Search results

1 – 10 of over 7000
Content available
Article

Jesús de Frutos-Belizón, Fernando Martín-Alcázar and Gonzalo Sánchez-Gardey

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and validation of an instrument for measuring intellectual capital in the academic research context. The current…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and validation of an instrument for measuring intellectual capital in the academic research context. The current research context describes a new paradigm of scientific production characterized by interdisciplinarity, heterogeneity and the intensification of the relations between the generators of knowledge. In this scenario, traditional measures of intellectual capital do not capture all the variables that make up the environment in which the research activities are carried out. This transformation of research processes suggests the need to bring theories of organizational behavior, more appropriate to an organizational context, to the study of scientific context. Thus, the paper contextualizes the intellectual capital approach, thereby explaining how the different attributes that build it influence scientific productivity and providing a measurement instrument to evaluate relative levels of intellectual capital in an academic research context.

Design/methodology/approach

The scale was designed through a double qualitative–quantitative scale development process. The literature on intellectual capital does not provide strong theoretical support for the definition of a specific set of items to be applied in the specific academic research context. Consequently, the scale constructs and observable variables were initially conceptualized through a Delphi panel. This initial set of indicators was empirically validated through a second quantitative stage to a sample of 1,798 Spanish academics. Given that no prior published studies have examined the construct validity of the proposed scale, and the proposed scale is not based on other previously validated scales, the authors used exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to assess the internal consistency, using Cronbach’s α to determine reliability.

Findings

Drawing on the evidence obtained from a double qualitative–quantitative process, a scale consisting of 47 items was proposed to measure the three dimensions of intellectual capital, namely, the researcher’s human capital, as well as the nature of the social capital and organizational capital of the team in which the scholar is integrated. The process of identifying and validating indicators of intellectual capital allowed the authors to identify certain intangible elements that are key in the research process and that, therefore, determine scientific productivity. Thus, the proposed scale contributes by conceptualizing new variables that could be used to deepen and broaden the study of the determinants of research performance. The contextualization of intellectual capital approach can also help to assess the value of intangibles, offering an external reporting tool and making universities’ social contributions more visible to public and private stakeholders, justifying the efforts made by societies in the generation of academic knowledge.

Research limitations/implications

The empirical analysis was carried out with an initial sample of 1,798 Spanish scholars. The validation of the scale should therefore be confirmed in different national contexts, with larger data sets. Likewise, the use of longitudinal data sets could help to study the effects of intellectual capital in academic research, thereby contributing to the ongoing debate on the determinants of research performance.

Originality/value

From a practical perspective, the instrument could be considered both as a management and an external reporting tool, providing a self-assessment instrument of the levels of intellectual capital. As a management tool, a specific measure of intellectual capital in an academic context could help to identify training needs, the implementation of practices that encourage the capability for building research networks and the development of reports with intellectual capital-related inputs for the justification of the resources received. At an institutional level, the proposed set of indicators also identifies the attributes of scholars linked to higher scientific performance, and the scale could be used as an instrument for selection processes in academic institutions, to develop practices related to the distribution of workload or the publication of intellectual capital indicators of its researchers in a healthy exercise of transparency.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Pirjo Ståhle, Sten Ståhle and Samuli Aho

The purpose of this study is to analyse the validity of the value added intellectual coefficient (VAIC) method as an indicator of intellectual capital.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyse the validity of the value added intellectual coefficient (VAIC) method as an indicator of intellectual capital.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper describes VAIC through its calculation formulae and aims to establish what exactly it is that the method measures. It also looks in detail at how intellectual capital is understood in the method, and discusses its conceptual confusions. Furthermore, the paper tests the hypothesis according to which VAIC correlates with a company's stock market value, and reflects the contradictory results of earlier studies.

Findings

The analyses show, first, that VAIC indicates the efficiency of the company's labour and capital investments, and has nothing to do with intellectual capital. Furthermore, the calculation method uses overlapping variables and has other serious validity problems. Second, the results do not lend support to the hypothesis that VAIC correlates with a company's stock market value. The main reasons behind the lack of consistency in earlier VAIC results lie in the confusion of capitalized and cash flow entities in the calculation of structural capital and in the misuse of intellectual capital concepts.

Practical implications

The analyses show that VAIC is an invalid measure of intellectual capital.

Originality/value

The result is important since the method has been widely used in micro and macro level analyses, but this is the first time it has been put to rigorous scientific analysis.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Samuli Aho, Sten Ståhle and Pirjo Ståhle

This paper seeks to examine the calculated intangible value (CIV) method as a measure of intellectual capital (intangibles) in enterprises. The aim is to show the benefits

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to examine the calculated intangible value (CIV) method as a measure of intellectual capital (intangibles) in enterprises. The aim is to show the benefits and disadvantages of the method and its actual relation to intellectual capital.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors present a conceptual, theoretical and empirical analysis of CIV to assess its validity as a measure of firm's intangibles.

Findings

The result of the analyses is that CIV is connected to all types of capital assets (physical, financial, combined physical and financial and intangible) and thus it does not unambiguously relate or measure firm's intangible value(s). CIV should be seen solely as a measure of financial efficiency derived from companies' return on assets (ROA). CIV measures an overall financial recognized comparative advantage in comparison with competitors within the same branch of industry. There is no evidence to support the simplistic assumption that a company's CIV is a measure of its intellectual capital.

Originality/value

CIV is used quite widely for purposes of measuring intellectual capital in companies and industries. However, its validity has never been subjected to critical examination. The results of this paper provide valuable information on the reliable measurement of intellectual capital and the further development of these measurements.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Tomas Riha

Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and…

Abstract

Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and, conversely, innovative thought structures and attitudes have almost always forced economic institutions and modes of behaviour to adjust. We learn from the history of economic doctrines how a particular theory emerged and whether, and in which environment, it could take root. We can see how a school evolves out of a common methodological perception and similar techniques of analysis, and how it has to establish itself. The interaction between unresolved problems on the one hand, and the search for better solutions or explanations on the other, leads to a change in paradigma and to the formation of new lines of reasoning. As long as the real world is subject to progress and change scientific search for explanation must out of necessity continue.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 12 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Roger Baxter

The provision of value, as a marketing issue, is receiving increasing attention from managers and scholars. This attention, in combination with strong calls for better…

Abstract

The provision of value, as a marketing issue, is receiving increasing attention from managers and scholars. This attention, in combination with strong calls for better quantification and stronger measures in marketing, has lead to increased interest in the assessment, quantified where possible, of the provision of value through buyer–seller relationships. This paper identifies dimensions of value provision through relationships in business markets with specific emphasis on the intangible aspects of value, which are important to long-term competitive advantage. The provision of value to the seller is the prime focus in this paper. The paper discusses the meaning of both tangible and intangible relationship value and the interplay between them and notes the importance of assessing the intangible part of the value, particularly the part which derives from the human aspects of the relationship. Despite their importance, the human aspects of relationships and their contribution to value is a sparse topic among researchers. The paper compares and evaluates potentially useful relationship and value conceptualizations. The paper discusses studies of relationship value and then outlines the results of a recent line of empirical research into the provision of value by a buyer to a seller that utilizes a framework synthesized from the intellectual capital literature. This recent research conceptualizes the potential for a seller's relationship with a buyer to provide intangible value to the seller in terms of, first, the resources available in the buyer and second, the capabilities of the buyer's boundary personnel to aid in facilitating the flow of those resources to the seller. The paper also includes the softer human aspects in the dimensions of value. These latter aspects are important to a full assessment of value. The paper concludes with a discussion of aspects of intangible relationship value that need further elucidation and will thus provide opportunities for future research.

Details

Creating and managing superior customer value
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-173-2

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Abdel‐Aziz Ahmad Sharabati, Shawqi Naji Jawad and Nick Bontis

The purpose of this study is to empirically test the relationship between intellectual capital (i.e. human capital, structural capital, relational capital) and business…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to empirically test the relationship between intellectual capital (i.e. human capital, structural capital, relational capital) and business performance within the pharmaceutical sector of Jordan.

Design/methodology/approach

A valid research instrument was utilized to conduct a survey of 132 top‐ and middle‐level managers from all 15 members of the Jordanian Association of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers.

Findings

A correlation and path analysis were conducted to ascertain the validity of the measures and models. Statistical support was found for the hypothesized relationships.

Research limitations/implications

The findings offer valuable insights on the generalizability of intellectual capital in a novel research setting.

Practical implications

Intellectual capital measurement is of primary interest for senior executives of pharmaceutical firms in Jordan.

Originality/value

The research reported is among only a few to investigate the issue of intellectual capital in Egypt and the first to study pharmaceutical firms.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Muhammad Khalique, Khushbakht Hina, T. Ramayah and Jamal Abdul Nassir bin Shaari

The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of the components of intellectual capital on the organizational performance of SMEs operating in tourism sector at…

Abstract

Purpose

The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of the components of intellectual capital on the organizational performance of SMEs operating in tourism sector at Azad Jammu and Kashmir Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

In this empirical study, survey approach was used and primary data were collected through structured questionnaire. A total of 300 structured questionnaire survey forms were distributed through purposive sampling technique. Two hundred and twenty usable questionnaire survey forms were returned. Six research hypotheses were constructed to achieve the objective of this study. Smart Partial Least Square (PLS) 3 was used to test the proposed research hypotheses.

Findings

The findings showed that two out of six hypotheses were supported. Precisely, customer capital has appeared as one of the most important components of intellectual capital in model. The results showed that the overall intellectual capital has effect on the organizational performance of SMEs. Results shed more light on the effects that the components of intellectual capital have on organizational performance of SMEs, particularly in the context of Pakistan.

Research limitations/implications

This research is limited to SMEs in tourism sector in Pakistan and the data were gathered through questionnaire which used mostly subjective measures. Subsequently, findings may not be applicable to other industries. The research contributes to the development of intellectual capital literature focused on the organizational performance in the perspective of SMEs in emerging economies. Future research needs to reach beyond the boundaries and understand the effect of intellectual capital on the performance of organizations.

Originality/value

This study extended the knowledge about the prominence of intellectual capital and its effect on the organizational performance of SMEs. Moreover, this study identified the level of existence and measurement of the six components of intellectual capital in SMEs which enables practitioners to develop adequate strategies to better manage it. To author's best knowledge, this study can be the first empirical study which investigates the impact of intellectual capital on the organizational performance of SMEs operating in tourism sector in Pakistan.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Indra Abeysekera

This chapter describes the research methods used in this study. Section 4.2 introduces the content analysis of company-sponsored websites. Section 4.3 outlines the…

Abstract

This chapter describes the research methods used in this study. Section 4.2 introduces the content analysis of company-sponsored websites. Section 4.3 outlines the intellectual capital disclosure signals – narrative, visual and numerical – and their measurement. Section 4.4 introduces the recording of quantified intellectual capital disclosure signals within the coding framework. Section 4.5 describes issues relating to the validity and reliability of content analysis in measuring intellectual capital disclosure signals as well as overcoming any problems. Section 4.6 outlines the sample size and reasons some firms were excluded from the study. Section 4.7 explains the survey questionnaire administered in this study. Section 4.8 describes focused interviews conducted in this study. Section 4.9 provides a summary of the chapter.

Details

Reputation Building, Website Disclosure and the Case of Intellectual Capital
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-506-9

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Sten Ståhle and Pirjo Ståhle

The paper aims to provide an assessment of a tool for the macro‐level measurement of intellectual capital developed by Corrado, Hulten and Sichel (CHS model).

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to provide an assessment of a tool for the macro‐level measurement of intellectual capital developed by Corrado, Hulten and Sichel (CHS model).

Design/methodology/approach

The aim paper assesses the validity and accuracy of the CHS model in measuring intellectual capital in general and to see whether it has application at the national economy level.

Findings

The model's new accounting ideas have great potential, but some serious question marks remain. The key advantage of the model is that it accumulates capitalized intangibles over time. On the other hand, the elements of intellectual capital, i.e. spending on innovative property and economic competencies, software and other computerized information, are too vague and problematic.

Originality/value

CHS model is a rather frequently used method for measuring intellectual capital. However, its validity has not been under critical analysis or examination earlier. Therefore, the results of this paper bring important and valuable information into reliable measurement of intellectual capital and are a step forward to develop more valid methodologies within intellectual capital research.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Navaneethakrishnan Kengatharan

Drawing on the knowledge-based theory of the firm, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between each facet of intellectual capital, productivity and…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the knowledge-based theory of the firm, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between each facet of intellectual capital, productivity and firms’ performance and further investigate, heretofore neglected, a mediating effect of productivity in the relationship between each facet of intellectual capital and firms’ performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were garnered with a self-reported questionnaire from 232 firm managers working in various industries: banking, insurance, telecommunications and hotels. Reliability and validity of the instruments were confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis. Prior to hypothesis testing using structural equation modelling, as a caveat, tests for nonresponse bias and common method variance were employed.

Findings

The paper confirmed that intellectual capital is the pièce de résistance and established a strong connection with productivity. The results further disclosed a positive relationship between productivity and firms’ performance. A mediated relationship between individual facets of intellectual capital and firms’ performance through productivity was also affirmed.

Practical implications

Chiefly, the paper underscored the importance of intellectual capital in promoting productivity and firms’ performance. It behoves human resource managers and practitioners to make the organisational arrangements to reinforce intellectual capital thereby boosting the productivity that brings organisations’ success.

Originality/value

Previous studies in the sphere of intellectual capital have unequivocally discounted in establishing relationships between intellectual capital, productivity and firms’ performance. The results of the paper are novel findings, unequivocally contributing to the frontiers of the knowledge-based theory of the firm and conjointly, the paper has made methodological and geographical contributions.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 40 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 7000