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Article
Publication date: 17 February 2021

Yinying Wang

Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to a type of algorithms or computerized systems that resemble human mental processes of decision-making. This position paper looks…

Abstract

Purpose

Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to a type of algorithms or computerized systems that resemble human mental processes of decision-making. This position paper looks beyond the sensational hyperbole of AI in teaching and learning. Instead, this paper aims to explore the role of AI in educational leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

To explore the role of AI in educational leadership, I synthesized the literature that intersects AI, decision-making, and educational leadership from multiple disciplines such as computer science, educational leadership, administrative science, judgment and decision-making and neuroscience. Grounded in the intellectual interrelationships between AI and educational leadership since the 1950s, this paper starts with conceptualizing decision-making, including both individual decision-making and organizational decision-making, as the foundation of educational leadership. Next, I elaborated on the symbiotic role of human-AI decision-making.

Findings

With its efficiency in collecting, processing, analyzing data and providing real-time or near real-time results, AI can bring in analytical efficiency to assist educational leaders in making data-driven, evidence-informed decisions. However, AI-assisted data-driven decision-making may run against value-based moral decision-making. Taken together, both leaders' individual decision-making and organizational decision-making are best handled by using a blend of data-driven, evidence-informed decision-making and value-based moral decision-making. AI can function as an extended brain in making data-driven, evidence-informed decisions. The shortcomings of AI-assisted data-driven decision-making can be overcome by human judgment guided by moral values.

Practical implications

The paper concludes with two recommendations for educational leadership practitioners' decision-making and future scholarly inquiry: keeping a watchful eye on biases and minding ethically-compromised decisions.

Originality/value

This paper brings together two fields of educational leadership and AI that have been growing up together since the 1950s and mostly growing apart till the late 2010s. To explore the role of AI in educational leadership, this paper starts with the foundation of leadership—decision-making, both leaders' individual decisions and collective organizational decisions. The paper then synthesizes the literature that intersects AI, decision-making and educational leadership from multiple disciplines to delineate the role of AI in educational leadership.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 59 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 14 April 2010

Lucy Simons, Steve Tee and Tina Coldham

Mental health education aims to develop valuesbased practice to support practitioners in clinical decision‐making. Values‐based practice requires high levels of cultural…

Abstract

Mental health education aims to develop valuesbased practice to support practitioners in clinical decision‐making. Values‐based practice requires high levels of cultural competence achieved through service user participation in professional preparation. The degree of service user participation remains dependent on the values of programme providers.In this paper, we consider whether strategies to involve service users in mental health professional education can support the principles of valuesbased practice. To do this, we have drawn on the findings from qualitative studies of educators' practices and their views regarding service user involvement. Values‐based practice requires self‐awareness of values impacting on decisions and knowledge derived from service users' personal accounts. The studies suggest that while opportunities exist for service users to present their accounts, few examples of service user involvement facilitated deeper examination of values underpinning decision‐making. Enabling service users to influence values‐based practice development requires more authentic participatory approaches. Educators valued the contribution of service users' experiential knowledge to the learning process, but there was less evidence of educators' values base that would model commitment to the empowerment of service users.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2017

Pablo Muñoz

Under what conditions do entrepreneurs make the sustainable decisions they need to develop socially and environmentally responsible new businesses? Explanations of…

Abstract

Purpose

Under what conditions do entrepreneurs make the sustainable decisions they need to develop socially and environmentally responsible new businesses? Explanations of sustainable decision-making have involved various cognitive features; however, it is not yet clear how they play a role in empirical terms and, moreover, how they combine to induce business decisions based on social, environmental and economic considerations. The purpose of this paper is to explore how five cognitive factors combine and causally connect to produce sustainable decision-making in entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to examine the decision-making of 37 sustainable entrepreneurs. It focuses on a substantive conception of entrepreneurial behaviour to uncover the cognitive antecedents underlying entrepreneurial decisions that involve the explicit development and implementation of measures, targets and strategies aimed at improving its impact on people and the environment.

Findings

The configurational analysis reveals a typology comprising five combinations of cognitive factors constituting a comprehensive cognitive map of sustainable decision-making in entrepreneurship, namely: purpose-driven, determined; value-based, vacillating; value-based, unintended; single motive, single solution; and purpose-driven, hesitant.

Research limitations/implications

This study demonstrates that no single condition is necessary nor sufficient for triggering decision-making involving social and environmental concerns, revealing five mental models leading to sustainable decision-making. In doing so, this paper responds to recent calls that stress the need for studies capable of uncovering the complex constellation of cognitive factors underlying entrepreneurial sustainable behaviour. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Originality/value

This paper provides a systematic characterization of the cognitive underpinnings of sustainable decision-making and offers a basis for organizing the study of sustainable outcomes and configurations of cognitive antecedents. It reconciles prior efforts aimed at characterizing sustainability decisions in the context of SMEs and new enterprises, challenging current models based on awareness, experience and ethical normative frameworks.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Xi Xu and Zhong Yao

The purpose of this paper is to develop a research model that examines the effect of argument quality and argument perspective on the adoption of online reviews in a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a research model that examines the effect of argument quality and argument perspective on the adoption of online reviews in a value-based decision model. In addition, the paper investigates the moderating effects of argument quality from needs theory.

Design/methodology/approach

To validate the research model, a questionnaire survey was conducted in the Chinese online shopping context. Hypotheses were tested using partial least squares analysis on a data set of 208 online consumers.

Findings

The results suggest that argument quality and argument perspective have positive impacts on perceived value, further influencing the adoption of online reviews. Moreover, the results confirm that the information credibility and quantity sufficiency of online reviews are positively associated with argument quality. The findings also indicate that argument quality mediates the relationship between argument perspective and perceived value.

Originality/value

This work contributes to the literature by employing a value-based decision model to study the adoption of online reviews in the online shopping context, as well as the moderating effect of argument quality on the argument perspective to perceived value. The main conclusions of this study can be valuable to online marketing managers.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 39 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2009

N. Sivakumar

The purpose of this paper is to develop a typology of organization behavior based on the guidelines from Manusmriti, an ancient Indian law text. The paper also purports to

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a typology of organization behavior based on the guidelines from Manusmriti, an ancient Indian law text. The paper also purports to provide guidelines from the text for values‐based corporate governance.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper first develops an organizational behavior typology based on Manusmriti. The paper then provides guidelines for various aspects of values‐based corporate governance.

Findings

The paper finds that the guidelines from Manusmriti are relevant in providing a holistic approach to corporate governance which promotes ethical and social idealism.

Practical implications

The paper has practical implications to practitioners of corporate governance in terms of developing structures which promote ethical and socially responsible behavior.

Originality/value

The originality of the paper is in deriving guidelines for values‐based corporate governance from Manusmriti.

Details

Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

David Launder and Chad Perry

There has been little research about incident management decision making within real-life, dynamic emergencies such as urban fire settings. So this research addresses the…

Abstract

Purpose

There has been little research about incident management decision making within real-life, dynamic emergencies such as urban fire settings. So this research addresses the research problem: how do incident managers make decisions in urban fire settings? These decision behaviours cover five areas: assessment of the fireground situation, selection of a decision strategy, determination of incident objectives, deployment and management of firefighting resources and ongoing review of the incident. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Case research was used to examine management of different types of fires, through in-depth interviews with a range of incident managers.

Findings

This research identified five key behavioural elements associated with incident management in urban fire settings such as their application of a mix of recognition-primed, value based, procedural and formal decision strategies throughout the course of an incident rather than a single style.

Research limitations/implications

The in-depth framework of decision making could provide foundations for later research about other emergency settings. And this research is limited to analytic generalisation (Yin, 2009); so quantitative research such as surveys and large scale interviews could be done to further extend the research for statistical generalisation.

Practical implications

The decision procedures uncovered in this research will assist incident managers in many emergencies, assist policy making and foster the development of future incident managers.

Originality/value

The findings expand the knowledge of how incident managers develop situation awareness, make decisions and plans, implement them, and review the incident as it evolves. Another contribution is the comprehensive framework of decision making developed from these findings.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

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Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Sung-il Kim, Johnmarshall Reeve and Mimi Bong

The rapid progress of neuroscience and the interdisciplinary collaboration between neuroscience and psychology have begun to provide valuable insights for understanding…

Abstract

The rapid progress of neuroscience and the interdisciplinary collaboration between neuroscience and psychology have begun to provide valuable insights for understanding the dynamic and implicit nature of human motivation by identifying the in vivo neural mechanism of motivation. One of the fundamental questions in the field of the neuroscience of motivation is what neural mechanisms underlie the direction, intensity, and guidance of our motivation and subsequent actions. This prologue explains how neuroscience can contribute to the understanding of human motivation. To accomplish this purpose, we present what neuroscientific data look like, identify 13 key motivation-relevant brain structures, and introduce 3 key motivation-centric brain circuits – namely, the reward circuit, the value-based decision-making pathway, and the self-regulation/self-control network.

Details

Recent Developments in Neuroscience Research on Human Motivation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-474-7

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Derek Robert Brown, Dennis Rose and Ray Gordon

The purpose of this paper is to begin the discussion about re-positioning change management in information technology projects and to propose a framework for improving the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to begin the discussion about re-positioning change management in information technology projects and to propose a framework for improving the quality of decision making in change initiatives that may contribute to that re-positioning.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyzed all change management job advertisements in Australia in both the public and private sectors for May 2015, to identify which change management-related skills were being sought. The purpose was to try to identify any patterns that would confirm or negate the original observations, and to help develop a research question for a subsequent, substantive study.

Findings

Change management may be perceived as predominantly comprising communications, stakeholder management and training. The quality of leadership decision making in change initiatives may also be contributing to the consistently high failure rates.

Research limitations/implications

The analysis of job advertisements was a sample only, and requires more quantitative research.

Practical implications

The required alignment of leadership, ethics and change can only be achieved by first improving the quality of leadership decision making, which demands a values-based approach.

Originality/value

The paper highlights a restriction to the scope of practice of change management, and how that contributes to continuing high failure rates. The value is that it provides deeper insight into the commonly accepted “leadership alignment” issue, as well as demonstrating that this is probably the least practiced aspect of change management. The paper also challenges to build strong ethical foundations for the practice.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2012

Peter Littlejohns, Tarang Sharma and Kim Jeong

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the organisational and procedural arrangements for priority setting in England and Wales. It describes the role of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the organisational and procedural arrangements for priority setting in England and Wales. It describes the role of social values in the decision‐making process.

Design/methodology/approach

The processes and content of decisions made by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence are analysed using the framework developed by Clark and Weale for identifying social values in health priority‐setting.

Findings

While countries are seeking to achieve similar outcomes from their health prioritisation processes, each country has established different systems that reflect the social and legal framework underpinning their health systems. England is somewhat unique in being explicit about assessing “value for money” and using formal cost‐effectiveness in developing policy.

Originality/value

Many countries are now considering the use of formal health economic methodologies to assess the value and prioritise health care interventions. However there is increasing recognition of the importance of values other than efficiency (cost effectiveness) in making acceptable decisions. This is manifest in the range of potential new approaches being developed including multiple criteria decision analysis.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 3 September 2019

Jay Liebowitz, Yolande Chan, Tracy Jenkin, Dylan Spicker, Joanna Paliszkiewicz and Fabio Babiloni

In the business and data analytics community, intuition has not been discussed widely in terms of its application to executive decision-making. However, the purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

In the business and data analytics community, intuition has not been discussed widely in terms of its application to executive decision-making. However, the purpose of this paper is to focus on new global research that combines intuition, trust and analytics in terms of how well C-level executives trust their intuition.

Design/methodology/approach

Our Fulbright research, as described in this paper and performed by colleagues from the United States, Canada, Poland and Italy, examines executives’ as well as other less experienced employees’ preferences for different types of intuition versus data analysis. This study set out to better understand the degree to which executives prefer intuition versus analysis and the relationship between these approaches to decision-making. Our research combines elements of a review, a cross-cultural/cross-company survey study and a biometrics study in interoception. The research team has a multidisciplinary background in business, information technology, strategy, trust management, statistics and neuroscience.

Findings

Based on our research, the main findings are as follows. The use of and preference for intuition types change as employees gain more experience. However, there may be intuition styles that are more static and trait-like, which are linked to roles, differentiating managers from leaders. Using “inferential intuition” and “seeing the big picture” go hand in hand. Listening to your body signals can promote improved intuition. Cross-cultural differences may impact executive decision-making. Executives often prefer to use their intuition over analysis/analytics.

Research limitations/implications

This research could be expanded to have a larger sample size of C-level executives. We had 172 responses with 65% C-level executives and 12% directors. However, a recent survey by the Economist Intelligence Unit on intuition used by executives had a sample of 174 executives around the world, which is comparable with our sample size.

Practical implications

From our research, executives should continue to apply their experiential learning through intuition to complement their use of data in making strategic decisions. We have often discounted the use of intuition in executive decision-making, but our research highlights the importance of making it a critical part of the executive decision-making process.

Originality/value

Based on the results of our survey and biometrics research, executives apply their intuition to gain greater confidence in their decision-making. Listening to their body signals can also improve their intuitive executive awareness. This complements their use of data and analytics when making executive decisions.

Details

VINE Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5891

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