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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Ron D'Andrea

To identify the keys to executing profitable sales negotiations based on analysis of the negotiation approaches of high‐performing salespeople.

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3559

Abstract

Purpose

To identify the keys to executing profitable sales negotiations based on analysis of the negotiation approaches of high‐performing salespeople.

Design/methodology/approach

BayGroup International (a leading global sales consultancy) conducted a research study involving 2,000 salespeople at all levels from Fortune 500 companies across a wide range of industries. Respondents participated in an actual buy‐sell negotiation. BayGroup collected and analyzed data on the negotiation approaches taken by study participants, and determined how the approaches taken by the sales professionals who negotiated the best agreements differed from others in the study.

Findings

BayGroup concluded that high performers raise their customers’ perception of value by using six fundamental strategies, summarized in the form of principles of sales negotiation. The paper not only describes the principles, but also reveals the unique, counterintuitive manner in which high‐performing salespeople plan and execute profitable sales strategy.

Practical implications

Owing to increasing pressure to improve earnings (and share prices), value‐based sales negotiation has become more critical than ever to corporate success. Use of the research conclusions and analysis from this article can provide useful guidance to sales professionals and their managers on how to execute more profitable customer agreements throughout the sales process.

Originality/value

The importance of “selling value, not price” has been fully embraced by the world's leading sales organizations, but effective approaches to implementing behavioral change in this area have been rare. This paper presents provocative findings that suggest new ways to approach this critical strategic challenge.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 26 March 2021

Abraham Stefanidis, Moshe Banai, Ursula Schinzel and Ahmet Erkuş

The purpose of this study is to refine theory of negotiation by empirically investigating the extent to which national-, societal- and individual-level cultures relate to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to refine theory of negotiation by empirically investigating the extent to which national-, societal- and individual-level cultures relate to negotiators' tendency to endorse questionable negotiation tactics.

Design/methodology/approach

To assess the hypothesized relationships between culture and ethically questionable negotiation tactics at three cultural levels of analysis, the authors collected data from Turks who reside in Turkey and in Germany and from Greeks who reside in Greece and in Cyprus. Respondents' national-level cultural values were inferred from their nationality, respondents' societal-level cultural values were inferred from their country of residency, and respondents' individual-level cultural values were inferred from their discrete and unique individuality.

Findings

At the national level, the authors found that Turks in Turkey and Germany scored significantly higher than Greeks in Greece and Cyprus on the endorsement of pretending negotiation tactics. At the societal level, the authors found that Turkish negotiators in Germany displayed higher levels of lying negotiation tactics and lower levels of pretending negotiation tactics than Turkish negotiators in Turkey. Greek negotiators in Greece endorsed deceiving and lying tactics more than Greek negotiators in Cyprus. At the individual level, the authors found that negotiators who score high on vertical individualism and collectivism endorse questionable negotiation tactics significantly more than negotiators who score high on horizontal individualism and collectivism.

Originality/value

The authors empirically demonstrate how national-, societal- and individual-level cultures differentially influence negotiators' tendency to endorse questionable negotiation tactics. The study's trilevel analysis allows for integrating the societal-level theories of negotiators' acculturation and cultural adjustment to a host culture, highlighting the importance of bicultural identity.

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Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2019

Frieder Lempp

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new agent-based simulation model of bilateral negotiation based on a synthesis of established theories and empirical studies of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new agent-based simulation model of bilateral negotiation based on a synthesis of established theories and empirical studies of negotiation research. The central units of the model are negotiators who pursue goals, have attributes (trust, assertiveness, cooperativeness, creativity, time, etc.) and perform actions (proposing and accepting offers, exchanging information, creating value, etc).

Design/methodology/approach

Methodologically, the model follows the agent-based approach to modeling. This approach is chosen because negotiations can be described as complex, non-linear systems involving autonomous agents (i.e. the negotiators), who interact with each other, pursue goals and perform actions aimed at achieving their goals.

Findings

This paper illustrates how the model can simulate experiments involving variables such as negotiation strategy, creativity, reservation value or time in negotiation. An example simulation is presented which investigates the main and interaction effects of negotiators’ reservation value and their time available for a negotiation. A software implementation of the model is freely accessible at https://tinyurl.com/y7oj6jo8.

Research limitations/implications

The model, as developed at this point, provides the basis for future research projects. One project could address the representation of emotions and their impact on the process and outcome of negotiations. Another project could extend the model by allowing negotiators to convey false information (i.e. to bluff). Yet another project could be aimed at refining the routines used for making and accepting offers with a view to allow parties to reach partial settlements during a negotiation.

Practical implications

Due to its broad scope and wide applicability, the model can be used by practitioners and researchers alike. As a decision-support system, the model allows users to simulate negotiation situations and estimate the likelihood of negotiation outcomes. As a research platform, it can generate simulation data in a cost- and time-effective way, allowing researchers to simulate complex, large-N studies at no cost or time.

Originality/value

The model presented in this paper synthesizes in a novel way a comprehensive range of concepts and theories of current negotiation research. It complements other computational models, in that it can simulate a more diverse range of negotiation strategies (distributive, integrative and compromise) and is applicable to a greater variety of negotiation scenarios.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Maw Der Foo, Hillary Anger Elfenbein, Hwee Hoon Tan and Voon Chuan Aik

As a departure from past research on emotional intelligence (EI), which generally examines the influence of an individual's level of EI on that individual's consequences…

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6356

Abstract

As a departure from past research on emotional intelligence (EI), which generally examines the influence of an individual's level of EI on that individual's consequences, we examined relationships between the emotional intelligence (EI) of both members of dyads involved in a negotiation in order to explain objective and subjective outcomes. As expected, individuals high in EI reported a more positive experience. However, surprisingly, such individuals also achieved significantly lower objective scores than their counterparts. By contrast, having a partner high in EI predicted greater objective gain, and a more positive negotiating experience. Thus, high EI individuals appeared to benefit in affective terms, but appeared to create objective value that they were less able to claim. We discuss the tension between creating and claiming value, and implications for emotion in organizations.

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International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2011

Yeri Cho, Jennifer R. Overbeck and Peter J. Carnevale

Purpose – Although extensive research shows that power affects negotiator performance, few efforts have been made to investigate how status conflict among negotiators…

Abstract

Purpose – Although extensive research shows that power affects negotiator performance, few efforts have been made to investigate how status conflict among negotiators affects negotiation. This chapter addresses this limitation and explores the question that when groups experience status conflict while simultaneously conducting negotiations, how this status conflict affects negotiator behavior and negotiation outcome.

Approach – We define three basic forms of status contest and develop 12 propositions about the impact of status conflict on between-group negotiator behavior and negotiation outcome.

Findings – We propose that when negotiating with an outgroup, negotiators who experience within-group status conflict will use the outgroup to increase their status within group by demonstrating their value to their own group. In the situation of wholly within-group status conflict and within-group negotiation, individual negotiators will use group concern to gain status. This group concern leads to more value-creating behaviors, but lessens the likelihood of reaching an agreement. When groups experience intergroup status conflict alongside intergroup negotiation, the likelihood of agreement, and the likelihood of integrative agreement, decreases and this is due to an increase in contentiousness.

Value – This chapter suggests that status conflict is an important, albeit neglected, aspect of negotiation and it can affect the outcome of the negotiation. Greater research attention toward status conflict in negotiation should help to improve negotiation effectiveness and the quality of agreements.

Details

Negotiation and Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-560-1

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Article
Publication date: 31 January 2020

Jens Ola Eklinder-Frick and Lars-Johan Åge

Historically, a transactional perspective has dominated the business negotiation literature. This perspective includes the notions that business negotiations are a linear…

Abstract

Purpose

Historically, a transactional perspective has dominated the business negotiation literature. This perspective includes the notions that business negotiations are a linear process that follows episodic or stage models, business negotiations are geared toward an outcome in the form of a one-time transaction, business negotiations focus on a single negotiator or negotiation in a dyad and the research has historically viewed negotiation as a “zero-sum” game. Inspired by a long tradition of empirical studies of business relationships, there is good reason to apply a conceptual analysis to challenge these four assumptions and propose an alternative view on the negotiation process. The purpose of this paper is to contrast how aspects of business negotiations are commonly conceptualized with the industrial marketing and purchasing (IMP) perspective and develop propositions that will contribute to future research by offering guidelines for the development of business negotiation literature.

Design/methodology/approach

To contribute to a discussion on the relation between conceptualization and research results, definitions within the existing literature regarding business negotiation are contrasted with similar definitions of concepts from the IMP perspective.

Findings

Four propositions have been formulated that further the conceptual understanding of business negotiation. Moreover, a need for future methodological deliberations is demonstrated, and suggestions for future research in the field are offered.

Originality/value

Introducing a relational perspective into the conceptually rather underdeveloped stream of research would help to develop the existing critique within the business negotiation literature of its transactional, linear and dyadic focus.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Dejun Tony Kong, William P. Bottom and Lee J. Konczak

The purpose of this paper is to examine how negotiators’ self-evaluated emotion perception is related to value claiming under two incentive schemes. Adopting an…

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1170

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how negotiators’ self-evaluated emotion perception is related to value claiming under two incentive schemes. Adopting an ability-motivation interaction perspective, the authors hypothesize that the relationship will be stronger in the contingent (upon value-claiming performance) versus fixed (non-contingent upon value-claiming performance) pay condition.

Design/methodology/approach

Multi-level analysis of data (120 participants, 60 dyads) from a laboratory study provided evidence supporting the hypothesis proposed in this paper.

Findings

Emotional perception was indeed more strongly related to value claiming in the contingent pay condition than in the fixed pay condition. Negotiators’ emotion perception also had a direct, positive linkage with relationship satisfaction, regardless of the incentive scheme.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of the current paper include self-report measures of emotion perception, a US student sample and a focus on value claiming as the instrumental outcome. The authors urge future research to address these limitations in replicating and extending the current findings.

Originality/value

The present paper is the first to explicitly test the moderating role of incentive schemes on the linkage between negotiators’ emotion perception and performance. The findings not only show the context-dependent predictive value of negotiators’ emotion perception but also shed light on both negotiation and emotional intelligence (EI) research.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2018

Pedro Fontes Falcão, Manuel Saraiva, Eduardo Santos and Miguel Pina e Cunha

After a hiatus in the research on individual differences in negotiation, there has been a surge of renewed interest in recent years followed by several new findings. The…

Abstract

Purpose

After a hiatus in the research on individual differences in negotiation, there has been a surge of renewed interest in recent years followed by several new findings. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects that personality, as structured by the five-factor model, have over negotiation behavior and decision making in order to create new knowledge and prescribe advice to negotiators.

Design/methodology/approach

This study replicates observations from earlier studies but with the innovation of using a different methodology, as data from a sample of volunteer participants were collected in regard to their personality and behavior during two computerized negotiation simulations, one with the potential for joint gains and the other following a more traditional bargaining scenario.

Findings

Significant results for both settings were found, with the personality dimensions of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and extraversion systematically reoccurring as the most statistically relevant, although expressing different roles according to the type of negotiation and measure being registered. The findings thus suggest a multidimensional relationship between personality and situational variables in which specific traits can either become liabilities or assets depending upon whether the potential for value creation is present or not.

Originality/value

The new findings on the impacts of personality traits on both distributive and integrative negotiations allow negotiators to improve their performance and to adapt to specific distributive or integrative negotiation situations.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Valentin Ade

The media, private citizens and other stakeholders regularly appraise political negotiations, but the character of these negotiations and the reasons for outcomes are…

Abstract

Purpose

The media, private citizens and other stakeholders regularly appraise political negotiations, but the character of these negotiations and the reasons for outcomes are little understood. The purpose of this conceptual paper is to discuss this character and explore its implications.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper. The author carried out a literature review and used his experiences in supervising political negotiation simulations.

Findings

The author argues that political negotiations have several specific characteristics that distinguish them from other kinds of negotiations. Political negotiations, for instance, tend to address often rather fuzzy public interests, involve value conflicts or are simultaneously performed “on stage” and “behind the scenes.” These characteristics may matter, as they can provide structural disincentives to negotiators, who might be tempted to focus on selling outcomes rather than on improving them (“saleability-oriented negotiating”). Hence, the author argues that political negotiators and their stakeholders face the challenge that political contexts may foster weak negotiation performances.

Practical implications

The author proposes an approach to political negotiations’ training that takes the findings of this paper into consideration.

Originality/value

This paper is the first, to the best of the author’s knowledge, to provide a detailed characterization of political negotiations and to discuss related implications.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2002

Gerben A. Van Kleef and Carsten K.W. De Dreu

Two experiments investigated negotiators' information search strategies as a function of other's personality (cooperative vs. competitive vs. unknown) and own social value

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449

Abstract

Two experiments investigated negotiators' information search strategies as a function of other's personality (cooperative vs. competitive vs. unknown) and own social value orientation (pro‐social vs. selfish). In Experiment 1, participants selected questions about other's intention to cooperate or to compete. In Experiment 2, participants generated questions themselves, which were coded as asking about cooperation or competition. Consistent with the false‐consensus hypothesis (Ross, Greene, & House, 1977) and inconsistent with the triangle hypothesis (Kelley & Stahelski, 1970), selfish negotiators who had no information about the other's personality asked more questions about other's intention to compete, and pro‐social negotiators asked more questions about other's intention to cooperate. Furthermore, both selfish and pro‐social negotiators engaged in confirmatory information search. Implications in terms of a self‐fulfilling prophecy are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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