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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2009

Anas N. Al‐Rabadi

The purpose of this paper is to introduce new non‐classical implementations of neural networks (NNs). The developed implementations are performed in the quantum, nano, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce new non‐classical implementations of neural networks (NNs). The developed implementations are performed in the quantum, nano, and optical domains to perform the required neural computing. The various implementations of the new NNs utilizing the introduced architectures are presented, and their extensions for the utilization in the non‐classical neural‐systolic networks are also introduced.

Design/methodology/approach

The introduced neural circuits utilize recent findings in the quantum, nano, and optical fields to implement the functionality of the basic NN. This includes the techniques of many‐valued quantum computing (MVQC), carbon nanotubes (CNT), and linear optics. The extensions of implementations to non‐classical neural‐systolic networks using the introduced neural‐systolic architectures are also presented.

Findings

Novel NN implementations are introduced in this paper. NN implementation using the general scheme of MVQC is presented. The proposed method uses the many‐valued quantum orthonormal computational basis states to implement such computations. Physical implementation of quantum computing (QC) is performed by controlling the potential to yield specific wavefunction as a result of solving the Schrödinger equation that governs the dynamics in the quantum domain. The CNT‐based implementation of logic NNs is also introduced. New implementations of logic NNs are also introduced that utilize new linear optical circuits which use coherent light beams to perform the functionality of the basic logic multiplexer by utilizing the properties of frequency, polarization, and incident angle. The implementations of non‐classical neural‐systolic networks using the introduced quantum, nano, and optical neural architectures are also presented.

Originality/value

The introduced NN implementations form new important directions in the NN realizations using the newly emerging technologies. Since the new quantum and optical implementations have the advantages of very high‐speed and low‐power consumption, and the nano implementation exists in very compact space where CNT‐based field effect transistor switches reliably using much less power than a silicon‐based device, the introduced implementations for non‐classical neural computation are new and interesting for the design in future technologies that require the optimal design specifications of super‐high speed, minimum power consumption, and minimum size, such as in low‐power control of autonomous robots, adiabatic low‐power very‐large‐scale integration circuit design for signal processing applications, QC, and nanotechnology.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2012

Stephan M. Liozu and Andreas Hinterhuber

This paper seeks to examine the influence of pricing orientation on the price‐setting process in industrial firms.

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4088

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to examine the influence of pricing orientation on the price‐setting process in industrial firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors designed a qualitative inquiry based on the principles of grounded theory with 44 managers in 15 industrial firms located across ten US states. These managers included CEOs, pricing and marketing professionals, and financial professionals working in three industries (automotive, building products and chemicals).

Findings

The study's results reflect similarities and differences in the experiences of managers in industrial firms using all three pricing orientations. It reveals stark contrasts by pricing orientation with respect to how firms organize for pricing, manage the pricing process, make product pricing decisions, manage the transition to more advanced pricing orientations, and develop internal capabilities to face uncertain and ambiguous decisions. The findings also uncover contrasting price‐setting processes by pricing orientation and the balanced used of scientific versus intuitive decision‐making processes.

Practical implications

Pricing is often a neglected element of the industrial marketing mix. This study offers a variety of organizational practices by pricing orientation. The results highlight how best‐in‐class companies that adopted modern pricing practices to derive product prices are organized and how they reach pricing decisions.

Originality/value

This study studies the commonly accepted pricing orientations and links them to organizational structure and decision‐making theory. This study contributes to bridging pricing and organizational theories.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2011

Aditya Johri and Sumitra Nair

This paper appropriates the value sensitive design (VSD) framework to examine the role of design values in the development of an information system designed to increase…

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2126

Abstract

Purpose

This paper appropriates the value sensitive design (VSD) framework to examine the role of design values in the development of an information system designed to increase transparency and reduce corruption within the context of a large‐scale e‐governance project in India.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative case study was conducted and data were collected through interviews with system designers, observations of system design and implementation, and walk‐through of designed systems. Data analysis followed an interpretive approach intended to understand informants' meaning‐making. Analysis occurred iteratively both during and after the field study.

Findings

The study reveals the complexity of the role of values in the design of information technology wherein the designers in their pursuit of transparency and reduced corruption have to continuously balance their idealistic and pragmatic values.

Research limitations/implications

This study tests the VSD framework in the context of developing an e‐government system thereby highlighting its usefulness but also outlining ways in which the framework can be expanded to make it more relevant to diverse contexts.

Practical implications

This study extends the VSD framework, particularly in contexts where designers' values are primary drivers of design decisions. A greater understanding of the role of design values across the design process can prove crucial in inculcating and reinforcing design values that lead to a more contextually relevant product.

Social implications

This research provides valuable lessons on how to approach design of systems that can benefit humans with implications for designers and for public policy.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies that utilizes the VSD framework to study information system design in a human development context with novel implications for both research and practice.

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2012

Demetris Vrontis, Alkis Thrassou, Hela Chebbi and Dorra Yahiaoui

The purpose of the research is to utilize and expand on existing knowledge on organizational valuebased innovativeness, towards the development of the “strategic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the research is to utilize and expand on existing knowledge on organizational valuebased innovativeness, towards the development of the “strategic reflexivity” concept, for businesses competing in the contemporary ever‐modulating business environments.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based partly on primary qualitative research and partly on theoretical research. The former consists of a six month long in‐house observation and data gathering of a large company (OPERACOM Group) innovation process and on 45 semi‐directive interviews of practitioners and experts.

Findings

The findings descriptively portray the varying competitive conditions as intolerant of conventional strategic marketing planning; and unable to sustain any lasting competitive advantage. Prescriptively, the research proposes a change of strategic philosophy and practice, through a shift from orthodox planning to the design of valuebased reflexive mechanisms that automatically adapt to change. The paper finally presents a preliminary model for the proposed strategic reflexivity process.

Research limitations/implications

The paper, though scientific, it is in parallel a conceptual one. The “strategic reflexivity” concept and its consequent model therefore, are presented, not as a definitive answer to the concerns of contemporary businesses; but rather as a scientifically‐based proposition towards further practical and scholarly development.

Originality/value

The research value rests on a tripod of original contributions: it adds to the voices calling executives to give up on conventional tactical strategic means, counter‐proposing strategic redevelopment that is explicitly valuebased; it identifies the valuebased innovational elements deemed critical in the strategic redevelopment of businesses in hypercompetitive environments; and it develops the “strategic reflexivity” concept and process within the above context towards theoretical development and practical implementation.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Abstract

Details

Multi-Channel Marketing, Branding and Retail Design
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-455-6

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Beda Barkokebas, Salam Khalife, Mohamed Al-Hussein and Farook Hamzeh

The research introduces means for improving premanufacturing processes (design, procurement and bidding) by leveraging digitalisation in offsite construction…

Abstract

Purpose

The research introduces means for improving premanufacturing processes (design, procurement and bidding) by leveraging digitalisation in offsite construction. Specifically, this paper proposes a framework that provides measures for the planning and implementation of digitalisation in offsite construction by positioning building information modelling (BIM) as the key technology and lean principles to add value and reduce waste.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper follows the design science research approach to develop the proposed framework and attain the aforementioned objective. The developed framework includes data collection, value-stream mapping and simulation to assess current processes, develop and propose improvements. An empirical implementation is employed to demonstrate the applicability of both the framework and the measures used to evaluate the outcomes.

Findings

The application of the proposed three-stage framework resulted in 9.45%–23.33%-time reduction per year for the various improvement categories in premanufacturing phases. Employing simulation and applying the developed measures provide incentive for upper management to adopt the suggested improvements. Additionally, while the empirical implementation was tested on a modular construction company, the methods used indicate that the framework, with its generic guidelines, could be applied and customized to any offsite company.

Originality/value

While several studies propose that BIM-Lean integration offers an advantage in the context of production systems, this paper focuses on the initial design and planning phases, which are mostly overlooked in the literature. Moreover, the present study provides quantitative evidence of the benefits of data integration through BIM technology.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 28 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Joyce de Andrade Ruiz, Ariovaldo Denis Granja and Doris C.C.K. Kowaltowski

Challenges in social housing projects (SHP) in Brazil are mainly related to design and construction quality and cost constraints. Value delivery to end-users must be a…

Abstract

Purpose

Challenges in social housing projects (SHP) in Brazil are mainly related to design and construction quality and cost constraints. Value delivery to end-users must be a goal, however, jointly considered with the restrictions of such developments. In the SHP context, tight cost constraints frequently have a negative impact on delivering value to end-users. The purpose of this paper is to put forward the proposition that value enhancement can be achieved by reallocating costs to better meet the attributes most valued by end-users, without increasing initial project costs.

Design/methodology/approach

A set of tools used in value methodology (VM) is adopted to assist a systematic process with the goal of attaining an optimal functional balance between costs and value delivery to end-users. Desired values were indicated by users in a previous study, resulting in an Index of General Significance. A single case study was carried out to test the approach in a SHP. Opportunities for improvement guided by the desired values of end-users were evaluated.

Findings

The VM approach suggests that initial project cost constraints do not necessarily induce value loss for end-users, a recurrent problem that designers and stakeholders frequently face in such contexts. Improvements were made possible through simple cost reallocation.

Research limitations/implications

A single case study was carried out to validate this approach. To create a generalized approach for other similar context further tests should be undertaken.

Practical implications

The proposed VM approach was shown to be efficient in assessing decisions which designers and stakeholders must take, bearing in mind cost constraints and improvements in value delivery to end-users.

Social implications

Currently in Brazil, end-users’ perceptions are rarely considered into the design process of SHP. The research shows that the proposed approach could be used in similar contexts of social housing to enrich the design process and attain higher satisfaction levels.

Originality/value

An important lesson learned was that subjective parameters based on the desired values of end-users could be combined with technical and functional analysis, thus an objective improvement process was devised. The approach can have clear implications for the product development of SHPs to best match the end-user's value propositions, without neglecting financial and economic needs in such a context.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2010

Nigel F. Piercy, David W. Cravens and Nikala Lane

Harsh economic conditions have put pricing higher on the agenda but responses to pricing challenges have frequently been tactical. The intent is to build on basic pricing

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21959

Abstract

Purpose

Harsh economic conditions have put pricing higher on the agenda but responses to pricing challenges have frequently been tactical. The intent is to build on basic pricing principles to emphasize a strategic perspective on pricing built around opportunities to deliver superior customer value.

Design/methodology/approach

Our logic is drawn from the observation of company pricing practices and interesting moves from conventional to innovative pricing strategies.

Findings

Our observations underline the need for executives to adopt a more strategic view of price and to examine the scope for raising prices, especially in a post‐recession economic scenario.

Practical implications

Our action agenda addresses: why there is an urgent need to make pricing decisions strategically, particularly as economic recovery occurs, with important insights coming from innovative pricing models designed to deliver superior customer value; the role of price in strategic positioning – key management considerations are whether price is to play an active or passive role in marketing the product or service, and whether price is high or low compared to alternatives; the challenges of raising prices in recession and recovery conditions, where analysis underlines the importance of considering product differentiation from a customer perspective and comparing this with how strongly the customer needs the product; and the need to design a valuebased pricing strategy which integrates the conclusions reached about the strategic role of price.

Originality/value

Viewing pricing as a “quick fix” and the only route to maintaining sales or protecting market share underplays the strategic importance of pricing and its long‐term strategic implications. We propose a management action agenda for making pricing decisions strategically.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 16 February 2021

Ari Alamäki and Pentti Korpela

This study aimed to examine the digital transformation of business-to-business (B2B) sales and its effects on the management of value-based selling.

Downloads
3727

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to examine the digital transformation of business-to-business (B2B) sales and its effects on the management of value-based selling.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted a qualitative interview research design. A total of two participant groups—one consisting of sales management professionals and the other consisting of buyers—were created to conduct abductive data analysis to gain a new understanding of B2B sales management.

Findings

As a result of the digital transformation of sales, companies are shifting B2B sales towards value-based selling using a more proactive, continuous process wherein digital value co-creation activities play a big role. Similarly, their buyers now expect more proactive communication about new value propositions, but social media channels are of little importance to most B2B buyers. The management of digital value co-creation activities should be addressed from the sales ecosystem perspective, where non-sellers tend to have a strong role in communicating new value propositions.

Research limitations/implications

There needs to be further research on digital value co-creation activities in the sales ecosystem, as value-based selling requires that selling organizations focus more on educational digital content marketing and engagement with non-sellers via both marketing and sales activities.

Practical implications

Companies rarely exploit experts and project personnel when implementing digital sales strategies; however, they often meet with customers personally and network with them. This requires a broader perspective on sales management.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to explore the management of value-based selling from both seller and buyer perspectives.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2019

Wessel Reijers and Bert Gordijn

The purpose of this paper is to develop a critique of value sensitive design (VSD) and to propose an alternative approach that does not depart from a heuristic of value

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a critique of value sensitive design (VSD) and to propose an alternative approach that does not depart from a heuristic of value(s), but from virtue ethics, called virtuous practice design (VPD).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper develops a philosophical argument, draws from a philosophical method (i.e. virtue ethics) and applies this method to a particular case study that draws from a narrative interview.

Findings

In this paper, authors show how an approach that takes virtue instead of value as the central notion for aiming at a design that is sensitive to ethical concerns can be fruitful both in theory and in practice.

Originality/value

This paper presents the first attempt to ground an approach aimed at ethical technology design on the tradition of virtue ethics. As such, it presents VPD as a potentially fruitful alternative to VSD.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

Keywords

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