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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

Y. Cherruault and V.B. Sarin

Mathematical models have been constructed to aid in the understanding of the pharmacokinetics of different drugs. Gives a mathematical analysis of the courses over time of…

Abstract

Mathematical models have been constructed to aid in the understanding of the pharmacokinetics of different drugs. Gives a mathematical analysis of the courses over time of absorption, distribution and elimination of a drug in a six‐compartment linear mammillary model. A mammillary model is a compartmental model in which a central compartment (the udder of a cow) is related to all other compartments, but there are no relations between the latter. This linear mammillary model can be used to study the kinetics of protein metabolism in the organism. An optimization method (ALIENOR) is used which reduces the unknown parameters involved to a single variable. Thus, the problem requires the global minimum of a function of a single variable. The results obtained with the method described are compared with those obtained with the generalized least‐squares method.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1987

Y. CHERRUAULT and V.B. SARIN

Compartmental models allow us to visualise the behaviour of phenomena and simplify the formulation of some equations related to such systems. Mammillary systems are among…

Abstract

Compartmental models allow us to visualise the behaviour of phenomena and simplify the formulation of some equations related to such systems. Mammillary systems are among the most interesting in pharmacokinetics. In the present study, a five compartment linear mammillary model is considered in which the central compartment 1 is connected reversibly to all other compartments, and elimination occurs from compartment 1. A reidentification of different distribution rate constants is made, with concentrations of drug in central compartment at different times of observation being known. In order to rninimise the difference between the set of given concentrations of drug and the calculated values of concentrations, an optimisation method is used which reduces the unknown parameters involved, to a single variable. Thus, the problem requires a global minimum of a function of single variable. The results obtained with present method are compared with those obtained by the generalised least squares method.

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Kybernetes, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1991

Y. Cherruault and V.B. Sarin

The problems of absorption and elimination by an organism through its natural processes are in reality quite complicated, and can be analysed more easily in terms of…

Abstract

The problems of absorption and elimination by an organism through its natural processes are in reality quite complicated, and can be analysed more easily in terms of general compartment theory. In the present study a six‐compartment model is considered in order to study the kinetics of a 14C‐labelled glucose. For identification purposes an optimisation method isu sed based on the properties of an Archimedes spiral, to transform the unknown parameters involved in δ, the deviation of the drug concentrations from the observed concentration, into a single variable. The solution thus requires the global minimum of a function of a single variable. The results obtained are compared with those obtained with the generalised least squares method.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2010

M. Duran Toksarı, Selçuk K. İşleyen, Ertan Güner and Ömer Faruk Baykoç

The purpose of this paper is to describe the introduction of simple assembly line balancing problems (SALBPs) under four joint combinations of two learning effects and two…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the introduction of simple assembly line balancing problems (SALBPs) under four joint combinations of two learning effects and two deterioration effects.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, effects of learning and deterioration are considered simultaneously. By the effects of learning and deterioration, it is meant that the task time of a task is defined by increasing function of its execution start time and position in the sequence.

Findings

It was shown that polynomial solutions can be obtained for SALBP under four joint combinations of two learning effects and two deterioration effects. Furthermore, this paper also discusses the adaptations of the proposed models by using known ALB problem.

Originality/value

In this paper, SALBPs were introduced under four joint combinations of two learning effects and two deterioration effects. Position dependent learning effect and time dependent learning effect were considered for learning effect when linear deterioration effect and non‐linear deterioration effect were taken up.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

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Book part
Publication date: 20 June 2017

David Shinar

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-222-4

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Article
Publication date: 19 November 2006

Mahmud Hossain, Barry R. Marks and Santanu Mitra

The ownership structure of a corporation can alleviate the agency problem that arises between shareholders and managers of a corporation, which implies that the ownership…

Abstract

The ownership structure of a corporation can alleviate the agency problem that arises between shareholders and managers of a corporation, which implies that the ownership composition of a firm may infl uence the level of voluntary disclosure. This study investigates whether the ownership structure of U. S. based multinational corporations affects the managerial decision to voluntarily disclose quarterly foreign segment data. The empirical results show that the three ownership variables of interest, institutional stock ownership, managerial stock ownership and outside blockholder stock ownership are inversely related to the level of voluntary disclosure of quarterly foreign segment data. Therefore, it is inferred that an increase in the proportion of outstanding common stock held by these ownership groups is accompanied by a decrease in the probability that a U.S. multinational firm voluntarily discloses quarterly foreign segment data.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Book part
Publication date: 17 May 2018

Keren Dali

Purpose – In this chapter, I present a systematic discussion of the relationship between social work (SW) and library and information science (LIS) and explore how SW can…

Abstract

Purpose – In this chapter, I present a systematic discussion of the relationship between social work (SW) and library and information science (LIS) and explore how SW can contribute to the education of LIS practitioners so that they become more than information facilitators and grow professionally to be true agents of change.

Design/Methodology/Approach – Using engagement with immigrant communities as a case in point and building on the empirical comparative study of public librarians in the Greater Toronto Area and New York City, I outline the current gaps and deficiencies of LIS curricula that can be rectified through blended education. I also integrate the potential contributions of SW into LIS through the case study of an immigrant member of a library community.

Findings – Building on the case study, I introduce a four-tiered model that can be applied to a wide array of courses in LIS programs and conclude with suggestions for taking steps toward blending SW perspectives into the LIS curriculum.

Originality/Value – I position the potential fusion of SW and LIS as “professional blendedness,” which serves as a catalyst for change, and also examine the concept of the blended professional as a change agent. I introduce the rationale for adopting theoretical, practical, and pedagogical approaches from SW in the field of LIS and focus on four specific contributions that can most benefit LIS:

  • the person-in-environment approach;

  • the strengths perspective and empowerment;

  • the interrelated notions of cultural competence, diversity, and intersectionality; and

  • the theory-mindedness approach (including theory and practice models).

the person-in-environment approach;

the strengths perspective and empowerment;

the interrelated notions of cultural competence, diversity, and intersectionality; and

the theory-mindedness approach (including theory and practice models).

Details

Re-envisioning the MLS: Perspectives on the Future of Library and Information Science Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-884-8

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Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2017

Dorota Piaskowska

Prior research has tended to view cross-country distance as an obstacle. Yet, differences across countries are a key reason for firms to internationalize. To address this…

Abstract

Prior research has tended to view cross-country distance as an obstacle. Yet, differences across countries are a key reason for firms to internationalize. To address this discrepancy, this paper puts forward a unifying framework which (1) synthesizes and delineates the different types of cross-country distance, (2) provides a logic for analyzing cross-level influences of distance on internationalization decisions, and (3) highlights the opportunities brought about by distance. The paper argues that firms are more likely to be able to realize these opportunities when they have internationally experienced managers and diverse, well-functioning top management teams at the helm. The paper also highlights the complex influences of distance, calling for the use of cognitive and behavioral research methodologies to further our understanding of the role of distance in internationalization. An illustrative example of Vodafone Group PLC is included.

Details

Distance in International Business: Concept, Cost and Value
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-718-0

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Book part
Publication date: 3 July 2018

Anna Shaojie Cui and Fang Wu

The purpose of this research is to review empirical research on customer involvement in innovation and identify future research directions that can better connect this…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to review empirical research on customer involvement in innovation and identify future research directions that can better connect this research with marketing strategy literatures and offer opportunities for further theoretical development.

Methodology/approach

We conduct a review of empirical articles published in eight leading marketing and innovation journals between 2001 and 2017.

Findings

The review shows that the literature on customer involvement in innovation is highly diverse and fragmented, lacking a common understanding of what constitutes customer involvement in innovation and its theoretical underpinnings. There exists a multitude of conceptualizations of customer involvement in innovation, which limits effective accumulation of domain knowledge. A large number of studies have taken the customer’s perspective to examine their motivation to participate and ability to contribute, whereas less research has been done from the firm’s perspective to understand how firms may effectively manage the well-recognized challenges of customer involvement as well as the implications of customer involvement for long-term innovation strategy and overall performance. Based on the review, we offer recommendations for future research.

Practical implications

We identify important questions for future research that are highly relevant for the practice of customer involvement in innovation.

Originality/value

We provide a systematic review of the rapidly growing empirical research on customer involvement in innovation. We evaluate key points of differences in the literature and offer a synthesis that helps identify opportunities for future research.

Details

Innovation and Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-828-2

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2021

Divya Aggarwal, Uday Damodaran, Pitabas Mohanty and D. Israel

This study examines individual ambiguity attitudes alone and in groups by leveraging the descriptive model of anchoring and adjustment on decision-making under ambiguity…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines individual ambiguity attitudes alone and in groups by leveraging the descriptive model of anchoring and adjustment on decision-making under ambiguity. The study extends Ellsberg's probability ambiguity to outcome ambiguity and examines decisions made under both ambiguities, at different likelihood levels and under the domain of gains and losses.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology selected for this study is a two-stage within-subject lab experiment, with participants from different Indian universities. Each participant made 12 lottery decisions at the individual level and at individuals in the group level.

Findings

The results show that ambiguity attitudes are not universal in nature. Ambiguity seeking as a dominant choice was observed at both the individual level and at individual in the group level. However, the magnitude of ambiguity seeking or ambiguity aversion contingent upon the domain of gains and losses differed widely across the individual level and at individuals in the group level.

Research limitations/implications

The study enables to contribute toward giving a robust descriptive explanation for individual behavior in real-world applications of finance. It aims to provide direction for theoretical normative models to accommodate heterogeneity of ambiguity attitudes.

Originality/value

The study is novel as it examines a two-dimensional approach by representing ambiguity in probability and in outcomes. It also analyzes whether decisions under ambiguity vary when individuals make decisions alone and when they make it in groups.

Details

Review of Behavioral Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1940-5979

Keywords

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