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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2021

Aloisio Henrique Mazzarolo, Emerson Wagner Mainardes and Danilo Soares Montemor

The purpose of this study was to assess whether internal marketing tends to influence the perception of bank employees regarding the strategic orientations of banks toward…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to assess whether internal marketing tends to influence the perception of bank employees regarding the strategic orientations of banks toward the market, brand and value. The authors also aimed to determine whether employees' organizational commitment mediates the relationship between internal marketing and the three strategic orientations and whether they influence bank employees' perception of obtaining a competitive advantage.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a survey with 832 bank employees using an online questionnaire. The authors performed data analysis by modeling structural equations with data estimation using the PLS-SEM.

Findings

The results showed that internal marketing positively influences bank employees' perception of banks' strategic marketing orientations and through that their perception of a competitive advantage. The authors also note that organizational commitment can partially mediate the relationship between internal marketing and the strategic orientations tested in this study.

Research limitations/implications

The findings indicate that banks' investment in employee valuation tends to generate positive results in relation to their adherence to marketing strategies, with the potential to result in a competitive advantage.

Originality/value

The results demonstrate the strength of internal marketing in the strategic orientations of banks, indicating that having employees who are committed to their bank contributes to the delivery of a high-quality service focused on the external customers, generating a competitive advantage.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Book part
Publication date: 3 July 2018

Neil A. Morgan and Douglas W. Vorhies

The marketing literature indicates that a firm’s organizational culture plays a critical role in determining its market orientation (MO) and thereby the firm’s ability to…

Abstract

Purpose

The marketing literature indicates that a firm’s organizational culture plays a critical role in determining its market orientation (MO) and thereby the firm’s ability to successfully adapt to its environment to achieve superior business performance. However, our understanding of the organizational culture of market-oriented firms and its relationship with business performance remains limited in a number of important ways. Drawing on the behavioral theory of the firm and the competing values theory perspective on organizational culture, our empirical study addresses important knowledge gaps concerning the relationship between firm MO culture, MO behaviors, innovation, customer satisfaction, and business performance.

Methodology/approach

We used a survey methodology with Clan Cultural Orientation, Adhocracy Cultural Orientation, Market Cultural Orientation, and Hierarchy Cultural Orientation Clan. Market Orientation Behaviors, Innovation, and Customer Satisfaction and CFROA t (Net Operating Income + Depreciation and AmortizationDisposal of Assets)/Total Assets.

Findings

The overall fit of the first Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) containing the three MO behavior sub-scales, the four organizational culture scales, and the innovation and satisfaction performance measures was good with a χ 2 = 760.89, 524 df, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.916 and RMSEA = 0.055. The overall fit of the second CFA containing the business strategy, bureaucracy, and customer expectations control variables was also good with a χ 2 = 243.26, 156 df, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.937 and RMSEA = 0.061. We also subsequently ran a third CFA in which the MO behavior construct was modeled as a second-order factor comprising the three first-order sub-scales (generation of market intelligence, dissemination of market intelligence, and responsiveness to market intelligence) each of which in turn arose from the relevant survey indicants. This measurement model also fit well with the data with a χ 2 = 84.06, 63 df, p < 0.039; CFI = 0.955 and RMSEA = 0.047. Regressions using seemingly unrelated regressions (SUR) with control variables and with R 2 values ranging from 0.28 to 0.54.

Practical implications

MO culture has an important direct effect on firms’ financial performance as well as an indirect effect via MO behaviors and innovations. Importantly, our findings suggest that MO culture facilitates value-creating behaviors above and beyond those identified in the marketing literature as MO behaviors. In contrast to a series of studies by Deshpandé and colleagues (1993, 1999, 2000, 2004), our empirical results suggest the value of the internally oriented Clan and to a lesser degree Hierarchy cultural orientations as well as the more externally oriented Adhocracy and Market cultural orientations. The benchmark ideal MO culture profile we identify is consistent with organization theory conceptualizations of strong balanced organizational cultures in which each of the four competing values orientations is simultaneously exhibited to a significant degree (e.g., Cameron & Freeman, 1991). Our findings indicate that the organizational culture domain of MO appears to be at least as important (if not more so) in explaining firm performance and suggest that researchers need to re-visit the conceptualization, and perhaps more importantly the operationalization, of MO as a central construct in strategic marketing thought.

Originality/value

In building an MO culture, an important first step is to assess the firm’s existing organizational culture profile (e.g., Goodman, Zammuto, & Gifford, 2001). Organization theory researchers have developed competing values theory-based organizational culture assessment tools that can provide managers with an easily accessible mechanism for accomplishing this (Cameron & Quinn, 1999). The profile of the firm’s existing culture and the profile of the ideal culture for MO from our study can then be plotted on a “spider’s web” graphical representation (e.g., Hooijberg & Petrock, 1993). This aids the comparison of the firm’s existing cultural profile with the ideal MO profile, enabling managers to easily diagnose the areas, direction, and magnitude MO culture profile “gaps” in their firm (Cameron, 1997). Specific gap-closing plans and tactics for gaps on each of the four cultural orientations can then be identified as part of the development of a change management program designed to create an MO culture profile (e.g., Chang & Wiebe, 1996). Cameron and Quinn’s (1999) workbook provides managers with an excellent operational resource for planning and undertaking such gap-closing organizational culture change initiatives.

Details

Innovation and Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-828-2

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

Katja Soyez

The purpose of this paper is to link national cultural values to personal pro‐environmental value orientations, in order to investigate why the salience of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to link national cultural values to personal pro‐environmental value orientations, in order to investigate why the salience of pro‐environmental value orientations differs cross‐culturally. A value‐based model is proposed and tested in a multinational study.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical investigation of 1,096 consumers was conducted in five nations with a different cultural profile on the two cultural dimensions in‐group collectivism and assertiveness. The paper applies multi‐group structural equation modelling to test the moderating effect of culture on the impact of pro‐environmental values on attitudes and subjective norms.

Findings

The study reveals that the influence of a pro‐environmental value orientation differs substantially, according to national cultural values. While an ecocentric value orientation is important in the US, Canadian, German, and Australian samples which hold individualistic values, an anthropocentric value orientation is salient in the Russian sample, characterized by collectivistic values. The hypothesized influence of the national cultural value assertiveness, however, could not be established decisively.

Research limitations/implications

First, the present study considers culture as a national value on an aggregated level. Future studies should take into account cultural values at different levels of aggregation. Second, since only one collectivistic society is the object of the investigation, the results are limited in terms of generalizability.

Practical implications

In order to address the ecocentric value orientation in the analyzed individualistic societies, marketers should emphasize benefits for the environment in the USA, Canada, Australia, and Germany. By contrast, the positive consequences for humankind in general and future generations should be stressed in the collectivistic Russian sample.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature by integrating both individual and national perspectives on the value‐based drivers of environmental concern. The study also provides insight into pro‐environmental consumer behavior in an emerging market (namely Russia), which has so far been neglected in cross‐cultural research.

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Article
Publication date: 25 July 2013

Sunil Venaik, Yunxia Zhu and Paul Brewer

The purpose of this paper is to critically examine, theoretically and empirically, the two time orientation dimensions – long‐term orientation (LTO) and future orientation

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to critically examine, theoretically and empirically, the two time orientation dimensions – long‐term orientation (LTO) and future orientation (FO) – in the national culture models of Hofstede and GLOBE, respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

Following Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's past‐present‐future theoretical lens, the Hofstede LTO and GLOBE FO measures are analysed to understand the conceptual domain covered by these two dimensions. Next, the authors empirically examine the relationship of Hofstede LTO and GLOBE FO with secondary data from Hofstede, GLOBE, and the World Values Survey.

Findings

This paper shows that Hofstede LTO and GLOBE FO dimensions capture different aspects of time orientation of societies. In particular, Hofstede LTO focuses on past (tradition) versus future (thrift) aspect of societies, GLOBE FO practices capture the present versus future (planning) practices of societies, and GLOBE FO values reflect societal aspirations and preferences for planning.

Research limitations/implications

A specific implication of these findings is that the three dimensions of time orientation are not interchangeable since they represent different characteristics of societies. A wider implication for researchers is to ensure high level of precision in and congruence among construct labels, definitions and measures to avoid confusion and misapplication of cross‐cultural concepts.

Practical implications

In an increasingly globalized world, a clear understanding of societal time orientation will help managers deal more effectively with their counterparts in other countries.

Originality/value

The key contribution of this paper is in identifying and clarifying, both theoretically and empirically, the anomalies in the labels, definitions and measurement of Hofstede long‐term orientation and GLOBE future orientation national culture dimensions. It also shows a useful way forward for researchers on how to use these national culture dimensions to explain other phenomena of interest to cross‐cultural scholars.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Book part
Publication date: 7 August 2013

Donald L. Ariail, Nicholas Emler and Mohammad J. Abdolmohammadi

Prior studies investigating the relationship between moral reasoning (as measured by the defining issues test, DIT) and political orientation have rendered mixed results…

Abstract

Prior studies investigating the relationship between moral reasoning (as measured by the defining issues test, DIT) and political orientation have rendered mixed results. We seek to find an explanation for these mixed results. Using responses from a sample of 284 practicing certified public accountants (CPAs), we find evidence that value preferences underlie both moral reasoning and political orientation. Specifically, we find a statistically significant inverse relationship between moral reasoning and conservatism in univariate tests. However, this relationship is no longer significant when eight individual value preferences and gender are taken into account. These results suggest that variations in moral reasoning scores of CPAs are accounted for by their value preferences, which also underlie their relative conservatism.

Details

Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-838-9

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Book part
Publication date: 12 April 2014

Kathryn H. Dekas and Wayne E. Baker

A work orientation represents a person’s beliefs about the meaning of work – the function work plays in the person’s life and the constellation of values and assumptions…

Abstract

Purpose

A work orientation represents a person’s beliefs about the meaning of work – the function work plays in the person’s life and the constellation of values and assumptions the person holds about the work domain. Research has suggested that adults tend to favor one of three primary work orientations: job, career, or calling. Empirical studies have shown that adults with different primary work orientations tend to experience different work and career outcomes; however, scholars have not analyzed how or why an individual first develops a work orientation. In this study, we take a first step toward investigating the origins of adults’ work orientations.

Design/methodology/approach

We propose hypotheses drawing on extant literature on the development of work values and occupational inheritance. We test hypotheses using a retrospective research design and survey methodology, with a sample of working adults.

Findings

Work orientations are developed through socialization processes with parents during adolescence. There are different patterns of development across the three work orientation categories: stronger calling orientations are developed when both parents possess strong calling orientations; stronger career orientations develop in accordance with fathers’ career orientations; and job orientations are related more to the nature of the adolescent’s relationship with parents than with parents’ own work orientations.

Originality/value

This research provides the first empirical study of the origin and development of work orientations.

Research limitations/implications

This research offers insight into ways generations are connected through the perceived meaning of their work, even as the nature of work changes. We encourage future scholars to use this as a starting point for research on the development of work orientations, and to continue exploring these questions using additional methods, particularly longitudinal study designs.

Details

Adolescent Experiences and Adult Work Outcomes: Connections and Causes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-572-2

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2020

Xuanhui Zhang, Si Chen, Yuxiang Chris Zhao, Shijie Song and Qinghua Zhu

The purpose of this paper is to explore how social value orientation and domain knowledge affect cooperation levels and transcription quality in crowdsourced manuscript…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how social value orientation and domain knowledge affect cooperation levels and transcription quality in crowdsourced manuscript transcription, and contribute to the recruitment of participants in such projects in practice.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a quasi-experiment using Transcribe-Sheng, which is a well-known crowdsourced manuscript transcription project in China, to investigate the influences of social value orientation and domain knowledge. The experiment lasted one month and involved 60 participants. ANOVA was used to test the research hypotheses. Moreover, inverviews and thematic analyses were conducted to analyze the qualitative data in order to provide additional insights.

Findings

The analysis confirmed that in crowdsourced manuscript transcription, social value orientation has a significant effect on participants’ cooperation level and transcription quality; domain knowledge has a significant effect on participants’ transcription quality, but not on their cooperation level. The results also reveal the interactive effect of social value orientation and domain knowledge on cooperation levels and quality of transcription. The analysis of the qualitative data illustrated the influences of social value orientation and domain knowledge on crowdsourced manuscript transcription in detail.

Originality/value

Researchers have paid little attention to the impacts of the psychological and cognitive factors on crowdsourced manuscript transcription. This study investigated the effect of social value orientation and the combined effect of social value orientation and domain knowledge in this context. The findings shed light on crowdsourcing transcription initiatives in the cultural heritage domain and can be used to facilitate participant selection in such projects.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 72 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2009

Margaret Jekanyika Matanda and Nelson Oly Ndubisi

In the current customer‐centred business environment, organisations are adopting market‐oriented behaviour in an effort to enhance their value creation and delivery…

Abstract

Purpose

In the current customer‐centred business environment, organisations are adopting market‐oriented behaviour in an effort to enhance their value creation and delivery capabilities. This study seeks to investigate whether supplier market orientation leads to the creation of superior supplier perceived value and organisational performance. It is contended that supplier perceived value creation mediates the relationship between market orientation and business performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A model was developed that places supplier perceived value creation as a mediator of the relationship between market orientation and business performance. The model was tested using structural equation modelling on 244 fresh produce suppliers interviewed in face‐to‐face interviews.

Findings

The results indicate that, whilst customer orientation enhances supplier perceived value creation, competitor orientation and interfunctional coordination were negatively associated with it. Supplier perceived value creation had a mediating effect on the link between market orientation and business performance. Additionally, supplier perceived value creation had a negative effect on financial performance, but was positively related to marketing performance.

Practical implications

The study indicates that not all market orientation components lead to positive effects on business performance. For some organisations market orientation can actually reduce business performance. Thus managers should specifically be careful to implement customer orientation as a way of enhancing business performance as the costs may outweigh the benefits.

Originality/value

Limited work has investigated the role of supplier perceived value creation and research has called for empirical work on mediators of the market orientation‐business performance link. The paper adds to existing knowledge by unveiling how supplier market orientation influences their ability to conceptualise supplier delivered value.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Hannu Saarijärvi, Hannu Kuusela, Kari Neilimo and Elina Närvänen

Despite the fact that customer orientation is increasingly used as a strategic guideline to ensure companies’ long-term success, it is too often left at conceptual level…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the fact that customer orientation is increasingly used as a strategic guideline to ensure companies’ long-term success, it is too often left at conceptual level without any managerial or executive translation. To address this practical gap, the purpose of the paper is to build an executive perspective on customer orientation through the mechanism of customer value dimensions.

Design/methodology/approach

An intensive case study from a successful retail service business is used to illustrate how customer orientation is applied in actual strategic decision making at the executive level. The case business is a multi-sector service business that took a strategic turn toward customer orientation in the 2000s. As a result, the company has been able to increase their market share to become the market leader as well as stay ahead of the competition and increase customer loyalty.

Findings

The study provides a practical tool of disentangling customer orientation into four customer value dimensions and linking them with appropriate executive level strategic decision making.

Practical implications

The study helps executives uncover the inner meaning of customer orientation, move beyond traditional conceptualization of customer orientation, and adopt customer value orientation. This necessitates not only understanding customer value criteria, but also linking the diverse criteria to executive level strategic decision making.

Originality/value

The study concretizes and uncovers how customer orientation can be implemented by incorporating both economic, functional, emotional, and symbolic customer value dimensions into executive level strategic decision making.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Syed Shah Alam, Rohani Mohd, Badrul Hisham Kamaruddin and Noor Gani Mohd Nor

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how personal values and internal motivation interact to influence entrepreneurial orientations. Personal values and internal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how personal values and internal motivation interact to influence entrepreneurial orientations. Personal values and internal motivation are among personal characteristics that have an impact on entrepreneurial orientation. However, these two personal variables are studied in isolation; therefore, how these two interact to influence entrepreneurial orientation is not yet fully understood.

Design/methodology/approach

This study comprised a sample of Malay-owned small and medium enterprises (SMEs) located in the Klang Valley in Malaysia. A cross-sectional research design was used to examine the relationships between personal values, self-efficacy motivation and entrepreneurial orientation among small-scale Malay SMEs. To focus on SMEs, lists were sought from the Majlis Amanah Rakyat (MARA). Malay was chosen for this study because Malaysia has a majority of the Malay population compared to other races. Data were gathered based on mailed and personally administered questionnaires.

Findings

The findings indicate that self-efficacy of Malay SMEs in the Shah Alam area acted as a mediator in the relationship between personal values and entrepreneurial orientation. Malay SMEs were found to have high self-efficacy and entrepreneurial orientation.

Practical implications

An important implication of this research is that the interesting findings provide some insight to management consultants for focusing on improving the self-efficacy of Malay SMEs, in their training, as this would improve their entrepreneurial orientations.

Originality/value

The findings are original and unique and are based on established theories from the literature on Malay-based SMEs in Malaysia. The results are based on a sample of Malay-owned SMEs in the Klang Valley in Malaysia. The research findings are useful to academics and policymakers interested in fostering SMEs in Malaysia.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

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