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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Valter da Silva Faia and Valter Afonso Vieira

The purpose of this paper is to extend the previous regulatory focus and sales force control literature suggesting that organizational control system not only moderates…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend the previous regulatory focus and sales force control literature suggesting that organizational control system not only moderates but also mediates the interactive effect of the assessment × locomotion on salesperson ambidextrous behavior. Organizational control system, which has behavior and outcome dimensions, moderates the effects of employee regulatory focus on their ambidextrous behavior, sales performance, and satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a survey with 163 bank frontline employees (FLEs) who sell financial products to final consumers. Each respondent was approached by a professional interviewer who presented the questionnaire and collected the answers. These respondents are FLEs, who are the ones that sell financial services and are responsible for post-sales services, such as answering customer questions and account problems. In the sample, FLEs are the primary source of revenue generation and services activities (ambidextrous features) in banking sector, similar to Bailey et al. (2016).

Findings

First, the moderating and mediation analysis showed that the interactive effect of both regulatory focus, locomotion and assessment, predicts FLE ambidextrous behavior. Second, this interaction effect suffers a three-way interaction under organizational control system. Third, organizational control system also moderates the impact of ambidextrous behavior on performance, such that outcome-based control system amplifies the relationship. Fourth, the authors found a conditional indirect effect, in such ambidextrous behavior, mediates the indirect effect of control system on sales performance, generating stronger (vs weaker) results under an outcome-based control system (vs behavior-based control system).

Research limitations/implications

Since this study adopts the cross-sectional research design, the authors could not empirically demonstrate the causality of the relationships among constructs. The authors also analyzed the organizational control system from the FLEs perspective and not from the supervisors/managers perspective, who daily control employees activities.

Originality/value

The authors propose a conditioning indirect mediating impact of control system on performance and consumer satisfaction through ambidextrous behavior and explore the regulatory focus-ambidexterity-performance moderating chain, theorizing that this sequence depends on the level of control system.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2019

Valter Afonso Vieira, Valter da Silva Faia, James Boles, Bruno Rafael Marioti and Rita Cassia Pereira

The purpose of this study is to develop a theoretical model that posits locomotion-assessment ambidextrous orientation as predictor of salesperson acquisition–retention…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a theoretical model that posits locomotion-assessment ambidextrous orientation as predictor of salesperson acquisition–retention ambidexterity, which as a consequence increases sales. The authors drawing on regulatory focus theory and self-regulatory for this propose.

Design/methodology/approach

Salespeople involved in the study represent different firms selling a wide variety of food and household products to a wholesaler, which resells them to supermarket chains. The authors collected data from 231 industrial salespeople.

Findings

First, salesperson assessment focus amplified locomotion’s effect on acquisition–retention ambidexterity. Second, salespeople increased their performance by implementing an acquisition–retention ambidextrous orientation that balances prospecting for new customers and growing existing customers. Third, findings revealed a mediating effect of ambidextrous orientation on the relationship between regulatory mode and sales performance. Finally, outcomes supported the conditional moderated-mediated effect of regulatory mode in explaining performance through ambidextrous orientation.

Practical implications

Results suggest that salespeople need to equalize their dual orientations in a complementary way to elaborate their selling strategies according to each customer. For example, in an unbalanced orientation, putting high levels of assessment into a sales encounter can reduce the effective and efficient use of time in interacting with customers.

Originality/value

The authors further illustrate the importance of using both locomotion and assessment in attaining sales goals (Pierro et al. 2013). This synergistic effect is known as the complementary hypothesis (Pierro et al., 2006a, 2006b). Each dimension complements the other and has a moderated-mediated effect on performance through acquisition–retention ambidexterity.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 34 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 September 2018

Fernando De Oliveira Santini, Wagner Junior Ladeira, Valter Afonso Vieira, Clécio Falcão Araujo and Claudio Hoffmann Sampaio

The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework to distinguish between various types of antecedents and consequences of impulse buying. The authors tested it using a…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework to distinguish between various types of antecedents and consequences of impulse buying. The authors tested it using a meta-analytical approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examined 12 databases and analyzed 178 relationships in 100 articles. For the quantitative data analysis, the authors used the coefficient of correlation r as a metric to measure the effect size of the studied scope variables.

Findings

The findings of this meta-analysis demonstrated significant relation of antecedents and consequences of the impulse buying behavior, such as consumer impulsiveness (r = 0.464), materialistic consumption (r = 0.344), purchase pleasure (r = 0.270), hedonic value (r = 0.311), income (r = 0.703), gender (r = 0.150), age (r = −0.062), store atmosphere (r = 0.166), decision-making (r = 0.703) and positive emotions (r = 0.323).

Research limitations/implications

This meta-analysis reviewed relationships found worldwide in the literature, expanding and improving the current knowledge. The meta-analysis identified ways that research on impulse buying is lacking and presented suggestions for the elaboration of new studies to allow future researchers to better define their agendas.

Practical implications

This meta-analysis brings important questions, such as impulse buying behavior is associated not only with consumer impulsiveness but also with materialistic consumption.

Originality/value

This research tested the impact of the antecedents and consequences of impulse buying and presented important results through this meta-analytical review. This meta-analysis contributes to the marketing literature, with a set of empirical generalizations, including relationship coefficients and calculated fail-safe numbers.

Details

RAUSP Management Journal, vol. 54 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2531-0488

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Article
Publication date: 18 March 2019

Valter Afonso Vieira, Juliano Domingues da Silva and Colin Gabler

The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to determine the impact of interpersonal identification on sales performance; second, to uncover whether or not that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to determine the impact of interpersonal identification on sales performance; second, to uncover whether or not that relationship changes direction based on levels organizational prestige; and third, to test the antecedent of managerial support on salesperson interpersonal identification. Ultimately, the authors want to provide sales managers with tangible ways to nurture the self-concept of their sales force while optimizing sales performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors test the hypotheses using a data set of 196 B2C retail salespeople in the shoe industry. Respondents answered a printed questionnaire, which was analyzed using multiple linear regression and response surface analysis.

Findings

The authors find that managerial support does positively influence interpersonal identification among salespeople which, in turn, increases sales performance. However, the relationship is curvilinear, becoming negative when over-identification occurs. This inverted U-shaped relationship is moderated by organizational prestige such that the negative influence is overcome by employees who have pride and confidence in their organization.

Practical implications

Managers should balance the level of support that they provide their employees. While this mentorship generally leads to positive results, too much can lead to over-identification, and consequently reduce sales performance. However, this negative effect can be overcome if the salesperson perceives his organization as prestigious. Therefore, a mix of guidance and autonomy may foster the strongest self-concept among the sales team and generate the most positive outcomes. Further, managers should monitor their employees’ perceptions of the company, communicating its strong reputation internally to generate organizational prestige.

Originality/value

The authors extend social identity theory in a sales context to provide a better understanding of how self-concept can be altered – for better or worse – by the sales manager. The authors also show the importance of communicating your company’s social value to employees. While over-identification in the manager–employee dyad can create a “tipping point” where sales performance begins to decrease, organizational prestige may be able to overcome this effect, demonstrating the power of prestige. Together, the authors present the importance of contextual and external influences on individual sales performance.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2021

Danny Claro, Valter Afonso Vieira, Raj Agnihotri and Rafael Serer

As manufacturers and retailers aim to increase return on marketing investments, value- vs experience-related trade promotions gain attention. These two trade promotions…

Abstract

Purpose

As manufacturers and retailers aim to increase return on marketing investments, value- vs experience-related trade promotions gain attention. These two trade promotions become complicated in the presence of different retail format strategies (generalist vs specialist) and channel structures (direct to retailer vs distributors). Building on trade promotion literature, this study aims to show the main effect of value-related and experience-related trade promotions on retailers’ sales and the moderating role of different retail strategies and channel structures.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use unique panel data from 8 personal care brands with 1,920 observations to test the hypotheses. The authors investigate how consumer goods manufacturer sells products using different channels structures and retail strategies. Estimated panel regressions provide the empirical evidence and robustness analyzes provide extra confidence to the findings.

Findings

Results reveal higher retail sales when the manufacturer invests in value-related trade promotions rather than experience-related trade promotions. The results also demonstrate how the manufacturer successfully invests in trade promotion by adequately accounting for channel structure and retail strategy. While temporary price reduction’s positive effect on retail sales is enhanced in generalist retailers (e.g. supermarket stores), shelf display’s positive impact is enhanced in specialist retailers (drug stores).

Research limitations/implications

The authors used unique panel data accounting for 15 months, limiting the findings. The results supported the investment allocation decisions in each period. However, future research may evaluate the effectiveness over a longer period and thoroughly address each investment’s seasonal effects.

Practical implications

The authors unveil how retailers achieve higher sales with value-related trade promotions when compared to experience-related trade promotions. The authors also shed light on the way manufacturers design their relationships with generalist and specialist retailers by working in direct and indirect channels. Trade promotions yield better results when the direct channel structure couples with a retailer’s generalist strategy.

Originality/value

The empirical findings help manufacturers achieve success in trade promotions by developing an equitable evaluation to contrast value- and experience-related promotions accounting for generalist and specialist retail strategies and direct and indirect channels.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 24 January 2020

Giuliana Isabella and Valter Afonso Vieira

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the emotional contagion theory in print ads, and expand the literature of smiling to different type of smiles and gender…

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2243

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the emotional contagion theory in print ads, and expand the literature of smiling to different type of smiles and gender congruency. Emotional contagion happens when an emotion is transferred from a sender to a receiver by the synchronization of emotions from the emitter. Drawing on emotional contagion theory, the authors expand this concept and propose that smiles in static facial expressions influence product evaluation. They suggest that false smiles do not have the same impact as genuine smiles on product evaluation, and the congruence between the model gender–product in a static ad and the gender of the viewer moderates the effects.

Design/methodology/approach

In Experiment 1, subjects were randomly assigned to view one of the two ad treatments to guard against systematic error (e.g. bias). In Experiment 2, it was investigated whether viewing a static ad featuring a model with a false smile can result in a positive product evaluation as was the case with genuine smiles (H3). In Experiment 3, it was assumed that when consumers evaluate an ad featuring a smiling face, the facial expression influences product evaluation, and this influence is moderated by the congruence between the gender of the ad viewer and the product H gender of the model in the ad.

Findings

Across three experiments, the authors found that the model’s facial expression influenced the product evaluation. Second, they supported the association between a model’s facial expression and mimicry synchronization. Third, they showed that genuine smiles have a higher impact on product evaluation than false smiles. This novel result enlarges the research on genuine smiles to include false smiles. Fourth, the authors supported the gender–product congruence effect in that the gender of the ad’s reader and the model have a moderating effect on the relationship between the model’s facial expression and the reader’s product evaluation.

Originality/value

Marketing managers would benefit from understanding that genuine smiles can encourage positive emotions on the part of consumers via emotional contagion, which would be very useful to create a positive effect on products. The authors improved upon previous psychological theory (Gunnery et al., 2013; Hennig-Thurau et al., 2006) showing that a genuine smile results in higher evaluation scores of products presented in static ads. The theoretical explanation for this effect is the genuine smile, which involves contraction of both zygomatic major and orbicularis oculi muscles. These facial muscles can be better perceived and transmit positive emotions (Hennig-Thurau et al., 2006).

Details

RAUSP Management Journal, vol. 55 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2531-0488

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Article
Publication date: 27 June 2018

Elizandra Severgnini, Valter Afonso Vieira and Edwin Vladimir Cardoza Galdamez

Performance measurement systems (PMSs) have long been used for monitoring and improving administrative performance. In parallel, organizational ambidexterity refers to…

Abstract

Purpose

Performance measurement systems (PMSs) have long been used for monitoring and improving administrative performance. In parallel, organizational ambidexterity refers to firms that manage different organizational functions and various demands to generate performance. The purpose of this paper is to propose that three dimensions of PMS increase organizational ambidexterity and consequently they influence organizational performance. In this framework, organizational ambidexterity mediates the relationships between three dimensions of PMS and organizational performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected through a structured questionnaire sent to Brazilian software companies. Owners, directors, project managers and responsible for company strategy answered the questionnaire. The final sample was 227 Brazilian software firms that answered according to their PMSs and organizational ambidexterity.

Findings

The results provide four main findings. First, the three dimensions of PMS, namely—attention focus, legitimization and strategic decision-making—influenced organizational ambidexterity. Second, organizational ambidexterity had a major effect on organizational performance. Third, organizational ambidexterity mediated the indirect effects of attention focus, legitimization and strategic decision-making on organizational performance. Fourth, exploration and exploitation—two dimensions of organizational ambidexterity—mediated the indirect effect of the abovementioned PMS dimensions on organizational performance.

Research limitations/implications

Although there are different dimensions of organizational ambidexterity, this paper is limited to two of the most used ones: exploitation and exploration. In addition, the results were limited to subjective—in contrast to objective—performance measures.

Practical implications

Software companies can use PMS for attention focus, legitimization of firm’s choices and strategic decision-making to increase their exploration and exploitation capabilities. Moreover, software companies can use strategic decision-making to control existing strategies and establish new strategies for legitimizing ambidextrous choices and thereby support their decision-making process.

Originality/value

The data showed that not only organizational ambidexterity mediates the effects of the three dimensions of PMS use on performance, but also exploration and exploitation.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2011

Valter Afonso Vieira, Plinio R.R. Monteiro and Ricardo Teixeira Veiga

The purpose of this paper is to extend the scope of relationship marketing research in a service and developing market context. This is achieved through the development…

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1983

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend the scope of relationship marketing research in a service and developing market context. This is achieved through the development and testing of a theoretical model including antecedents (quality, opportunistic behavior and switching cost), mediators (satisfaction, trust and commitment) and consequences (propensity to maintain, cooperation and communication).

Design/methodology/approach

The study comprises data collected from a range of service firms in a national survey conducted in a Brazilian service provider. The authors sent a cover letter, accompanied by an electronic questionnaire, to suppliers of a tourism company. Confirmatory factor analysis and partial least squares were used to test the model.

Findings

The results show that trust and commitment have strong effects on the final outcome variables of propensity to maintain, cooperation and communication. Trust mediated two of the antecedents, i.e. transaction quality and opportunistic behavior. Commitment only mediated trust on the final outcomes.

Practical implications

Managers of supply relationships are encouraged to develop trust to limit potential negative aspects of the relationship. Combined with trust, commitment is the second half of the two key relationship drivers and should also be fostered.

Originality/value

The perspective of the supplier is a new perspective on the effects of trust and commitment. Contextually, a service provider in an emerging market, Brazil, provides unique extensions to the existing literature.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2009

Valter Afonso Vieira

For centuries the phenomenon of fashion behaviour has been a subject of discussion for social analysts, cultural historians, moral critics, academic theorists and business…

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7855

Abstract

Purpose

For centuries the phenomenon of fashion behaviour has been a subject of discussion for social analysts, cultural historians, moral critics, academic theorists and business entrepreneurs. These different fields suggest the relevance of the topic for marketing management, for example. In this context, some marketing models try to explain the determinants of fashion clothing involvement. However, they are incomplete. Based on this context, this paper aims to test an extended theoretical model of fashion clothing involvement.

Design/methodology/approach

The method used was a survey, where the sample was defined as non‐probabilistic by convenience. A total of 315 respondents filled in questionnaires.

Findings

The results showed that the hypothesised antecedents did not a have relationship with fashion involvement. Specifically, only age had significant impact on fashion clothing involvement. In addition, support was found for the fact that fashion clothing involvement meditates two theoretical relations: one is between age and commitment, and the other is between age and subjective knowledge.

Originality/value

The paper suggests an extended model of fashion clothing involvement, supporting the association between fashion involvement and time, between fashion involvement and commitment, and the mediator role of the fashion clothing involvement construct.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2009

Celso Augusto de Matos, Carlos Alberto Vargas Rossi, Ricardo Teixeira Veiga and Valter Afonso Vieira

The paper seeks to investigate, in a context of service failure and recovery, how consumer satisfaction is affected by problem severity and company responsiveness, how…

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8333

Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to investigate, in a context of service failure and recovery, how consumer satisfaction is affected by problem severity and company responsiveness, how satisfaction influences repatronage intentions, word‐of‐mouth, and complaint intentions, and how consumer attitude toward complaining (ATC) moderates these relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

An integrated model is proposed, following recent developments in the service recovery literature. This model is tested using data from a survey with 204 complaining customers.

Findings

Service recovery affected satisfaction more strongly for consumers with high ATC, indicating a moderating role of ATC. This moderator was also supported in the link between satisfaction and complaining intentions. Also, failure severity and perceived justice influenced satisfaction, which affected repurchase intentions, word‐of‐mouth, and complaining intentions.

Practical implications

Service managers should consider the differences between customers with low versus high ATC when providing recovery for a service failure. For instance, the importance of responsiveness in service recovery is even greater for those customers with high ATC, and those customers with low ATC have their complaint decision more dependent on their satisfaction level. Also, it is important to improve the customers' perceived fairness in the complaint resolution process.

Originality/value

This paper investigates the key antecedents and consequences of satisfaction in a context of service failure and recovery by integrating previous research in a comprehensive model. ATC is proposed and tested as a moderator when complainers and non‐complainers are compared in the level of the strength of the relationships. Previous research has not found a moderation effect in this level.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 23 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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