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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

David E.M. Sappington and Dennis L. Weisman

This article analyzes the incentives for a vertically‐integrated producer (VIP) to engage in “self‐sabotage”. Self‐sabotage occurs when a VIP intentionally increases its…

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378

Abstract

This article analyzes the incentives for a vertically‐integrated producer (VIP) to engage in “self‐sabotage”. Self‐sabotage occurs when a VIP intentionally increases its upstream costs of production. This article explains why self‐sabotage may be profitable for a VIP even though it raises symmetrically the cost of the upstream product to all downstream producers. Identifies conditions under which self‐sabotage enables a VIP to disadvantage downstream rivals differentially without violating parity requirements.

Details

info, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2018

Timothy J. Tardiff and Dennis L. Weisman

The competition and regulatory economics literature has developed indicators that detect whether a vertically integrated provider (VIP) is engaging in market exclusion in…

Abstract

The competition and regulatory economics literature has developed indicators that detect whether a vertically integrated provider (VIP) is engaging in market exclusion in the form of an anticompetitive price squeeze and non-price discrimination leading to sabotage of downstream competitors. Weisman integrates these indicators by developing a safe-harbor range within which a profit-maximizing VIP engages in neither form of market exclusion. Downstream retail competition that depends on the VIP’s inputs imposes upward pricing pressure on the downstream prices, with the amount of such pressure increasing as the downstream products become more homogeneous (closer substitutes). We analyze the implications of upward pricing pressure for antitrust evaluations of a duty to deal, regulatory policies mandating wholesale inputs for entrants, and vertical mergers. We find, for example, no basis to oppose a merger in which the VIP was previously required to supply inputs to rivals at unregulated prices.

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Healthcare Antitrust, Settlements, and the Federal Trade Commission
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-599-9

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2021

Zhongpeng Cao

From the perspective of customer segmentation, most scholars show more interest in the very important person (VIP) customer’s service experience and satisfaction; however…

Abstract

Purpose

From the perspective of customer segmentation, most scholars show more interest in the very important person (VIP) customer’s service experience and satisfaction; however, the way in which ordinary customers view VIP services has received less attention. Based on fairness heuristic theory and social comparison theory, this study aims to examine the impact of the social visibility of VIP services on ordinary customers’ satisfaction and explored the underlying mechanisms and boundary conditions of this effect.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments were conducted, Study 1 verified the main effect and mediating effect, Study 2 tested the moderating effect.

Findings

The results show that the social visibility of VIP services decreases ordinary customers’ satisfaction and perceived fairness mediates this effect. The deservingness of VIP status moderates the connection between social visibility and perceived fairness.

Research limitations/implications

This research changes the objects of VIP services research and focuses on ordinary customers as its main group and expands the scope of social comparisons among customers.

Practical implications

The findings expand the scope and perspective of research on VIP services and provide guidance to service providers to reduce ordinary customers’ feelings of unfairness so as to improve customer satisfaction.

Originality/value

This study explores the effect of the social visibility of VIP services on ordinary customer satisfaction from the perspective of perceived fairness, as well as the underlying mechanism and boundary conditions of the effect.

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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2007

Martin J. Tenpierik, Johannes J.M. Cauberg and Thomas I. Thorsell

Although vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) are thermal insulators that combine high thermal performance with limited thickness, application in the building sector is still…

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4336

Abstract

Purpose

Although vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) are thermal insulators that combine high thermal performance with limited thickness, application in the building sector is still rare due to lack of scientific knowledge on the behaviour of these panels applied in building constructions. This paper, therefore, seeks to give an overview of the requirements for and the behaviour of VIPs integrated into building components and constructions. Moreover, the interaction between different requirements on and properties of these integrated components are discussed in detail, since a desired high quality of the finished product demands an integral approach regarding all properties and requirements, especially during the design phase. Therefore, the importance of an integral design approach to application of VIPs is shown and emphasized in this paper.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve this objective, the legally and technically required properties of VIPs and especially their interrelationships have been studied, resulting in a relationship diagram. Based on these investigations of thermal‐ , service life‐ and structural‐properties have been selected to be studied more elaborately using experimental set‐up for structural testing and simulation software for thermal and hygrothermal testing.

Findings

Two relationships between requirements or properties were found to be of principal importance for the design of façade components in which VIPs are integrated. First, thermal performance requirements strongly interact with structural performance, principally through the edge spacer of this façade component. A high thermal performance requires minimization of the thermal edge effect, in most cases reducing the structural performance of the entire panel. Second, an important relationship between thermal performance and service life has been recognised. The operating phenomenon mainly governing this interaction is thermal conductivity aging.

Originality/value

Most research in the field of vacuum insulation until now has been directed towards gaining knowledge on specific properties of the product, especially on thermal and hygrothermal properties. The relationships and interactions between these properties and the structural behaviour, however, have been neglected. This paper, therefore, addresses the need for an integral design (and study) approach for the application of VIPs in architectural constructions.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 28 June 2019

Scott Munro Strachan, Stephen Marshall, Paul Murray, Edward J. Coyle and Julia Sonnenberg-Klein

This paper aims to share the University of Strathclyde’s experience of embedding research-based education for sustainable development (RBESD) within its undergraduate…

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2516

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to share the University of Strathclyde’s experience of embedding research-based education for sustainable development (RBESD) within its undergraduate curricula through the use of an innovative pedagogy called Vertically Integrated Projects (VIP), originated at Georgia Institute of Technology.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper discusses how aligning VIP with the SDG framework presents a powerful means of combining both research-based education (RBE) and education for sustainable development (ESD), and in effect embedding RBESD in undergraduate curricula.

Findings

The paper reports on the University of Strathclyde’s practice and experience of establishing their VIP for Sustainable Development programme and presents a reflective account of the challenges faced in the programme implementation and those envisaged as the programme scales up across a higher education institution (HEI).

Research limitations/implications

The paper is a reflective account of the specific challenges encountered at Strathclyde to date after a successful pilot, which was limited in its scale. While it is anticipated these challenges may resonate with other HEIs, there will also be some bespoke challenges that may not be discussed here.

Practical implications

This paper offers a practical and scalable method of integrating SDG research and research-based education within undergraduate curricula.

Social implications

The paper has the potential to deliver SDG-related impact in target communities by linking research-based teaching and learning with community outreach.

Originality/value

The alignment of VIP with the SDG research area is novel, with no other FE institutions currently using this approach to embed SDG research-based teaching within their curricula. Furthermore, the interdisciplinary feature of the VIP programme, which is critical for SDG research, is a Strathclyde enhancement of the original model.

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2010

Kin Wai Michael Siu

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the participatory approach should be considered and applied in research for the disabled. It aims to arouse the awareness of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the participatory approach should be considered and applied in research for the disabled. It aims to arouse the awareness of policymakers, professionals, researchers and the general public that disabled people must not only be considered, but also invited to participate in research actively in order to bring real benefit to disabled people.

Design/methodology/approach

An in‐depth case study related to policy, implementation and management quality of tactile guide paths (TGP) was carried out in Hong Kong. Participatory approach was adopted to explore how to help visually impaired people (VIP) access places independently. The methods included group discussions, direct individual interviews, field studies and intensive observations.

Findings

The quality of TGP is still unsatisfactory in policy, implementation and management aspects in that VIP still face a lot of difficulties in accessing places, in particular the places they have never gone before. Two of the major causes of poor quality of TGP are misunderstanding and neglect. VIP, as well as other disabled people, still face many difficulties arising from different sources; from the grant society policies to small objects in their daily lives.

Practical implications

VIP should not be considered as a group of people with ills, trouble and problems in the society. Policymakers, professionals in design and implementation and management people must recognise that they should not impose their value judgments and preferences on VIP. Instead, user participation is a good and applicable approach to assure a high quality of design.

Originality/value

The paper offers insights into quality assurance for user‐fit designs.

Details

International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-669X

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Book part
Publication date: 22 June 2015

Alma Raissova

Tourism and servicescape are usually figuring in the literature as mobile and seeing as a template for all guests. However, mass-customized servicescapes tend to restrict…

Abstract

Tourism and servicescape are usually figuring in the literature as mobile and seeing as a template for all guests. However, mass-customized servicescapes tend to restrict moves and acts of some groups of customers. The purpose of this research is to understand why manmade servicescapes may create barriers and how restricted customers behave. The research gap is addressed through the specific case of how visually impaired persons (VIPs) act and move in hospitality servicescapes. The study emphasizes the importance of spatial approach in service research.

By utilizing a qualitative approach the research employed go-along observation, individual and focus group interviews to elaborate more on how this thesis relates to mainstream tourism. The empirical data were collected during three years in Sweden and Kazakhstan. Fifty-six visually impaired and blind travelers were interviewed and/or observed. Research results demonstrate that hospitality servicescapes restrict acts and moves of visually impaired guests. But VIPs resist constraints by developing different tactics to get expected services.

Details

Marketing Places and Spaces
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-940-0

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2019

Watthanasak Jeamwatthanachai, Mike Wald and Gary Wills

The purpose of this paper is to validate a framework for spatial representation, aka the spatial representation framework (SRF), to define spaces and building information…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to validate a framework for spatial representation, aka the spatial representation framework (SRF), to define spaces and building information required by people with visual impairment as a foundation of indoor maps for indoor navigation systems.

Design/methodology/approach

The SRF was first created with seven main components by a review of the relevant literature and state-of-the-art technologies shown in the preliminary study. This research comprised of two tasks: investigating problems and behaviors while accessing spaces and buildings by visually impaired people (VIP) and validating the SRF where 45 participants were recruited (30 VIP and 15 experts).

Findings

The findings revealed a list of problems and challenges were used to validate and redefine the spatial representation, which was validated by both VIP and experts. The framework subsequently consisted of 11 components categorized into five layers, each layer of which is responsible for a different function.

Research limitations/implications

This framework provides essential components required for building standard indoor maps as a foundation for indoor navigations systems for people with visual impairment.

Practical implications

This framework lays the foundation for a range of indoor-based applications by using this SRF to represent indoor spaces. Example applications include: indoor navigation by people with disabilities, robots and autonomous systems, security and surveillance, and context and spatial awareness.

Originality/value

This paper presents the validated spatial representation for indoor navigation by people with visual impairment with its details and description, methodology, results and findings of the validation of the SRF.

Details

Journal of Enabling Technologies, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-6263

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Book part
Publication date: 24 May 2021

Dennis L. Weisman and Soheil R. Nadimi

We examine a setting in which a vertically integrated provider (VIP) initially has a duty to deal with an independent rival at unregulated upstream and downstream prices…

Abstract

We examine a setting in which a vertically integrated provider (VIP) initially has a duty to deal with an independent rival at unregulated upstream and downstream prices. The duty to deal is subsequently terminated which enables the VIP to acquire the independent rival (or the expertise necessary to produce the rival's product) and then serve as a two-product monopolist in the downstream market. We find that the refusal to deal decreases rivalry but increases economic efficiency and is therefore presumptively “pro-competitive.” The paramount policy question concerns whether a refusal to deal that eliminates a rival and monopolizes the downstream market while increasing static efficiency should be considered a violation of Section 2 of the Sherman Act. This analysis also has implications for policies governing the unbundling of next-generation telecommunications networks.

Details

The Law and Economics of Patent Damages, Antitrust, and Legal Process
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-024-5

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Emma Björner and Per Olof Berg

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to our understanding of the underlying rationale for why companies participate in mega‐events in general, and in mega‐events in…

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2381

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to our understanding of the underlying rationale for why companies participate in mega‐events in general, and in mega‐events in emerging economies – such as the 2010 Shanghai Expo – in particular. Of particular interest are the ways that companies use an event to advance their own purposes, and how experiences are created that use aspects of an event setting such as Expo 2010.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a participatory, ethnographic and longitudinal field study focusing on the VIP section of the Swedish Pavilion at the Shanghai World Expo, using additional data from other national pavilions and respondents with insight into Expo 2010 and its organization.

Findings

The study indicates that even though companies operationally used the World Expo and the VIP section in many different ways, an underlying element appears to be to use the event for the “practice of communification”.

Practical implications

The study provides practitioners with a conceptual framework and tools to manage the co‐creation process of experiences at events. This is done by supplying an empirical example from World Expo 2010 and the VIP area of the Swedish pavilion. This is a needed addition to the current knowledge on how customers engage in co‐creation of experiences and how companies manage the co‐creation process.

Originality/value

The “communification” concept is used to denote the simultaneous building of community while communicating business‐related issues to strengthen and build relationships with customers over time, with exclusivity and co‐creation of experiences as important components.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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