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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2015

Nima Derakhshan

Abstract

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Mental Illness, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Alice Shelton, Samuel Joseph Tromans, Sabyasachi Bhaumik and Reza Kiani

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the challenges of assessment and management of psychotic symptoms in a background of intellectual disability (ID) and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the challenges of assessment and management of psychotic symptoms in a background of intellectual disability (ID) and treatment-resistant epilepsy caused by a genetic syndrome.

Design/methodology/approach

Ring chromosome 20 [r(20)] syndrome is characterised by the triad of severe refractory epilepsy, mild to severe ID and behavioural problems. This paper describes the presentation of r(20) syndrome in a young woman with moderate ID and treatment-resistant epilepsy, who experiences psychotic symptoms at times of improved seizure control.

Findings

There are several diagnostic possibilities for such a presentation, including psychotic symptoms due to adverse effects of anti-epileptic medications and forced normalisation (alternating psychosis).

Originality/value

This paper advocates judicious use of antipsychotic medication to manage psychotic symptoms, as well as involvement of both patient and close family members throughout all stages of care. It is essential to strike a balance between control of epileptic seizures and psychiatric symptoms, providing an optimal benefit to the patients’ quality of life by meeting their complex needs through a multidisciplinary and multi-agency team input.

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Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Abstract

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Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12-542118-8

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2009

Robert Szmurlo, Jacek Starzynski, Stanislaw Wincenciak and Andrzej Rysz

The electric stimulation of the vagus nerve is used to obtain therapeutic results in epilepsy, depression and Alzheimer diseases. The purpose of this paper is to show…

Abstract

Purpose

The electric stimulation of the vagus nerve is used to obtain therapeutic results in epilepsy, depression and Alzheimer diseases. The purpose of this paper is to show numerical model of stimulation, focusing on the mathematical approach to modeling a phenomenon of neural cells activation and its propagation in the nerve.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a model based on the bidomain theory. It uses two continuous, averaged domains which depict the intra‐ and extra‐cellular domains and are connected with the membrane ionic currents. The numerical model uses 3D cylindrical model approximating the anatomical shape of the neck. The simulator is based on a time domain finite element method.

Findings

The presented approach allows to model the discrete behaviour of the membrane potential in the macroscopic, realistic model of the nerve. The validation of the parameters with the velocity of activation propagations suggests the strong disscussion on physical interpretation to the bidomain theory parameters. To obtain realistic results the parameters needed to be unrealistic.

Originality/value

The paper presents the combination of bidomain model of neural tissue with the time domain finite element method along with the atributes of bidomain model for realistic modeling of the process of propagtion of activation.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

Andrei Novac and Robert G. Bota

How does the human brain absorb information and turn it into skills of its own in psychotherapy? In an attempt to answer this question, the authors will review the…

Abstract

How does the human brain absorb information and turn it into skills of its own in psychotherapy? In an attempt to answer this question, the authors will review the intricacies of processing channels in psychotherapy and propose the term transprocessing (as in transduction and processing combined) for the underlying mechanisms. Through transprocessing the brain processes multimodal memories and creates reparative solutions in the course of psychotherapy. Transprocessing is proposed as a stage-sequenced mechanism of deconstruction of engrained patterns of response. Through psychotherapy, emotional-cognitive reintegration and its consolidation is accomplished. This process is mediated by cellular and neural plasticity changes.

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Book part
Publication date: 5 December 2017

Sebastiano Massaro

In light of the growing interest in neuroscience within the managerial and organizational cognition (MOC) scholarly domain at large, this chapter advances current…

Abstract

In light of the growing interest in neuroscience within the managerial and organizational cognition (MOC) scholarly domain at large, this chapter advances current knowledge on core neuroscience methods. It does so by building on the theoretical analysis put forward by Healey and Hodgkinson (2014, 2015), and by offering a thorough – yet accessible – methodological framework for a better understanding of key cognitive and social neuroscience methods. Classifying neuroscience methods based on their degree of resolution, functionality, and anatomical focus, the chapter outlines their features, practicalities, advantages and disadvantages. Specifically, it focuses on functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, heart rate variability, and skin conductance response. Equipped with knowledge of these methods, researchers will be able to further their understanding of the potential synergies between management and neuroscience, to better appreciate and evaluate the value of neuroscience methods, and to look at new ways to frame old and new research questions in MOC. The chapter also builds bridges between researchers and practitioners by rebalancing the hype and hopes surrounding the use of neuroscience in management theory and practice.

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Methodological Challenges and Advances in Managerial and Organizational Cognition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-677-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1995

D.A. Napalkov, M.L. Sosenko and I.A. Shestova

Devotes research to the psychophysiological study of mechanisms of the functional state regulation in children with minimal mental dysfunctions and a control group of…

Abstract

Devotes research to the psychophysiological study of mechanisms of the functional state regulation in children with minimal mental dysfunctions and a control group of normal children. Interprets the data with the help of a cybernetic model developed by R.M. Baevsky. Opines that the changes in heart rate indicate changes in the central nervous system directed to the adaptation of an organism to fulfilment of offered mental tasks. Offers a hypothesis of inadequate regulation of functional state in the children with minimal mental dysfunction based on the study of the maturation of the heart rate control system and ontogenetic development of attention and time perception functions.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1977

One of the most serious problems facing the country today is maintaining dietary standards, especially in the vulnerable groups, in the face of rising food prices. If it…

Abstract

One of the most serious problems facing the country today is maintaining dietary standards, especially in the vulnerable groups, in the face of rising food prices. If it were food prices alone, household budgetry could cope, but much as rising food prices take from the housewife's purse, rates, fuel, travel and the like seem to take more; for food, it is normally pence, but for the others, it is pounds! The Price Commission is often accused of being a watch‐dog which barks but rarely if ever bites and when it attempts to do this, like as not, Union power prevents any help to the housewife. There would be far less grumbling and complaining by consumers if they could see value for their money; they only see themselves constantly overcharged and, in fact, cheated all along the line. In past issues, BFJ has commented on the price vagaries in the greengrocery trade, especially the prices of fresh fruit and vegetables. Living in a part of the country given over to fruit farming and field vegetable crops, it is impossible to remain unaware of what goes on in this sector of the food trade. Unprecedented prosperity among the growers; and where fruit‐farming is combined with field crops, potatoes, cabbage, cauliflower and leafy brassicas, many of the more simple growers find the sums involved frightening. The wholesalers and middle‐men are something of unknown entities, but the prices in the shops are there for all to see. The findings of an investigation by the Commission into the trade, the profit margins between wholesale prices and greengrocers' selling prices, published in February last, were therefore not altogether surprising. The survey into prices and profits covered five basic vegetables and was ordered by the present Prices Secretary the previous November. Prices for September to November were monitored for the vegetables—cabbages, brussels sprouts, cauliflowers, carrots, turnips and swedes, the last priced together. Potatoes were already being monitored.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 79 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Book part
Publication date: 9 July 2004

Dawn T Robinson, Christabel L Rogalin and Lynn Smith-Lovin

After a vigorous debate in the late 1970s, the sociology of emotion put aside most discussion of whether or not the physiological arousal associated with emotion labels is…

Abstract

After a vigorous debate in the late 1970s, the sociology of emotion put aside most discussion of whether or not the physiological arousal associated with emotion labels is differentiated. Since this early period, scholars have made great progress on two fronts. First, theories about the interrelationship of identity, action and emotion have specified a family of new concepts related to emotion. Second, a large corpus of research on the physiological correlates of emotional experience emerged. In this chapter, we review the well-developed control theories of identity and emotion, and focus on the key concepts that might relate to different physiological states. We then review the general classes of physiological measures, discussing their reliability, intrusiveness and other features that might determine their usefulness for tracking responses to social interaction. We then offer a highly provisional mapping of physiological measures onto the concepts that they might potentially measure, given past research about how these physiological processes relate to environmental stimuli. While any linkage between concepts and measures must be speculative at this point, we hope that this review will serve as a stimulus to theoretically guided research that begins to assess the validity of these new measures for sociological use.

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Theory and Research on Human Emotions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-108-8

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Book part
Publication date: 19 May 2009

Töres Theorell

The importance of anabolism and regeneration is related to lack or loss of control. This chapter discusses the psychophysiological basis for such relationships. In the…

Abstract

The importance of anabolism and regeneration is related to lack or loss of control. This chapter discusses the psychophysiological basis for such relationships. In the threat of lost control, energy mobilisation is activated and regeneration is inhibited – since regeneration (repairing) has low priority in emergency situations. This pattern can be traced on several psychophysiological levels, from the brain to most of the cells in the body. Such a mechanism explains why the body becomes vulnerable and increasingly sensitive to load when threat of lost control is excessive and long lasting. In several empirical examples, various indicators of anabolism and regeneration have paralleled improvement versus deterioration in psychosocial conditions, in particular lack or loss of control. In these studies, indicators of anabolism and regeneration (such as concentration of sex hormones with anabolic and regenerative functions in blood and saliva) have been followed in subjects going through deteriorating versus improving life conditions. The demand-support model is used as a theoretical basis for the discussion.

Details

Current Perspectives on Job-Stress Recovery
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-544-0

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