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1 – 10 of 36
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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2019

Donghee (Don) Shin, Anestis Fotiadis and Hongsik Yu

The purpose of this study is to offer a roadmap for work on the ethical and societal implications of algorithms and AI. Based on an analysis of the social, technical and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to offer a roadmap for work on the ethical and societal implications of algorithms and AI. Based on an analysis of the social, technical and regulatory challenges posed by algorithmic systems in Korea, this work conducts socioecological evaluations of the governance of algorithmic transparency and accountability.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper analyzes algorithm design and development from critical socioecological angles: social, technological, cultural and industrial phenomena that represent the strategic interaction among people, technology and society, touching on sensitive issues of a legal, a cultural and an ethical nature.

Findings

Algorithm technologies are a part of a social ecosystem, and its development should be based on user interests and rights within a social and cultural milieu. An algorithm represents an interrelated, multilayered ecosystem of networks, protocols, applications, services, practices and users.

Practical implications

Value-sensitive algorithm design is proposed as a novel approach for designing algorithms. As algorithms have become a constitutive technology that shapes human life, it is essential to be aware of the value-ladenness of algorithm development. Human values and social issues can be reflected in an algorithm design.

Originality/value

The arguments in this study help ensure the legitimacy and effectiveness of algorithms. This study provides insight into the challenges and opportunities of algorithms through the lens of a socioecological analysis: political discourse, social dynamics and technological choices inherent in the development of algorithm-based ecology.

Details

Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2019

Mariella Bastian, Mykola Makhortykh and Tom Dobber

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for assessing what are the possibilities and pitfalls of using algorithmic systems of news personalization …

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for assessing what are the possibilities and pitfalls of using algorithmic systems of news personalization – i.e. the tailoring of individualized news feeds based on users’ information preferences – for constructive conflict coverage in the context of peace journalism, a journalistic paradigm calling for more diversified and creative war reporting.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides a critical review of existing research on peace journalism and algorithmic news personalization, and analyzes the intersections between the two concepts. Specifically, it identifies recurring pitfalls of peace journalism based on empirical research on constructive conflict coverage and then introduces a conceptual framework for analyzing to what degree these pitfalls can be mediated – or worsened – through algorithmic system design.

Findings

The findings suggest that AI-driven distribution technologies can facilitate constructive war reporting, in particular by countering the effects of journalists’ self-censorship and by diversifying conflict coverage. The implementation of these goals, however, depends on multiple system design solutions, thus resonating with current calls for more responsible and value-sensitive algorithmic design in the domain of news media. Additionally, our observations emphasize the importance of developing new algorithmic literacies among journalists both to realize the positive potential of AI for promoting peace and to increase the awareness of possible negative impacts of new systems of content distribution.

Originality/value

The article particle is the first to provide a comprehensive conceptualization of the impact of new content distribution techniques on constructive conflict coverage in the context of peace journalism. It also offers a novel conceptual framing for assessing the impact of algorithmic news personalization on reporting traumatic and polarizing events, such as wars and violence.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

David G. Hendry, Jill Palzkill Woelfer and Thuy Duong

Addressing the question, how might socio-technical systems help homeless young people to succeed broadly in employment, the purpose of this paper is to present a future…

Abstract

Purpose

Addressing the question, how might socio-technical systems help homeless young people to succeed broadly in employment, the purpose of this paper is to present a future vision, the U-District Job Co-op, where youth take on “mini-jobs” offered by neighborhood stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on value sensitive design, design-based, and qualitative research methods, the Job Co-op is explicated by reporting on three linked studies.

Findings

First, based on empirical research with varied neighborhood stakeholders, barriers and possible solutions to employment for homeless young people are presented. Second, three design insights for shaping a solution space of socio-technical systems for job search are presented and used analytically to examine six existing systems. Third, findings from a co-design study in which homeless young people expressed their understandings for web-based job services explicate the vision of the Job Co-op.

Social implications

This study offers a socio-technical approach, grounded in the neighborhood context, for supporting homeless young people in job search and related activities.

Originality/value

The studies reported in this paper demonstrate how methods for information system design can be used to generate and clarify opportunities for human benefit and for the development of socio-technical systems that account for human values.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2019

Claude Draude, Goda Klumbyte, Phillip Lücking and Pat Treusch

The purpose of this paper is to propose that in order to tackle the question of bias in algorithms, a systemic, sociotechnical and holistic perspective is needed. With…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose that in order to tackle the question of bias in algorithms, a systemic, sociotechnical and holistic perspective is needed. With reference to the term “algorithmic culture,” the interconnectedness and mutual shaping of society and technology are postulated. A sociotechnical approach requires translational work between and across disciplines. This conceptual paper undertakes such translational work. It exemplifies how gender and diversity studies, by bringing in expertise on addressing bias and structural inequalities, provide a crucial source for analyzing and mitigating bias in algorithmic systems.

Design/methodology/approach

After introducing the sociotechnical context, an overview is provided regarding the contemporary discourse around bias in algorithms, debates around algorithmic culture, knowledge production and bias identification as well as common solutions. The key concepts of gender studies (situated knowledges and strong objectivity) and concrete examples of gender bias then serve as a backdrop for revisiting contemporary debates.

Findings

The key concepts reframe the discourse on bias and concepts such as algorithmic fairness and transparency by contextualizing and situating them. The paper includes specific suggestions for researchers and practitioners on how to account for social inequalities in the design of algorithmic systems.

Originality/value

A systemic, gender-informed approach for addressing the issue is provided, and a concrete, applicable methodology toward a situated understanding of algorithmic bias is laid out, providing an important contribution for an urgent multidisciplinary dialogue.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 September 2019

Marty J. Wolf, Alexis M. Elder and Gosia Plotka

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242

Abstract

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 19 October 2021

Veronica Johansson and Jörgen Stenlund

Representations of time are commonly used to construct narratives in visualisations of data. However, since time is a value-laden concept, and no representation can…

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302

Abstract

Purpose

Representations of time are commonly used to construct narratives in visualisations of data. However, since time is a value-laden concept, and no representation can provide a full, objective account of “temporal reality”, they are also biased and political: reproducing and reinforcing certain views and values at the expense of alternative ones. This conceptual paper aims to explore expressions of temporal bias and politics in data visualisation, along with possibly mitigating user approaches and design strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

This study presents a theoretical framework rooted in a sociotechnical view of representations as biased and political, combined with perspectives from critical literacy, radical literacy and critical design. The framework provides a basis for discussion of various types and effects of temporal bias in visualisation. Empirical examples from previous research and public resources illustrate the arguments.

Findings

Four types of political effects of temporal bias in visualisations are presented, expressed as limitation of view, disregard of variation, oppression of social groups and misrepresentation of topic and suggest that appropriate critical and radical literacy approaches require users and designers to critique, contextualise, counter and cross beyond expressions of the same. Supporting critical design strategies involve the inclusion of multiple datasets and representations; broad access to flexible tools; and inclusive participation of marginalised groups.

Originality/value

The paper draws attention to a vital, yet little researched problem of temporal representation in visualisations of data. It offers a pioneering bridging of critical literacy, radical literacy and critical design and emphasises mutual rather than contradictory interests of the empirical sciences and humanities.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 78 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1988

COLIN H. DAVIDSON, PHILIPPE L. DAVIDSON and KALEV RUBERG

The building industry, through its structure and its mandate, faces endemic information problems; expert systems are expected to impact positively. Expert systems are…

Abstract

The building industry, through its structure and its mandate, faces endemic information problems; expert systems are expected to impact positively. Expert systems are suited to situations of uncertainty; knowledge and reasoning are separated, allowing easier updating. Knowledge acquisition from human experts is difficult and problems of information reliability arise, suggesting the scope for cooperation between knowledge engineers and documentalists familiar with the domain. In building, prevailing conditions seem to indicate the appropriateness of expert systems, particularly during the design phase; however, written documentation and general research results are rarely consulted. This highlights the need for an information ‘refining’ stage between production and use. It is easier to set up expert systems for specialised sub‐domains; however, on‐going research is attempting to develop a comprehensive approach to project‐specific information that would be operational from initial design through to completed construction. Criteria for a comprehensive design information system can be listed.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Robert Bogue

– This first part of a two-part paper aims to provide an insight into the ethical and legal issues associated with certain classes of robot. This part is concerned with ethics.

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1384

Abstract

Purpose

This first part of a two-part paper aims to provide an insight into the ethical and legal issues associated with certain classes of robot. This part is concerned with ethics.

Design/methodology/approach

Following an introduction, this paper first considers the ethical deliberations surrounding robots used in warfare and healthcare. It then addresses the issue of robot truth and deception and subsequently discusses some on-going deliberations and possible ways forward. Finally, brief conclusions are drawn.

Findings

Robot ethics are the topic of wide-ranging debate and encompass such diverse applications as military drones and robotic carers. Many ethical considerations have been raised including philosophical issues such as moral behaviour and truth and deception. Preliminary research suggests that some of these concerns may be ameliorated through the use of software which encompasses ethical principles. It is widely recognised that a multidisciplinary approach is required and there is growing evidence of this.

Originality/value

This paper provides an insight into the highly topical and complex issue of robot ethics.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

Anne Gerdes

The paper aims to represent a response to the invited paper by Ellen Christiansen: “From ethics of the eye to ethics of the hand in participatory design and development of…

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332

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to represent a response to the invited paper by Ellen Christiansen: “From ethics of the eye to ethics of the hand in participatory design and development of digital technologies”.

Design/methodology/approach

The response takes departure in Christiansen's view points regarding dialogue-oriented collaborative prototyping as a mean to address values in design.

Findings

The response points to the limitations of Christiansen's approach in claiming that dialogue cannot by itself ensure integration of ethics into the practice of design.

Originality/value

The response addresses methodological issues related to ethical design and stresses the importance of a pro-active design approach in order to implement values in design.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Simon Jones

The purpose of this paper is to propose an inter-disciplinary approach to the ethics of social networking services (SNS) that connects critical analysis with the doing of…

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2218

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose an inter-disciplinary approach to the ethics of social networking services (SNS) that connects critical analysis with the doing of ethics in terms of both pedagogic and technological practice.

Design/methodology/approach

Primarily conceptual and discursive, drawing on theoretical concepts from a broad, inter-disciplinary field. These concepts are integrated into a multi-dimensional framework that proceeds through four sequential stages: socio-economic, ethical, legal and practical/professional. Particular instances of SNS are used as illustrative examples.

Findings

The evaluation of ethical issues can be enriched by broader, holistic approaches that take account of the socio-economic, technical and legal contexts in which SNS technologies are designed, deployed and used. Inter-disciplinary approaches have the potential to generate new connections and possibilities for both the teaching and the professional practice of ethics.

Practical implications

Applied ethics are used to consider practical solutions that explore regulatory measures and envision alternative models of social networking. The approach proposed has practical value for teachers and students of computer ethics, as well as for IT practitioners.

Originality/value

This paper synthesises elements from media, communication and cultural studies, science and technology, information systems and computer science. The paper offers a strategy of inquiry to understand various aspects of SNS ethics – legal, socio-economic and technical. It presents a methodology for thinking about and doing ethics which can be used by IT practitioners.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

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