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Book part
Publication date: 2 October 2001

Michael C. Case and Max G. Lay

Abstract

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Handbook of Transport Systems and Traffic Control
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-61-583246-0

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Giovani Gaiardo Fossati, Letícia Fleck Fadel Miguel and Walter Jesus Paucar Casas

This study aims to propose a complete and powerful methodology that allows the optimization of the passive suspension system of vehicles, which simultaneously takes…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to propose a complete and powerful methodology that allows the optimization of the passive suspension system of vehicles, which simultaneously takes comfort and safety into account and provides a set of optimal solutions through a Pareto-optimal front, in a low computational time.

Design/methodology/approach

Unlike papers that consider simple vehicle models (quarter vehicle model or half car model) and/or simplified road profiles (harmonic excitation, for example) and/or perform a single-objective optimization and/or execute the dynamic analysis in the time domain, this paper presents an effective and fast methodology for the multi-objective optimization of the suspension system of a full-car model (including the driver seat) traveling on an irregular road profile, whose dynamic response is determined in the frequency domain, considerably reducing computational time.

Findings

The results showed that there was a reduction of 28% in the driver seat vertical acceleration weighted root mean square (RMS) value of the proposed model, which is directly related to comfort, and, simultaneously, an improvement or constancy concerning safety, with low computational cost. Hence, the proposed methodology can be indicated as a successful tool for the optimal design of the suspension systems, considering, simultaneously, comfort and safety.

Originality/value

Despite the extensive literature on optimizing vehicle passive suspension systems, papers combining multi-objective optimization presenting a Pareto-optimal front as a set of optimal results, a full-vehicle model (including the driver seat), an irregular road profile and the determination of the dynamic response in the frequency domain are not found.

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Engineering Computations, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2021

Deepak Jaiswal, Rishi Kant, Pankaj Kumar Singh and Rambalak Yadav

The use of electric vehicles has received popularity as alternative fuel vehicles to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and energy cost, which are expected to perform a…

Abstract

Purpose

The use of electric vehicles has received popularity as alternative fuel vehicles to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and energy cost, which are expected to perform a crucial role in the near future of emerging mobility markets. The purpose of this empirical study is to analyse the role of electric vehicle knowledge in predicting consumer adoption intention directly and indirectly in the backdrop of an emerging market.

Design/methodology/approach

The study approached an extended version of “Technology acceptance model” (TAM) based on the integrated framework of “knowledge-beliefs-intention”. The model was tested via direct and indirect path analyses with the data collected from Indian respondents using an online survey.

Findings

The results indicate the robustness of the present research model, which shows that consumer adoption is significantly driven by electric vehicle knowledge, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived risk. Electric vehicle knowledge has emerged as the most powerful cognitive measure, which directly affects the adoption intention along with the measures of “TAM”. Additionally, this also poses a higher indirect effect on adoption intention in the integrated model.

Research limitations/implications

The study has focused on potential young and educated consumers, which may not be warranted to generalise the research findings, while youth or millennials are more receptive to adopt innovative and clean technology products like electric vehicle. Based on the findings, implications are offered for encouraging electric vehicles in the backdrop of emerging automobile markets.

Originality/value

Concerning this cognitive phenomenon of knowledge, scant literature has been explored the role of subjective knowledge in consumer adoption for electric vehicles, particularly in the emerging markets like India. Thus, the present study analyses how consumers' knowledge about electric vehicle affects their decision to adopt this in the near future of Indian zero-emission mobility market.

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Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Umesh K. Raut and L.K. Vishwamitra

Software-define vehicular networks (SDVN) assure the direct programmability for controlling the vehicles with improved accuracy and flexibility. In this research, the…

Abstract

Purpose

Software-define vehicular networks (SDVN) assure the direct programmability for controlling the vehicles with improved accuracy and flexibility. In this research, the resource allocation strategy is focused on which the seek-and-destroy algorithm is implemented in the controller in such a way that an effective allocation of the resources is done based on the multi-objective function.

Design/methodology/approach

The purpose of this study is focuses on the resource allocation algorithm for the SDVN with the security analysis to analyse the effect of the attacks in the network. The genuine nodes in the network are granted access to the communication in the network, for which the factors such as trust, throughput, delay and packet delivery ratio are used and the algorithm used is Seek-and-Destroy optimization. Moreover, the optimal resource allocation is done using the same optimization in such a way that the network lifetime is extended.

Findings

The security analysis is undergoing in the research using the simulation of the attackers such as selective forwarding attacks, replay attacks, Sybil attacks and wormhole attacks that reveal that the replay attacks and the Sybil attacks are dangerous attacks and in future, there is a requirement for the security model, which ensures the protection against these attacks such that the network lifetime is extended for a prolonged communication. The achievement of the proposed method in the absence of the attacks is 84.8513% for the remaining nodal energy, 95.0535% for packet delivery ratio (PDR), 279.258 ms for transmission delay and 28.9572 kbps for throughput.

Originality/value

The seek-and-destroy algorithm is one of the swarm intelligence-based optimization designed based on the characteristics of the scroungers and defenders, which is completely novel in the area of optimizations. The diversification and intensification of the algorithm are perfectly balanced, leading to good convergence rates.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2010

Chen Mei

The purpose of this paper is to develop a capacitance vehicle weighing device. The key part of this device is the capacitance vehicle weighing sensor. This paper discusses…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a capacitance vehicle weighing device. The key part of this device is the capacitance vehicle weighing sensor. This paper discusses the static and dynamic performance test of capacitance vehicle weighing sensor with emphasis, and provides theoretical analysis, in order to provide the tests and theoretical basis for the popularization and application of the vehicle weighing device.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper gives an introduction to the weighing sensor in respects of the structure design and measuring principles, with the emphasis on the static and dynamic performance of the testing processes. Then, the paper provides the corresponding testing processes and data with theoretical analysis.

Findings

This weighing sensor can be applied to static as well as dynamic tests thus the capacitance vehicle weighing device is practical and worthy of promotion and popularization.

Originality/value

The capacitance vehicle weighing device is characterized by its simple structure, simple measuring circuits, strong reliability in anti‐interference, small size and low cost. The static performance is of little repetitive error, and the use of software may efficiently solve the problems of non‐linearity and hysteresis. In dynamic measurement, the speed, acceleration and vibration of the vehicle produce little effect on the result, which can be neglected, thus being able to overcome the disadvantages of the traditional weighing method which is of low speed and great errors.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

Tzong‐Ru Lee and Ji‐Hwa Ueng

In a modern business environment, employees are a key resource to a company. Hence, the competitiveness of a company depends largely on its ability to treat employees…

Abstract

In a modern business environment, employees are a key resource to a company. Hence, the competitiveness of a company depends largely on its ability to treat employees fairly. Fairness can be attained by using the load‐balancing methodology. Develops an integer programming model for vehicle routing problems. There are two objectives, first, to minimize the total distance, and second, to balance the workload among employees as much as possible. We also develop a heuristic algorithm to solve the problems. The findings show that the proposed heuristic algorithm performs well to our 11 test cases.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 29 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Nkgatho Sylvester Tlale

In this paper, two omni‐directional mobile vehicles are designed and controlled implementing distributed mechatronics controllers. Omni‐directionality is the ability of…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, two omni‐directional mobile vehicles are designed and controlled implementing distributed mechatronics controllers. Omni‐directionality is the ability of mobile vehicle to move instantaneously in any direction. It is achieved by implementing Mecanum wheels in one vehicle and conventional wheels in another vehicle. The control requirements for omni‐directionality using the two above‐mentioned methods are that each wheel must be independently driven, and that all the four wheels must be synchronized in order to achieve the desired motion of each vehicle.

Design/methodology/approach

Distributed mechatronics controllers implementing Controller Area Network (CAN) modules are used to satisfy the control requirements of the vehicles. In distributed control architectures, failures in other parts of the control system can be compensated by other parts of the system. Three‐layered control architecture is implemented for; time‐critical tasks, event‐based tasks, and task planning. Global variables and broadcast communication is used on CAN bus. Messages are accepted in individual distributed controller modules by subscription.

Findings

Increase in the number of distributed modules increases the number of CAN bus messages required to achieve smooth working of the vehicles. This requires development of higher layer to manage the messages on the CAN bus.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of the research is that analysis of the distributed controllers that were developed is complex, and that there are no universally accepted tool for conducting the analysis. The other limitation is that teh mathematical models of the mobile robot that have been developed need to be verified.

Practical implications

In the design of omni‐directional vehicles, reliability of the vehicle can be improved by modular design of mechanical system and electronic system of the wheel modules and the sensor modules.

Originality/value

The paper tries to show the advantages of distributed controller for omni‐directional vehicles. To the author's knowledge, that is a new concept.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2009

Daisuke Chugo, Kuniaki Kawabata, Hayato Kaetsu, Hajime Asama and Taketoshi Mishima

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new wheel control scheme for wheeled vehicle with passive linkage mechanism which realizes high step‐overcoming performance.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new wheel control scheme for wheeled vehicle with passive linkage mechanism which realizes high step‐overcoming performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Developing wheeled vehicle realizes omni‐directional motion on flat floor using special wheels and passes over non‐flat ground using the passive suspension mechanism. The vehicle changes its body shape and wheel control references according to ground condition when it runs over the rough terrain.

Findings

Utilizing the proposed wheel control scheme, the slip ratio and the disturbance ratio of the wheel reduce when the vehicle passes over the step and its step‐overcoming performance is improved.

Originality/value

The paper's key idea is modification of its kinematic model referring to the body configuration dynamically and using this model for wheel control of the vehicle. The controller adjusts the wheel control references when the vehicle passes over the rough terrain changing the body shape and reduces the slippage and the rotation error of wheels.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

Dang Luo and Jing Zhang

According to the nature and source of alternative energy, types of new energy vehicle include hybrid electric vehicle, pure electric vehicle, fuel cell vehicles, natural…

Abstract

Purpose

According to the nature and source of alternative energy, types of new energy vehicle include hybrid electric vehicle, pure electric vehicle, fuel cell vehicles, natural gas vehicle, coal‐to‐alcohol vehicle, bio‐fuel vehicle, clean diesel vehicle and so on. At present, all kinds of new energy vehicle are flourishing, but in the near future it is not sure what kind of new energy vehicle that national policies will support, so the risk of new energy vehicle project is large. This paper aims to address this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Grey target decision‐making mainly was used in the choice of programs. First, the decision‐making matrix and the index weight are determined after establishing the decision‐making index system; then the positive clout and the negative clout are determined; the distance to the positive clout and the negative clout for every decision‐making program are calculated; finally, the composite distance to clout is obtained and programs sorted in light of the size of composite distance to target centre.

Findings

This paper analyzed the operating conditions of new energy vehicle in Zhengzhou and Xinxiang; and then elaborated the modelling steps of weighted grey target decision with both the positive clout and the negative clout, and used in recent decision‐making the new energy vehicle in Henan Province. It not only makes more comprehensive and rational decision‐making, but also extends the application of the grey target decision model in practice.

Practical implications

In the recent two years of formulating national and local relevant preferential policies, the enthusiasm of enterprises to participate and the level of consumer awareness are further improved; as an international trend, the development of a new energy vehicle is inevitable.

Social implications

It helps to make scientific decision‐making. The study proposes a theoretical guidance to carry out the new energy vehicle project in Henan Province.

Originality/value

This paper elaborates the modelling steps of weighted grey target decision‐making based on positive clout and negative clout, and established the model of grey target decision‐making according to the selected index; finally, it analyzes the recent development route of a new energy vehicle in Henan Province and puts forward some suggestions.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Samir A. El Mowafi and Ahmed Gamal Atalla

The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential sustainable transportation strategies for Cairo in terms of their impact on emissions over the next ten years. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential sustainable transportation strategies for Cairo in terms of their impact on emissions over the next ten years. The considered strategies include using cleaner fuel, implementing inspection and maintenance programs and adopting emission standards for new vehicles.

Design/methodology/approach

The strategies were evaluated in terms of the expected reductions of particulate matter (PM) and ozone precursors due to the future implementation. Emissions were estimated utilizing a mix of the relevant national and international. Accordingly, a three‐phase integrated strategy is recommended, considering the local technical and institutional aspects.

Findings

In case of no actions taken, emissions of PM and ozone precursors could increase at the year 2013 by 95 and 50 percent, respectively. Implementing the proposed integrated strategy could result in reducing the emissions of PM and ozone precursors by about 53 and 49 percent, respectively.

Practical implications

The proposed strategy is applicable because the targets are set considering the local aspects. However, the estimated emission reductions could almost compensate for the increase in the fleet size over the time. Therefore, achieving real reductions of emissions requires additional strategies to be considered.

Originality/value

Owing to the lack of local emission factors and measurements, this original work highlights the expected impacts of the potential strategies for controlling vehicle emissions in Cairo. Also, the findings indicate the need to consider other additional strategies in the long term planning process.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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