of vegetarians has apparently fuelled the growth in the number of vegetarians and semi/demi vegetarians. This expansion has been met by a considerable growth in the vegetarian convenience food market. A database of vegetarian convenience foods has been created which shows that there is a large and increasing number of vegetarian convenience foods available which show great within‐product ranges in terms of nutritional composition. The database indicates that vegetarian convenience foods are often high in fat and saturates and their consumption would not assist in meeting current dietary targets.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 104 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 22 February 2022

Johanna E. Elzerman, Pieke E.M. van Dijk and Pieternel A. Luning

The Dutch market for meat substitutes has grown steadily, however, their market share is still low, and meat consumption in the Netherlands is not decreasing. For a…

Abstract

Purpose

The Dutch market for meat substitutes has grown steadily, however, their market share is still low, and meat consumption in the Netherlands is not decreasing. For a transition towards a more plant-based diet, understanding consumer motives regarding meat substitutes is important. The purpose of this study was to explore what motives lay behind the appropriateness of the use of meat substitutes in different usage situations.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 20 semi-structured in-depth interviews were performed to discover Dutch consumers’ associations with the terms “eating vegetarian” and “meat substitutes”, as well as motives regarding the situational appropriateness of meat substitutes.

Findings

The most mentioned motives for eating vegetarian were “environmental impact”, “health” and “animal welfare”, while meat substitutes were mainly eaten to replace meat in the meal. Most participants perceived vegetarian stir-fry pieces appropriate for almost all situations; the appropriateness of other meat substitutes was more situation-specific. The thematic content analysis yielded seven categories for the motives given for the (in)appropriateness of the four meat substitutes in six usage situations: “Functionality”, “Convenience”, “Properties”, “Preferences”, “Association with meat”, “Association with meals” and “Nutrition”. Mainly motives in the categories convenience and functionality (function of the meat substitute in a meal) were mentioned for all situations and other motives were situation-specific.

Originality/value

The focus in the development of plant-based foods is mostly on the product properties. The situational appropriateness and the underlying motives regarding meat substitutes have not yet been studied. This exploratory study suggests that these should be taken into consideration in the design of new meat substitutes.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 124 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 February 2021

Cassandra Sturgeon Delia

Food consumption is a result of a choice that is influenced by economic status, society, culture, psychosomatic elements (Bisogni et al., 2002) and religious factors…

Abstract

Purpose

Food consumption is a result of a choice that is influenced by economic status, society, culture, psychosomatic elements (Bisogni et al., 2002) and religious factors (Dewan, 2017) creating an identity based on one's beliefs (Mennell et al., 1992). Although many versions exist, this diet is often established on an ideology to abstain from using animals for dietary needs (Smart, 2004). There has been much research to explore vegetarian motivation and impacts of this diet on health; however, first-hand accounts are few.

Design/methodology/approach

Autoethnography was undertaken to understand my experience as a vegetarian living within a primarily meat consuming country. The theoretical framework driving the research uses social cognitive theory (SCT), the transtheoretical model (TTM) and ethical theory to address the vegetarian experience and emotions generated through such encounters.

Findings

Data collected, including conversations, headnotes and teaching material, were transcribed and categorised into four emerging themes including vegetarian experience, culture, identity as an educator; and impacts of beliefs. The author also discusses the motives for converting to vegetarianism and the experiences that came with behavioural change. Obstacles and opportunities presented by living in a dominant meat society are explored and the author’s influence on others as an educator, as a citizen in society and as a member of a family.

Research limitations/implications

Being new to autoethnography proved to be a limitation in the study.

Practical implications

This research may prove useful for researchers to gain an insider's view of a vegetarian's experience, and how the lifestyles impact students and others in a social context from the author's perspective.

Social implications

Autoethnography regarding vegetarianism from an educator's perspective is lacking and hence may give an insight to help fill the literature gap and change perspectives towards the vegetarian community.

Originality/value

Autoethnography regarding vegetarianism from an educators perspective is lacking; hence, this would be a valuable insight to add to the literature gap.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 March 2021

Aseel Al-Ma’aitah and Reema Tayyem

Vegetarian diets exclude meat, fish and poultry and/or egg and dairy products, these diets are based on grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes and seeds. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Vegetarian diets exclude meat, fish and poultry and/or egg and dairy products, these diets are based on grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes and seeds. The purpose of this study is to compare the nutritional status between lacto-ovo vegetarian and non-vegetarian Jordanian adults.

Design/methodology/approach

A case-control study was conducted during the period between (April–November 2019). In total, 200 Jordanians in early adulthood aged between 18 and 35 years participated in the present study; 100 subjects were non-vegetarians and 100 subjects were lacto-ovo vegetarians. The ratio was (1:1). Matching between the two groups was done in terms of age, sex and body mass index. A package that consisted of three structured questionnaires: Personal Information Sheet, Food Frequency Questionnaire and Seven-Day Physical Activity Recall were administered to all participants in this study.

Findings

The concentration of serum vitamin B12 was significantly higher (P = 0.011) in non-vegetarians than lacto-ovo vegetarians. The means of intake of calories (P = 0.003), calories from fat (P = 0.001), calories from saturated fat (P = 0.001), protein (P = 0.001), fat (P = 0.001), saturated fat (P = 0.001), monounsaturated fat (P = 0.022), polyunsaturated fat (P = 0.001), cholesterol (P = 0.001) and omega-6 (P = 0.039) were significantly higher in non-vegetarians. The intakes Mean of carbohydrates (P = 0.001), fiber (P = 0.001) and soluble fiber (P = 0.001) were significantly higher in lacto-ovo vegetarians compared to non-vegetarians. The mean of beta-carotene intake was significantly higher (P = 0.001) in lacto-ovo vegetarians compared to non-vegetarians, although the intakes of vitamin A(RAE) and retinol were significantly higher (P = 0.029, P = 0.001, respectively) in non-vegetarians as compared to lacto-ovo vegetarians. The means of vitamins B2 (P = 0.018), B3 (P = 0.001), B3NE (P = 0.001), B6 (mg) (P = 0.001), B12 (P = 0.001), E-a-Tocopherol (P = 0.001) and D (P = 0.001) intake were significantly higher in non-vegetarians compared to lacto-ovo vegetarians. The mean intakes of vitamins C (P = 0.033), folate (P = 0.005) and K (P = 0.002) were significantly in lacto-ovo vegetarians compared to non-vegetarians. Means intake of some minerals was significantly higher in non-vegetarians than lacto-ovo vegetarians.

Originality/value

The current study showed that lacto-ovo vegetarians had lower serum vitamin B12 levels. The consumption of fruits, vegetables and legumes was higher in lacto-ovo vegetarians than non-vegetarians. While lacto-ovo vegetarian diet provided less fat, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, monounsaturated fat and cholesterol than non-vegetarians, it could be considered a rich source for fiber, folate, beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin K.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1991

Georgina Holt

Vegetarianism is currently receiving more attention from the foodindustry than ever before. The campaign initiated by the NACNE and COMAReports has created a new “health…

Abstract

Vegetarianism is currently receiving more attention from the food industry than ever before. The campaign initiated by the NACNE and COMA Reports has created a new “health appeal”, resulting in an increased demand for vegetarian food, which is consumer‐driven. Product development in the vegetarian sector should, therefore, favour the use of vegetables and pulses rather than dairy products. Beans, nuts, seeds and grains are all the more appetising now because of the abundance of vegetables available to combine with them. Manufacturers should take the opportunity of an expanding market to provide imaginative, sumptuous products which truly do justice to the variety of colours, flavours and textures of pulses.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 93 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 November 2019

Yu-Chin Huang, Li-Hsin Chen, Cih-Wei Lu and Jui-Lin Shen

Previous empirical studies have not documented the link between vegetarians’ dietary constraints and travel intentions. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to utilise…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous empirical studies have not documented the link between vegetarians’ dietary constraints and travel intentions. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to utilise a mixed-methods approach to examine the interrelationships of this group’s travel motivations, travel constraints, constraint negotiations and behavioural intentions, with special reference to how dietary constraints deter its members from travelling, and its extent.

Design/methodology/approach

An online questionnaire was administered to outbound Taiwanese vegetarian travellers (n=418), and this was followed by in-depth, semi-structured interviews (n=9) to complement the quantitative data.

Findings

The results indicated that vegetarians’ dietary constraints significantly deterred them from travelling in certain circumstances: notably, in the company of non-vegetarians. Nevertheless, it was found that some vegetarians efficiently negotiated their constraints and persisted in travelling, in some cases, by compromising their dietary preferences.

Practical implications

Travel agents and planners should explore more strategies to meet the needs of vegetarian travellers to increase this group’s travel satisfaction.

Originality/value

This study established the first theoretical model explaining the relationships among vegetarians’ travel motivations, dietary constraints, constraint negotiations and travel intentions.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 May 2014

Niraj Kumar and Sanjeev Kapoor

The purpose of this paper is to understand non-vegetarian food consumption behavior, and factors affecting the same of the consumers of middle-sized market, where…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand non-vegetarian food consumption behavior, and factors affecting the same of the consumers of middle-sized market, where organized retailing is still at infancy.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 182 households of two middle-sized cities of India were personally surveyed with a structured questionnaire. Simple statistical analysis such as frequency distribution, factor analysis and analysis of variance, logit regression were carried out to infer the required information.

Findings

Although an important constituent of the food, for most the consumers, purchase of non-vegetarian products were weekly, well planned, and family affairs. Assured good quality, followed by the meat preparation in front of the customers’ eye emerged important market attributes for selecting the store by the consumers. The study revealed that consumers were mainly dependent on search and credence attributes of the product for non-vegetarian food purchase decisions.

Research limitations/implications

This paper analyses non-vegetarian food consumption food behavior of those customers, for whom non-vegetarian food is still considered as special food, and who belong to middle-sized cities where organized food retailing has just started.

Originality/value

The subject is relatively less researched in emerging markets where organized food retail is still at infancy, and where non-vegetarian foods are considered special.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 September 2013

Manuel Rivera and Amir Shani

The current paper aims to explore the attitudes of decision makers in restaurants in Puerto Rico toward vegetarian food, and examine the restaurants' orientation toward…

4887

Abstract

Purpose

The current paper aims to explore the attitudes of decision makers in restaurants in Puerto Rico toward vegetarian food, and examine the restaurants' orientation toward vegetarianism and the challenges they face in catering to vegetarian patrons.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey instrument was developed to include 21 items representing the various attitudes and views toward vegetarian food; restaurant characteristics; and participant's demographic information. A total of 92 face-to-face structured interviews were conducted among various independent family restaurants located in the metropolitan area of San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Findings

The findings suggest that although the participants certainly recognize the value of vegetarian food for their restaurants, they are still unaware or uninformed about many issues related to vegetarianism and vegetarian customers. Moreover, the study also raises some worrying concerns as to the attentiveness of restaurants to the needs of vegetarians.

Originality/value

The study raised important practical implications for restaurants in San Juan and, potentially, for restaurants in other destinations that share the same challenges. Perhaps the most important implication that emerges is the need to educate the decision makers in restaurants (i.e. owners, managers and chefs) regarding critical issues related to vegetarians and vegetarian food.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 August 2020

Darshana Darmalinggam and Maniam Kaliannan

The purpose of this study is to explore the internalized dimension of motivation under the Unified Model of Vegetarian Identity (UMVI) model, namely, personal and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the internalized dimension of motivation under the Unified Model of Vegetarian Identity (UMVI) model, namely, personal and prosocial motivators, for vegetarianism that spurs economic growth in the Malaysian vegetarian market potential.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured online questionnaire was adopted as the primary methodology from which a total of 163 respondents were obtained.

Findings

Both, personal and prosocial motivators do positively relate to the economic growth of the Malaysian vegetarian market potential. However, prosocial motivators has a greater impact with a beta coefficient of 0.374 compared to 0.273 for personal motivators.

Research limitations/implications

Probable inaccurate representation of the entire vegetarian population in Malaysia. Time and resources available.

Practical implications

Practically, the Malaysian vegetarian society and Malaysian government bodies benefit from the study in ensuing promotion of environmental awareness in line with a vegetarian diet.

Originality/value

Lack of literature resources on vegetarianism in Malaysia led to the study contributing to an expansion of literature on the matter. This pioneer study benchmarks global literatures on motivators of vegetarianism and their impact on economy against the scarce literatures available in the Malaysian context. It contributes to the Malaysian economy and potential vegetarian restaurant start-ups wishing to enter the Malaysian vegetarian market. Theoretically, the theory of planned behaviour, utilitarian function and the UMVI were jointly utilised in explaining the motivators capturing Malaysian vegetarians' intention towards demand for vegetarian food.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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