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Book part
Publication date: 2 September 2019

Eva Nadai and Alan Canonica

As a “fictitious commodity” (Polanyi), that cannot be separated from the human being who is its owner, labor has a special moral significance. However, this moral quality…

Abstract

As a “fictitious commodity” (Polanyi), that cannot be separated from the human being who is its owner, labor has a special moral significance. However, this moral quality is not a given but must be asserted in struggles over the value of labor. With the example of disabled workers in Switzerland, this chapter examines the moralization of labor as a means to revalue a category of workers who range far down the labor queue. Moralization mediates the tension between the normative societal goal of inclusion for disabled people and the freedom of employers to select the most “productive” workers. Drawing on the theoretical approach of the Economics of Convention the chapter analyzes the valuation frames proposed by economic and welfare state actors in political debates over the establishment of the Swiss disability insurance and the role of employers regarding occupational integration. A core concept used in negotiations of the value of disabled labor in the public arena and within individual businesses is the “social responsibility” of employers. Historically, employers’ associations successfully promoted the liberal principle of voluntary responsibility to prevent state interference in the labor market. In contrast, disability insurance argues predominantly within the market and the industrial convention to “sell” its clientele in the context of employer campaigns and case-related interactions with employers. Only recently, both sides started to reframe the employment of disabled people as a win–win affair, which would reconcile economic self-interest and the common good.

Article
Publication date: 30 August 2013

Xuezheng Qin, Lixing Li and Yangyang Liu

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the value of a statistical life (VSL) in China using the hedonic wage model, and to explore the regional difference in VSL within…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the value of a statistical life (VSL) in China using the hedonic wage model, and to explore the regional difference in VSL within the country.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the hedonic wage regression, this paper estimates the compensating wage differential for incremental job mortality risk among Chinese workers. The implied VSL is derived for China and its different regions. The data is from the 2005 China inter‐census population survey, consisting of 1.3 million urban and rural workers. The authors also made important improvement in the model specification to explicitly address the missing variable issue in the previous studies.

Findings

The paper results indicate that the industry mortality risk has a significant impact on the wage rate. The implied VSL is 1.81 million RMB, a value substantially higher than previous estimates. The results also suggest a sizable urban‐rural difference, with the urban VSL being 4.3 times higher than the rural estimate. The strong urban‐rural inequality of income could be attributed to the segregation between the urban and rural labor markets.

Practical implications

The paper findings indicate the importance of reforming the current workers' compensation standard and improving the institutional environment, as well as enhancing the labor protection in the rural labor market.

Originality/value

This paper is the first attempt to estimate the value of life in China using the census based data. The paper results contribute to the growing literature in obtaining comparable VSL estimates in the developing countries.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2020

Jussara dos Santos Raxlen and Rachel Sherman

In the 1970s and 1980s, studies of the unpaid household and family labor of upper-class women linked this labor to class reproduction. In recent years, however, the topic…

Abstract

In the 1970s and 1980s, studies of the unpaid household and family labor of upper-class women linked this labor to class reproduction. In recent years, however, the topic of class has dropped out of analyses of unpaid labor, and such labor has been ignored in recent studies of elites. In this chapter, drawing primarily on 18 in-depth interviews with wealthy New York stay-at-home mothers, we look at what elite women’s unpaid labor consists of, highlighting previously untheorized consumption and lifestyle work; ask what it reproduces; and analyze how women themselves interpret and represent it. In the current historical moment, elite women face not only the cultural expectation that they will work for pay, but also the prominence of meritocracy as a mechanism of class legitimation in a diversified upper class. In this context, we argue, elite women’s unpaid labor serves to reproduce “meritocratic” dispositions of children rather than closed, homogenous elite communities, as identified in previous studies. Our respondents struggle to frame their activities as legitimate and productive work. In doing so, they not only resist longstanding stereotypes of “ladies who lunch” but also seek to justify and normalize their own class privileges, thus reproducing the same hegemonic discourses of work and worth that stigmatize their unpaid work.

Details

Professional Work: Knowledge, Power and Social Inequalities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-210-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 June 2009

G. Carchedi

While many inconsistencies can be found in Marx's theory if one chooses a view of reality in which time is absent, these inconsistencies disappear if the view is taken…

Abstract

While many inconsistencies can be found in Marx's theory if one chooses a view of reality in which time is absent, these inconsistencies disappear if the view is taken that time is an essential component of that theory. The debate is thus between the simultaneist and the temporalist camp. This article sides with the temporalist approach but at the same time it argues that both sides have focused mainly on quantitative and formal logic aspects. This is the limit of the debate. The debate should move on from being only a critique and counter-critique of each other applying only formal logic to the issue of consistency to showing how and whether the different postulates (a time-less versus a time-full reality) and the interpretations deriving from them are an instance of a wider theory of radical social change. From this angle, simultaneism implies equilibrium and thus a view of the economy tending toward its equilibrated reproduction. Capitalism is thus theorized as an inherently rational system and any attempt to supersede it is irrational. This is simultaneism's social content. Temporalism, if immersed in a dialectical context, reaches the opposite conclusions: the economy is in a constant state of nonequilibrium and tends cyclically toward its own supersession. Capitalism is inherently irrational and any attempt to supersede it is rational. Simultaneist authors should now show how their approach to the issue of consistency fits into a broader theory furthering the liberation of Labor.

To choose a dialectical view of temporalism is thus to take sides for Labor.

Details

Why Capitalism Survives Crises: The Shock Absorbers
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-587-7

Book part
Publication date: 16 October 2007

Neil Bruce and Robert Halvorsen

One of the most contentious issues concerning benefit–cost analyses of environmental and other regulatory programs has been the valuation of reductions in mortality risks…

Abstract

One of the most contentious issues concerning benefit–cost analyses of environmental and other regulatory programs has been the valuation of reductions in mortality risks. The conceptual basis for most valuation exercises has been the value of a statistical life (VSL). However, despite decades of both theoretical and empirical research on the meaning and measurement of the VSL concept, there is no consensus concerning the validity of the results it produces in actual applications. In this paper, we review the development and application of the VSL approach and then propose what we believe to be a better way to value changes in mortality hazard.

Details

Research in Law and Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-455-3

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Peter Davis

This paper seeks to critically review developments in the literature spanning personnel management, HRM, learning organization and intellectual capital approaches to…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to critically review developments in the literature spanning personnel management, HRM, learning organization and intellectual capital approaches to employee utilization and development. The purpose being to identify the benefits, limitations and lessons for the management of people in the co‐operative and mutual sectors.

Design/methodology/approach

The problem of inadequate Personnel or HRM systems in the majority of co‐operatives has been established by the author over a period of seven years, field work with co‐operative organizations including the international co‐operative alliance (ICA), asian confederation of credit unions (ACCU), and the British society for co‐operative studies. Direct interviews and a sample of HRM and Membership Relations audit forms developed as part of the ongoing field research and special project work have been applied to various co‐operative contexts in all the regions of the ICA.

Findings

The findings are that co‐operatives generally are lagging behind the private sector in their application of all four approaches. Mostly smaller co‐operatives lack effective basic personnel systems and few of the larger co‐operatives go beyond HRM. This failure to develop clear programs for the utilization and development of their people is a missed opportunity.

Practical implications

The membership base and its roots in a community of shared interests means that, whilst co‐operatives have lessons to learn from all four approaches, they can and must go beyond them if they are to optimize their people‐centered business advantage in the marketplace.

Originality/value

The paper suggests a new strategy for co‐operatives of Co‐operative Social Capital Management to help them compete, whilst retaining their co‐operative difference.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Cheryl Lehman

Transforming gender research in accounting is possible, desirable, and promising: the past few decades have included prescient work and expansive theories. The purpose of

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Abstract

Purpose

Transforming gender research in accounting is possible, desirable, and promising: the past few decades have included prescient work and expansive theories. The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the legacy of the 1992 special issue “Fe[men]ists' account” and urge new linkages and contexts for a continuation of visionary inquiries.

Design/methodology/approach

By reviewing pioneering feminist research in various disciplines, the author opens the margins and boundaries of gender‐in‐accounting research. Innovative multidisciplinary works from different regions of the globe reveal methods for challenging entrenched premises and recasting new meanings.

Findings

Reflecting on our embedded ideas, expanding boundaries, and imagining new areas of inquiry are not only plausible, they are essential, for contesting repression and discrimination and advancing social justice.

Research limitations/implications

Tying the current rhetoric of global neo‐liberalism to contemporary feminist struggles, the paper illustrates the significant consequences of economic globalization on women, and accounting's connection. As there is no single story regarding gender, research exploring the unexplored has precedent in accounting literature, providing a foundation for new insights and enhanced possibilities for advancing and transforming the field.

Originality/value

The paper re‐imagines the accounting‐gender dilemma, offering practical yet expansive research concepts regarding values, class, the construction of gender, and the impositions of economic structures.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 March 2009

Jim Taylor, Dennis Reynolds and Denise M. Brown

The purpose of this paper is to develop a multi‐dimensional, holistic model that: avoids the variable interdependency found in earlier tools; and integrates multiple…

3382

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a multi‐dimensional, holistic model that: avoids the variable interdependency found in earlier tools; and integrates multiple factors that characterize menu item costs more accurately by considering more than gross profit.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data gathered during a three‐month period from three same‐brand units of a full‐service chain restaurant firm, the paper applies data‐envelopment analysis (DEA), a non‐parametric approach that accounts for both controllable (discretionary) and uncontrollable (non‐discretionary) variables, producing a single relative‐to‐best index based on an efficiency rating calculated on a 0 to 1 scale.

Findings

The findings suggest that the DEA‐equipped model, which is not constrained by the limitations of traditional matrix approaches, supports a more robust approach by incorporating more cost determinants than traditional menu engineering approaches.

Research limitations/implications

The paper consists of only a single restaurant concept and the evaluation results are purely theoretical. Future research should include the application of the menu analysis recommendations to an actual menu to determine the effectiveness of the model on actual operation profitability.

Practical implications

The research suggests that DEA is an effective tool in the evaluation of a restaurant menu by evaluating individual menu items based on attributes of labor and profitability factors.

Originality/value

The paper shows that by combining DEA with traditional menu analysis methodologies, a more efficient menu analysis tool may be utilized to evaluate menu items without the arbitrary allocation of non‐food costs.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1986

Bobby C. Vaught and Weldon H. Walker

Significant wage and material price increases, coupled with only slight increases in organisational productivity, are forcing some companies to question their present…

Abstract

Significant wage and material price increases, coupled with only slight increases in organisational productivity, are forcing some companies to question their present approach to operational management. A project approach to productivity and creativity is based on the premise that management cannot afford wage increases without a corresponding increase in productivity. Employees can contribute to the organisation through new ideas, better work methods and cost reduction programmes. They want and need recognition and a sense of belonging to the company. A project approach will provide a “teamwork” atmosphere among labour and management, both realising that the longevity of all members of the organisation is at stake. Appointment of a productivity manager with corresponding project managers throughout the company will place the emphasis on increasing organisational efficiency and productivity of the firm.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 86 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 8 April 2013

Donald Tomaskovic-Devey

Purpose – I suggest that we conceptualize labor markets as observable social networks, in which workplaces are the nodes and people moving between workplaces are the…

Abstract

Purpose – I suggest that we conceptualize labor markets as observable social networks, in which workplaces are the nodes and people moving between workplaces are the edges. The movement of people delivers the actionable information as to what the supply, demand, and going wage for labor might be. Labor market networks are hypothesized to be quite thin thus leading to substantial wage setting autonomy within workplaces, consistent with contemporary observations in both economics and sociology as to the weakness of labor market signals.Method – This paper reviews theoretical and empirical work in economics, sociology, and network science and develops a network image of labor market structure and function. Hypotheses derived from economic, sociological, and network theories are proposed to explain workplace-level wage setting.Findings – Information flow, trust in information, information variance, collusion, and status beliefs are all proposed as important network properties of labor markets. The paper outlines an observational strategy to make labor markets scientifically observable.Originality – Economists and sociologists often refer to labor markets as mechanisms setting the price of labor but rarely observe them. This paper outlines a strategy for making the invisible hand of the market scientifically observable.

Details

Networks, Work and Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-539-5

Keywords

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