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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2020

Zhanshe Guo, Taiyi Zhang, Xiangdang Liang and Yutong Wang

The study of vascular mechanics is important. The purpose of this paper is to present an apparatus to measure the biomechanical properties of blood vessels, which can be…

Abstract

Purpose

The study of vascular mechanics is important. The purpose of this paper is to present an apparatus to measure the biomechanical properties of blood vessels, which can be used for tensile test and fatigue test.

Design/methodology/approach

This equipment consists of a mechanical test platform, a hardware circuit based on FPGA and control software. The torque generated by stepper motor is converted to axial force by ball screw, and the vascular specimen is stretched axially. The tension is measured by a load cell, and the displacement is recorded by a grating displacement sensor.

Findings

According to the results of calibration experiment and stability experiment, the linearity error of the system is 0.251, the hysteresis error is 0.047, the repeatability error is 0.185, the comprehensive error is 0.315 and the standard deviation of the output is less than 0.01 N. A test of animal vascular mechanical properties was carried out, and the results are consistent with the theory.

Originality/value

This apparatus is designed to measure biomechanical properties of blood vessels, and the results of experiments indicate that it is stable and reliable. This work is valuable for studying vascular disease and testing artificial blood vessels.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2011

Amal Owida, Rui Chen, Shital Patel, Yos Morsi and Xiumei Mo

The purpose of this paper is to prepare a new combined method of rapid prototyping, fused deposition modeling (FDM) and electrospinning for the fabrication of coronary…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to prepare a new combined method of rapid prototyping, fused deposition modeling (FDM) and electrospinning for the fabrication of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG).

Design/methodology/approach

A dynamically optimum design of blood vessel graft was constructed using FDM and electrospinning. Fabrication of 3‐D CABG model was constructed using pro‐engineer based on the optimum hemodynamic analysis and was converted to an stereolithography file format which was imported to the Magic software where it was edited to a high‐resolution contour. The model was then created from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene which was used as a collector for electrospinning fabrication. For the electrospinning thermoplastic polyurethane was dissolved with hexafluoroisopropanol. The voltage applied for electrospinning was 15 kV where the solid FDM model was used to collect nanofibers at fixed distance.

Findings

The properties of the fabricated vessel agreed well with those of human artery. The proposed method can be effectively used for the fabrication of an optimized graft design. This proposed method has been proved as a promising fabrication processes in fabricating a specially designed graft with the correct physical and mechanical properties.

Originality/value

The proposed method is novel and combines the advantages of both FDM and electrospinning techniques.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2021

Rudranarayan Kandi, Pulak Mohan Pandey, Misba Majood and Sujata Mohanty

This paper aims to discuss the successful fabrication of customized tubular scaffolds for tracheal tissue engineering with a novel route using solvent-based extrusion 3D printing.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss the successful fabrication of customized tubular scaffolds for tracheal tissue engineering with a novel route using solvent-based extrusion 3D printing.

Design/methodology/approach

The manufacturing approach involved extrusion of polymeric ink over a rotating predefined pattern to construct customized tubular structure of polycaprolactone (PCL) and polyurethane (PU). Dimensional deviation in thickness of scaffolds were calculated for various layer thicknesses of 3D printing. Physical and chemical properties of scaffolds were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), contact angle measurement, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Mechanical characterizations were performed, and the results were compared to the reported properties of human native trachea from previous reports. Additionally, in vitro cytotoxicity of the fabricated scaffolds was studied in terms of cell proliferation, cell adhesion and hemagglutination assay.

Findings

The developed fabrication route was flexible and accurate by printing customized tubular scaffolds of various scales. Physiochemical results showed good miscibility of PCL/PU blend, and decrease in crystalline nature of blend with the addition of PU. Preliminary mechanical assessments illustrated comparable mechanical properties with the native human trachea. Longitudinal compression test reported outstanding strength and flexibility to maintain an unobstructed lumen, necessary for the patency. Furthermore, the scaffolds were found to be biocompatible to promote cell adhesion and proliferation from the in vitro cytotoxicity results.

Practical implications

The attempt can potentially meet the demand for flexible tubular scaffolds that ease the concerns such as availability of suitable organ donors.

Originality/value

3D printing over accurate predefined templates to fabricate customized grafts gives novelty to the present method. Various customized scaffolds were compared with conventional cylindrical scaffold in terms of flexibility.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2017

Yang Wu, Jerry Fuh, Yoke San Wong and Jie Sun

Fabricating functionally graded scaffolds to mimic the complex spatial distributions of the composition, micro-structure and functionality of native tissues will be one of…

Abstract

Purpose

Fabricating functionally graded scaffolds to mimic the complex spatial distributions of the composition, micro-structure and functionality of native tissues will be one of the key objectives for future tissue engineering research. This study aims to create a scaffold to mimic functionally-graded tissue using a hybrid process, which incorporated electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) and electrosprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) in a simple pathway.

Design/methodology/approach

The PCL and HA were dispensed simultaneously from different positions to form a layer on a rotational mandrel, and a gradient construct was achieved by adjusting dispensing rates of both materials.

Findings

The morphology of scaffolds changed gradually from one layer to another layer with the change of the dispensing conditions of the two materials. The elemental distribution analysis revealed that C/Ca ratio linearly increased with certain dispensing rate ratio of PCL:HA. In addition, the thickness, mechanical properties (i.e. ultimate tensile stress and Young’s modulus), surface roughness and water contact angle of each layer changed accordingly with the variation of dispensing rate of PCL and HA, and the diameter distributions of PCL fibres and HA particles did not vary significantly.

Originality/value

This study showed the hybrid process has the potential to be used in fabrication of scaffold with functionally graded structure for tissue engineering applications, especially for mimicking the nature of the native 3D tendon–bone interface.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2000

Jaroslav Mackerle

Gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied in biomedicine from the theoretical as well as practical points of view. The bibliography at…

Abstract

Gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied in biomedicine from the theoretical as well as practical points of view. The bibliography at the end of the paper contains 748 references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations dealing with the finite element analyses and simulations in biomedicine that were published between 1985 and 1999.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 17 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

George K. Stylios

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects…

Abstract

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

George Stylios

Discusses the 6th ITCRR, its breadth of textile and clothing research activity, plus the encouragement given to workers in this field and its related areas. States that…

Abstract

Discusses the 6th ITCRR, its breadth of textile and clothing research activity, plus the encouragement given to workers in this field and its related areas. States that, within the newer research areas under the microscope of the community involved, technical textiles focuses on new, ‘smart’ garments and the initiatives in this field in both the UK and the international community at large. Covers this subject at length.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 13 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

George K. Stylios

Examines the ninth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects…

Abstract

Examines the ninth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

George K. Stylios

Looks at the eighth published year of the ITCRR and the research, from far and near, involved in this. Muses on the fact that, though all the usual processes are to the…

Abstract

Looks at the eighth published year of the ITCRR and the research, from far and near, involved in this. Muses on the fact that, though all the usual processes are to the fore, the downside part of the industry is garment making which is the least developed side. Posits that the manufacture of clothing needs to become more technologically advanced as does retailing. Closes by emphasising support for the community in all its efforts.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 14 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2011

H. Khlif and S. Ben Abdessalem

Textile prostheses made of polyethylene terephthalate fibers are commonly used to cure cardiovascular pathologies by replacing diseased arteries. Any failure of vascular

Abstract

Textile prostheses made of polyethylene terephthalate fibers are commonly used to cure cardiovascular pathologies by replacing diseased arteries. Any failure of vascular surgery is not only expensive, but also unacceptable. Biocompatibility, biofunctionality and biodurability must be taken into consideration especially with the increasing life expectancy of the population. An outstanding development of vascular prostheses might be achieved by a better choice of biomaterials and an optimization of manufacturing processes, especially the crimping technique. Crimping is an "accordion"-pleat deformation, which gives the graft a radial resistance and a longitudinal compliance. It also improves the resistance of the prosthesis to kinking and external compression. The aim of the present study is to compare the effect of three thermofixing techniques used for vascular prosthesis crimping. This will help to find the crimping process that leads to the lowest reduction of the mechanical performances of the material. We have demonstrated that the heat-setting in saturated vapor introduces the best mechanical behavior of crimped woven tubes in comparison to heat-settings with dry heat and boiling water.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

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