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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

Shih‐Wen Hsiao

The variable porosity and thermal dispersion effects on natural convection in an inclined porous cavity are investigated numerically. The wall effect on porosity is…

Abstract

The variable porosity and thermal dispersion effects on natural convection in an inclined porous cavity are investigated numerically. The wall effect on porosity is approximated by an exponential function and its effect on thermal dispersion is modeled in terms of a dispersive length. Numerical results show that both variable porosity and thermal dispersion effects increase the temperature gradient adjacent to the wall resulting in the enhancement of surface heat flux. These effects become important when the dimensionless particle diameter is increased. The variable porosity effect increases the fluid velocity near the wall, consequently enhancing convective heat transfer. The Prandtl number effect on the Nusselt number is small for Prandtl number greater than one, but increases as the Prandtl number decreases below one. The effect of thermal conductivity ratio on the Nusselt number is greater at low Rayleigh numbers where conduction heat transfer is predominant. A comparison between theoretical and experimental results shows that the calculated Nusselt numbers which take into account variable porosity and thermal dispersion effects have the best agreement with experimental data.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Jane Davis

The purpose of this paper is to present the viewpoint that student role identity, its dimensions and salience, impact strongly on student expectations of college-based…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the viewpoint that student role identity, its dimensions and salience, impact strongly on student expectations of college-based higher education (CBHE) within the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on doctoral research undertaken within the context of CBHE in the UK and is further supported through engagement with a range of pertinent literature.

Findings

The paper suggests ways in which the individually constructed student role identity may impact on the expectations of the experience of CBHE. In so doing, the paper highlights the way in which expectations of higher education recursively influence, and are influenced by, perceptions and actions played out from within the student role.

Research limitations/implications

The empirical research, from which the paper draws its theme, was undertaken in one large institution. The author recognises that a wider, longitudinal study would be beneficial in recognition of the diversity of provision in the CBHE sector.

Practical implications

The paper proposes that greater awareness of the way in which students construct and moderate their perceptions and understandings of studenthood would be beneficial to a range of strategic considerations, such as promotional information, partnership activity, peer relations and the nature of pedagogies and learning architectures.

Social implications

The paper foregrounds the political remit of CBHE as a progression route for “non-traditional” students, and considers the varied understandings of the meaning of the student role adopted by students attending colleges. Engagement with issues of multiple roles, identity salience and variable role porosity highlights social and pyschosocial issues faced by many such students.

Originality/value

The paper considers role identity in the context of Kurt Lewin’s conceptualisation of life space and uses this framework to highlight issues that may face students and colleges in raising awareness of student expectations. It challenges the homogenous conceptualisation of the term “students” through consideration of the psychic state at a given moment in time.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 January 2020

Lei Wang, Yang Cai, Wei-Wei Wang, Run-Zhe Liu, Di Liu, Fu-Yun Zhao and Hanqing Wang

This paper aims to numerically investigate the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) convection heat transfer of nanofluid inside a differentially heated enclosure with various fin…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to numerically investigate the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) convection heat transfer of nanofluid inside a differentially heated enclosure with various fin morphologies.

Design/methodology/approach

The fluid flow within the cavity was governed by N-S equations while it within porous medium was solved by the non-Darcy model, called the Darcy–Forchheimer model based on representative element-averaging method. Empirical correlations from experimental data are used to evaluate the effective thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity. Relevant governing parameters, including thermal Rayleigh number (105-107), Hartmann number (0-50), Darcy number (10−6-10−1), thermal conductivity ratio of porous matrix (1-103), nanoparticles volume fraction (0-0.04) and topology designs of porous fins, are sensitively varied to identify their effects and roles on the fluid flow and heat transfer. Particularly, heatlines are used to investigate the mechanism of heat transport.

Findings

Numerical results demonstrate that the predictions of average Nusselt number are augmented by using more porous fins with high permeability, and this effect becomes opposite in tiny Darcy numbers. Particularly, for high Darcy and Rayleigh numbers, the shortest fins could achieve the best performance of heat transfer. In addition, the prediction of average Nusselt number reduces with an increase in Hartmann numbers. An optimal nanoparticles concentration also exists to maximize heat transfer enhancement. Finally, numerical correlations for the average Nusselt number were proposed as functions of these governing parameters.

Practical implications

Present work could benefit the thermal design of electronic cooling and thermal carriers in nanofluid engineering.

Social implications

Present work could benefit the thermal design of electronic cooling and thermal carriers in nanofluid engineering. In addition, optimum thermal removals could enhance the lifetime of electronics, therefore reducing the cost of energy and materials.

Originality/value

To the best knowledge of authors, there are not any studies considering the synergetic effects of porous fins on MHD convection of nanofluids. Present work could benefit the thermal design of electronic cooling and thermal carriers in nanofluid engineering.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 22 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 September 2018

Hojjat Saberinejad, Ali Keshavarz, Mohammad Payandehdoost, Mohammad Reza Azmoodeh and Alireza Batooei

The purpose of this paper is to numerically investigate the heat transfer enhancement in a tube filled partially with porous media under non-uniform porosity distribution…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to numerically investigate the heat transfer enhancement in a tube filled partially with porous media under non-uniform porosity distribution and thermal dispersion effects. The optimum porous thickness ratio [R_(r,Nu)] for the heat transfer enhancement under these conditions with and without considering required pumping power is evaluated.

Design/methodology/approach

The local thermal non-equilibrium and Darcy–Brinkman–Forchheimer models are used to simulated thermal and flow fields in porous region. The tube wall and flow regime are assumed to be isothermal and laminar, respectively. The impacts of Darcy number (Da = 10-6 - 10-1) and inertia parameter (F = 0 − 2) on the Nusselt number and friction factor are studied for non-uniform porosity distribution.

Findings

First, the effect of Nusselt number indicates that there are two different behaviors with respect to uniform and non-uniform porosity for partially and fully filled porous pipe. Second, variable porosity in porous region has significant influence on the optimum thickness ratio with considering required pumping power. For negligible inertia term, it depends on the Darcy number, whereas it is 0.9 at F > 1. Third, the plug flow assumption cannot be valid even at lower Darcy number under non-uniform porosity, while this assumption is applicable at Da < 10-3 for constant porosity distribution in porous region.

Originality/value

According to the best knowledge of authors, the optimum porous thickness ratio for the heat transfer enhancement considering the pressure loss effects under variable porosity has not reported up to now. Also the plug flow assumption in such physics is not discussed.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 28 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2001

Abdul‐Rahim A. Khaled and Ali J. Chamkha

The problem of coupled heat and mass transfer by natural convection from a vertical impermeable semi‐finite flat plate embedded in a non‐uniform non‐metallic porous medium…

Abstract

The problem of coupled heat and mass transfer by natural convection from a vertical impermeable semi‐finite flat plate embedded in a non‐uniform non‐metallic porous medium in the presence of thermal dispersion effects is formulated. The plate surface is maintained at constant wall temperature and concentration. The resulting governing equations are non‐dimensionalized and transformed using a non‐similarity transformation and then solved numerically by an implicit, iterative, finite‐difference scheme. A parametric study of all involved parameters is conducted and a representative set of numerical results is illustrated graphically to show typical trends of the solutions. It is found that the variable porosity of the porous medium and the effect of thermal dispersion result in increases in the local Nusselt number.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

G. Chen and H.A. Hadim

The objective of the present work was to perform a detailed numerical study of laminar forced convection in a three‐dimensional square duct packed with an isotropic…

Abstract

The objective of the present work was to perform a detailed numerical study of laminar forced convection in a three‐dimensional square duct packed with an isotropic granular material and saturated with a Newtonian fluid. Hydrodynamic and heat transfer results are reported for three different thermal boundary conditions. The flow in the porous medium was modeled using the semi‐empirical Brinkman‐Forchheimer‐extended Darcy model which also included the effects of variable porosity and thermal dispersion. Empirical models for variable porosity and thermal dispersion were determined based on existing three‐dimensional experimental measurements. Parametric studies were then conducted to investigate the effects of particle diameter, Reynolds number, Prandtl number and thermal conductivity ratio. The results showed that channeling phenomena and thermal dispersion effects are reduced considerably in a three‐dimensional duct compared with previously reported results for a two‐dimensional channel. It was found that the Reynolds number affects mainly the velocity gradient in the flow channeling region, while the particle diameter affects the width of the flow channeling region. As the Reynolds number increases or as the particle diameter decreases (i.e., when the inertia and thermal dispersion effects are enhanced), the Nusselt number increases. The effects of varing the Prandtl number on the magnitude of the Nusselt number were found to be more significant than those of the thermal conductivity ratio. Finally, the effects of varing the duct aspect ratio on the friction factor can be neglected for small particle diameter (Dp ≤ 0.01) or for high particle Reynolds number (Red ≥ 1000) due to the dominant bulk damping resistance from the porous matrix (Darcy term) or strong inertia effects (Forchheimer term), respectively.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 September 2021

Kashif Ishfaq, Mudassar Rehman, Ahmed Raza Khan and Yanen Wang

Human aging is becoming a common issue these days as it results in orthopaedic-related issues such as joints disorderness, bone-fracture. People with age = 60 years suffer…

Abstract

Purpose

Human aging is becoming a common issue these days as it results in orthopaedic-related issues such as joints disorderness, bone-fracture. People with age = 60 years suffer more from these aforesaid issues. It is expected that these issues in human beings will ultimately reach 2.1 billion by 2050 worldwide. Furthermore, the increase in traffic accidents in young people throughout the world has significantly emerged the need for artificial implants. Their implantation can act as a substitute for fractured bones or disordered joints. Therefore, this study aims to focus on electron beam melted titanium (Ti)-based orthopaedic implants along with their recent trends in the field.

Design/methodology/approach

The main contents of this work include the basic theme and background of the metal-based additive manufacturing, different implant materials specifically Ti alloys and their classification based on crystallographic transus temperature (including α, metastable β, β and α + β phases), details of electron beam melting (EBM) concerning its process physics, various control variables and performance characteristics of EBMed Ti alloys in orthopaedic and orthodontic implants, applications of EBMed Ti alloys in various load-bearing implants, different challenges associated with the EBMed Ti-based implants along with their possible solutions. Recent trends and shortfalls have also been described at the end.

Findings

EBM is getting significant attention in medical implants because of its minor issues as compared to conventional fabrication practices such as Ti casting and possesses a significant research potential to fabricate various medical implants. The elastic modulus and strength of EBMed ß Ti-alloys such as 24Nb-4Zr-8Sn and Ti-33Nb-4Sn are superior compared to conventional Ti for orthopaedic implants. Beta Ti alloys processed by EBM have near bone elastic modulus (approximately 35–50 GPa) along with improved tribo-mechanical performance involving mechanical strength, wear and corrosion resistance, along with biocompatibility for implants.

Originality/value

Advances in EBM have opened the gateway Ti alloys in the biomedical field explicitly ß-alloys because of their unique biocompatibility, bioactivity along with improved tribo-mechanical performance. Less significant work is available on the EBM of Ti alloys in orthopaedic and orthodontic implants. This study is directed solely on the EBM of medical Ti alloys in medical sectors to explore their different aspects for future research opportunities.

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2019

Amin Samimi Behbahan, Aminreza Noghrehabadi, C.P. Wong, Ioan Pop and Morteza Behbahani-Nejad

The purpose of this paper is to study thermal performance of metal foam/phase change materials composite under the influence of the enclosure aspect ratios (ratio of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study thermal performance of metal foam/phase change materials composite under the influence of the enclosure aspect ratios (ratio of enclosure height: length). In this study, a compound metal foam/phase change material (PCM), which has been proved to be one of the most promising approaches for thermal conductivity promotion on PCMs, was used.

Design/methodology/approach

The PCM is considered initially at its melting temperature. The enclosure for all the cases has a constant volume with various aspect ratios. The left side of the enclosure is suddenly exposed to a thermal source having a constant heat flux, while the other three surfaces are kept thermally insulated. A two-dimensional numerical model considering the non-equilibrium thermal factor, non-Darcy effect and local natural convection was proposed. The coupling between velocity and pressure is solved using the SIMPLEC, and the Rhie and Chow interpolation is used to avoid the checker-board solutions for the pressure.

Findings

The effects of foam porosity and aspect ratio of the enclosure on the PCM’s melting time were investigated. The results indicated that enclosure aspect ratio plays a fundamental role in phase change of copper foam/PCM composites. For higher porosities, enclosures with bigger aspect ratios proved to led to optimal melting time. Besides, the best enclosure aspect ratio and foam porosity for a fixed-volume enclosure to have the shortest melting time are 2.1 and 91.66 per cent, respectively. However, for a specific amount of PCM inside a variable volume enclosure, the optimal melting time was for foam with ε = 95 per cent. The achieved results prove the great importance of selection of aspect ratio to benefit both conduction and convection heat transfer simultaneously.

Originality/value

The area of energy storage systems is original.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

K.V. Prasad, M. Subhas Abel and Sujit Kumar Khan

Visco‐elastic fluid flow and heat transfer in a porous medium over a non‐isothermal stretching sheet have been investigated. The flow is influenced by linearly stretching…

Abstract

Visco‐elastic fluid flow and heat transfer in a porous medium over a non‐isothermal stretching sheet have been investigated. The flow is influenced by linearly stretching the sheet in the presence of suction, blowing and impermeability of the wall. Thermal conductivity is considered to vary linearly with temperature. The intricate non‐linear problem has been solved numerically by shooting technique with fourth order Runge‐Kutta algorithm after using perturbation method. The zeroth order solutions are obtained analytically in the form of Kummer’s function. An analysis has been carried out for two different cases, namely prescribed surface temperature (PST) and prescribed heat flux (PHF) to get the effect of porosity and visco‐elasticity at various physical situations. The important finding is that the effect of visco‐elasticity and porosity is to increase the wall temperature in case of blowing and to decrease in both the cases of suction and when the stretching sheet is impermeable.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 10 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

K.H. Low, K.F. Leong, C.K. Chua, Z.H. Du and C.M. Cheah

There are many applications for rapid prototyping systems and application in the biomedical field is an important domain. Uses selective laser sintering (SLS) in this…

1951

Abstract

There are many applications for rapid prototyping systems and application in the biomedical field is an important domain. Uses selective laser sintering (SLS) in this study to build porous cylindrical disc matrices for use as drug delivery devices (DDD). Studies the part‐bed temperature to ascertain its influence over the porosity of the disc matrices. They are found to have an inverse linear relationship. Also investigates the dense walls, the inherent consequences of building porous structures with the SLS, in the disc matrix as they have a direct impact on the performance of the DDD. Discusses the size constraint of the disc matrix due to the limitations of the SLS process. Also investigates the possibility of creating disc matrices of varying porosity. Experimental results demonstrate that SLS is viable in producing DDDs that have variable porosity and micro‐features.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 7 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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