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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

V. Muthukumaran, M. Senthil kumar and V. Selladurai

The purpose of the paper is to study effect of the implantation of oxygen and helium ions on the corrosion performance of the AISI3l6L stainless steel. It presents useful…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to study effect of the implantation of oxygen and helium ions on the corrosion performance of the AISI3l6L stainless steel. It presents useful new results which allows one to draw conclusions as to the suitability of the helium and oxygen ion implanted AISI 316L stainless steel for biomedical use in the body.

Design/methodology/approach

The implantation of oxygen and helium ions was done on AISI 316L SS at an energy level of 100 keV at a dose of 1×1017 ions/cm2, at room temperature. In order to simulate the natural tissue environment, an electrochemical test using cyclic polarization was done in a 0.9 percent sodium chloride solution at a pH value of 6.3 at 37°C. This was carried out on both the virgin and implanted AISI 316L stainless steel for the purpose of comparing performance. In addition to this, the hardness of the virgin and implanted samples was also studied using Vickers microhardness tester with varying loads. Besides, the surface morphologies of the implanted samples and the corroded samples were studied with XRD and SEM.

Findings

From the study the following findings are made. First, the XRD and SEM results were found to be in accordance with the corrosion test results. Second, the general corrosion behavior showed a significant improvement in the case of both helium implanted (icorr=0.0689 mA/cm2) and oxygen implanted (icorr=1.104 mA/cm2), when compared to the virgin AISI 316L SS (icorr=1.2187 mA/cm2). The pitting corrosion showed a significant improvement for helium implanted (Epit=230 mV) when compared to virgin material (Epit=92 mV). The oxygen implanted has not shown any improvement (Epit=92 mV). The surface hardness is found to be 1202 HV for helium implanted and 1020 HV for oxygen implanted, while it is found to be 195 HV for the virgin material. The hardness of the helium and oxygen implanted samples is found to be increased by about 600 percent and 500 percent, respectively, when compared to the virgin samples. Helium implanted samples show better performance in terms of corrosion resistance and hardness when compared to those of the oxygen implanted samples.

Originality/value

Although a number of authors have conducted many research on AISI 316L stainless steel, this work has original experimental results in terms of the oxygen and helium ion implantation parameters used and the specific tests: microhardness, electrochemical corrosion test, SEM and XRD that were used. It thus presents useful new results which allows one to draw conclusions as to the suitability of the Helium and Oxygen ion implanted AISI 316L stainless steel for biomedical use.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2019

William Hanna Alkunsol, Abdel-Aziz Ahmad Sharabati, Nidal Amin AlSalhi and Hamza Sultan El-Tamimi

This study aims to investigate the effect of Lean Six Sigma elements on the Jordanian Pharmaceutical Manufacturing organizations’ business performance.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effect of Lean Six Sigma elements on the Jordanian Pharmaceutical Manufacturing organizations’ business performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 120 managers out of about 300 managers by means of questionnaire. After confirming normality, validity and reliability of the study tool, correlation analysis was carried out, and then multiple regressions were used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that there is an agreement on high implementation of Lean Six Sigma variables among Jordanian Pharmaceutical Manufacturing organizations; there are strong relationships among Lean Six Sigma variables, except between non-utilized talent and transportation; there are strong relationships between Lean Six Sigma variables and business performance. All Lean Six Sigma variables have effect on business performance, except extra processing and waiting time.

Research limitations/implications

This study was carried out on the pharmaceutical industry in Jordan, generalizing results of one industry and/or one country to other industries and/or countries may be questionable. Extending the analyses to other industries and countries represents future research opportunities.

Practical implications

Implementing Lean Six Sigma variables in all Jordanian Pharmaceutical Manufacturing organizations can improve their business performance; also, it can be applied to other manufacturing industry.

Social implications

The aim of all organizations is to reduce waste, which leads to reserve the natural resources, which is considered as a corporate social responsibility.

Originality/value

Only few studies related to Lean or Six Sigma have been carried out in pharmaceutical industry in Jordan. Therefore, this study might be considered as an initiative study, which studies the effect of both Lean and Six Sigma on pharmaceutical industry in Jordan.

Details

International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-4166

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Anup Prabhakarrao Chaple, Balkrishna Eknath Narkhede, Milind M. Akarte and Rakesh Raut

Firms have been adopting lean manufacturing to improve their business performances. However, they are facing failures or less success in implementation, mainly due to lack…

Abstract

Purpose

Firms have been adopting lean manufacturing to improve their business performances. However, they are facing failures or less success in implementation, mainly due to lack of understanding in relating the lean practices (LPs) from the required performance measures perspective. In view of the lack of research and the importance of understanding them, the purpose of this paper is to prioritize LPs.

Design/methodology/approach

As LPs are scattered in the literature and a variety of performance measures are used, an extensive literature review is first carried out to identify the LPs and performance measures. The blend of interpretive structural modeling and interpretive ranking process interpretive tools is adopted in establishing the contextual relationship among LPs and then ranking them based on the performance measures. A three-dimensional priority matrix is proposed for better explanation of the results.

Findings

The proposed framework can help firms better understand LPs and their levels of importance in lean implementation.

Research limitations/implications

The involvement of lean experts may produce some bias in evaluating the LPs.

Practical implications

The proposed framework can help practitioners to develop an industry-specific road-map for the result-oriented LP implementation. Based on the area of performance to be improved, practitioners can prioritize LPs for implementation.

Originality/value

This is the first study that provides a comprehensive review of LPs available in the literature and prioritizes them in accordance with performance with interpretive tools.

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Rahul S.G. and Sharmila A.

The purpose of this study is to present a comprehensive review of the fundamental concepts and terminologies pertaining to different types of aluminium metal matrix…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to present a comprehensive review of the fundamental concepts and terminologies pertaining to different types of aluminium metal matrix composites, their joining techniques and challenges, friction stir welding (FSW) process, post-welding characterizations and basic control theory of FSW, followed by the discussions on the research reports in these areas.

Design/methodology/approach

Joining of aluminium metal matrix composites (Al-MMC) poses many challenges. These materials have their demanding applications in versatile domains, and hence it is essential to understand their weldability and material characteristics. FSW is a feasible choice for joining of Al-MMC over the fusion welding because of the formation of narrow heat affected zone and minimizing the formation of intermetallic compounds at weld interface. The goal in FSW is to generate enough thermal energy by friction between the workpiece and rotating tool. Heat energy is generated by mechanical interaction because of the difference in velocity between the workpiece and rotating tool. In the present work, a detailed survey is done on the above topics and an organised conceptual context is presented. A complete discussion on significance of FSW process parameters, control schemes, parameter optimization and weld quality monitoring are presented, along with the analysis on relation between the interdependent parameters.

Findings

Results from the study present the research gaps in the FSW studies for joining of the aluminium-based metal matrix composites, and they highlight further scope of studies pertaining to this domain.

Originality/value

It is observed that the survey done on FSW of Al-MMCs and their control theory give an insight into the fundamental concepts pertaining to this research area to enhance interdisciplinary technology exploration.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2020

Wafa Boulagouas, Rachid Chaib and Mebarek Djebabra

Decoupling of pressures ranging from regulatory compliance and stakeholders expectations to business competitiveness and sustainability, companies need to align their…

Abstract

Purpose

Decoupling of pressures ranging from regulatory compliance and stakeholders expectations to business competitiveness and sustainability, companies need to align their environmental strategies with a broader consideration of these influences. This paper aims at developing a dynamic alignment model to enhance the environmental performance that considers the influential pressures based on a multi-criteria decision-making process.

Design/methodology/approach

Authors have proposed a dynamic model for the alignment of the environmental performance based on a hybrid multi-criteria decision-making approach combining the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). This model considers contemporary strategic dynamism of the environmental performance and provides a methodology to assist companies prioritizing the environmental aspects based on the influential pressures and deciding on the enhancement pathways.

Findings

The proposed model based on a hybrid multi-criteria decision-making process allows prioritizing the environmental aspects considering the allocated weights to the alignment-triggered pressures and draw the way to develop different pathways to improve the alignment.

Practical implications

The proposed dynamic alignment model presents an instrument for the continuous alignment of the environmental performance and an effective management of changes and contributes to minimize gaps and divergences.

Originality/value

In this paper, the environmental performance has been approached through the contemporary strategic dynamism with the deployment of the multi-criteria decision-making techniques to yield an alignment framework for the environmental decision that combines the internal and external approaches for an effective and sustainable improvement of the environmental performance.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2019

Wei Jiang, Meng Huai Peng, Yu Yan, Gongping Wu, An Zhang, Lianqing Yu and Hong Jun Li

In the extreme power environment of flexible transmission line, wind load, high voltage and strong electromagnetic interference, the motion performance of the robot…

Abstract

Purpose

In the extreme power environment of flexible transmission line, wind load, high voltage and strong electromagnetic interference, the motion performance of the robot manipulator is strongly affected by the extreme environment. Therefore, this study aims to improve the manipulator motion control performance of power cable maintenance robot and effectively reduce the influence of specific operation environment on the robot manipulator motion posture.

Design/methodology/approach

The mathematical model under three typical operation conditions, namely, flexible line, wind load and strong electromagnetic field have been established, correspondingly the mapping relationship between different environment parameters and robot operation conditions are also given. Based on the nonlinear approximation feature of neural network, a back propagation (BP) neural network is adopted to solve the posture control problems. The power cable line sag, robot tile angle caused by wind load and spatial field strength are the input signals of the BP network in the robot motion posture control method.

Findings

Through the training and learning of the BP network, the output control variables are used to compensate the actual robot operation posture. The simulation experiment verifies the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, and compared with the conventional proportional integral differential (PID) control, the method has high real-time performance and sound stability. Finally, field operation experiments further validate the engineering feasibility of the control method, and at the same time, the proposed control method has the remarkable characteristics of sound universality, adaptability and easy expansion.

Originality/value

A multi-layer control architecture which is suitable for smart grid platform maintenance is proposed and a robot system platform for network operation and maintenance management is constructed. The human–machine–environment coordination and integration mode and intelligent power system management platform can be realized which greatly improves the intelligence of power system management. Mathematical models of the robot under three typical operation conditions of flexible wire wind load and strong electromagnetic field are established and the mapping relationship between different environmental parameters and the robot operation conditions is given. Through the non-linear approximation characteristics of BP network, the control variables of the robot joints can be obtained and the influence of extreme environment on the robot posture can be compensated. The simulation results of MATLAB show that the control algorithm can effectively restrain the influence of uncertain factors such as flexible environment, wind load and strong electromagnetic field on the robot posture. It satisfied the design requirements of fast response, high tracking accuracy and good stability of the control system. Field operation tests further verify the engineering practicability of the algorithm.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 46 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Muthukumaran Packirisamy

To predict the influence of inherent microfabrication and operating environmental influences on the performance of capacitive type sensors and actuators so that one can…

Abstract

Purpose

To predict the influence of inherent microfabrication and operating environmental influences on the performance of capacitive type sensors and actuators so that one can tune the performance and carry out more realistic designs.

Design/methodology/approach

When the sensors and actuators are micromachined or microfabricated, they are subjected to special problems that are characteristic to microdimensions. The important concerns are the influence of microfabrication process on the material properties and influence of operating environment on the system behavior. Hence, this paper proposed a way of quantifying and modeling the influence of inherent limitations of microfabrication and operating environment for the better design of micromachined capacitive type sensors and actuators. The methodology applies the modeling the variation of the elastic property of the system due to above influences through elastic stiffening and weakening concepts. The approach includes the application of boundary conditioning concept through Rayleigh energy method.

Findings

The microfabrication process and electrostatic field can alter significantly both static and dynamic behavior of the device. The performance of the device could also be tuned through these influences.

Research limitations/implications

As the displacement of the sensors is expected to be small, linear approach is applied. The sensitivity, output range, operating limits and natural frequencies of the sensor can be easily controlled by varying the process and operating environmental influences.

Practical implications

Improved and more realistic design of microfabricated capacitive type sensors and actuators for many applications, such as, pressure sensors, microphones, microspeakers, etc.

Originality/value

A simple and easy way of modeling and quantifying the influence of process and operating environment was proposed for the betterment of design. The proposed design method can be applied for any micromachined or microfabricated capacitive type sensors and actuators so that varying sensitivities, output ranges and natural frequencies could be obtained. Over the last few years, newly emerging micro‐electro‐mechanical‐systems (MEMS) technology and micro‐fabrication techniques have gained popularity and importance in the miniaturization of a variety of sensors and actuators. The proposed technique is very useful in making the field of MEMS more matured as it attempts to model the problems that are unique to MEMS environment.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2007

Gino Rinaldi, Muthukumaran Packirisamy and Ion Stiharu

This paper seeks to establish an analytical reference model in order to optimize the frequency response of MEMS cantilever structures using cutouts.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to establish an analytical reference model in order to optimize the frequency response of MEMS cantilever structures using cutouts.

Design/methodology/approach

Presented in this work is a method to tune the frequency response of MEMS cantilevers by using single cutouts of various sizes. From an interpretation of the analytical results, mass and stiffness domains are defined as a function of the cutout position on the cantilever. In this regard, the elastic properties of the MEMS cantilever can be trimmed through mechanical tuning by a single cutout incorporated into the device geometry. The Rayleigh‐Ritz energy method is used for the modeling. Analytical results are compared with FEM and experimental results.

Findings

The eigenvalues are dependent on the position and size of the cutout. Hence, the frequency response of the cantilever can be tuned and optimized through this approach.

Research limitations/implications

MEMS microsystems are sensitive to microfabrication limitations especially at the boundary support of suspended structures such as microcantilevers.

Practical implications

MEMS cantilevers are resistant to low level vibrations due to their low inertia and the elastic properties of the silicon material. For sensor applications these qualities are highly regarded and explored. This analysis will contribute to the performance optimization of atomic force microscope (AFM) probes and micromechanical resonators.

Originality/value

A method to tune, with cutouts, the frequency response of microcantilevers is proposed. The data can provide insight into the performance optimization of micromechanical resonators through mass reduction. For industrial applications requiring optimized responses the cutouts can be incorporated into microcantilevers through focused ion beam (FIB) machining or laser drilling, for example.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2001

R. Saravanane, T. Sundararajan and S. Sivamurthy Reddy

The removal efficiency of lead [Pb(II)], zinc [Zn(II)], nickel [Ni(II)] and chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solutions by adsorption on non‐conventional materials (rice husk…

Abstract

The removal efficiency of lead [Pb(II)], zinc [Zn(II)], nickel [Ni(II)] and chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solutions by adsorption on non‐conventional materials (rice husk and sawdust) in its natural form and on their chemically modified form is presented. It is found that adsorption potential varies as a function of contact time, concentration, particle size, pH and flow rate. Of all the low cost adsorbents used in this study, sawdust is found to possess greater adsorption efficiency for all metals than rice husk under identical experimental conditions. Chemically activated sawdust could remove 95 percent of Pb(II), 93 percent of Zn(II), 80 percent of Ni(II) and 75 percent of Cr(VI) from the metal bearing industrial effluents.

Details

Environmental Management and Health, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Muthukumaran Packirisamy, Ion Stiharu, Xing Li and Gino Rinaldi

To establish an accurate and sensitive method to characterize the moisture content of a particular environment.

Abstract

Purpose

To establish an accurate and sensitive method to characterize the moisture content of a particular environment.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper proposes a relatively simple humidity sensor design consisting of electrodes on a suitable substrate coated with a polyimide material. The changes in relative humidity are denoted by a corresponding change in the polyimide material's electrical resistance profile. The design proposed in this work can be microfabricated and integrated with electronic circuitry. This sensor can be fabricated on alumina or silicon substrates. The electrode material can be made up of nickel, gold or aluminum and the thickness of the electrodes ranges typically between 0.2 and 0.3 μm. The sensor consists of an active sensing layer on top of a set of electrodes. The design of the electrodes can be configured for both resistive and capacitive sensing.

Findings

The polyimide material's ohmic resistance changes significantly with humidity variations. Changes in resistance as large as 4‐6 orders of magnitude are attainable over the entire operational humidity range.

Research limitations/implications

As the sensitivity varies non‐linearly with the humidity, the measurement has to be carried out over a very wide range in order to calibrate the sensor. The sensitivity and output range of the sensor can be easily controlled by changing the electrode spacing or geometry.

Practical implications

The control of humidity is important in many applications ranging from bio‐medical to space exploration.

Originality/value

A simple, easy to fabricate and measure, and low cost resistive‐type humidity sensor was developed. The realized sensor is suitable for integrating with microfabrication. Hence, multiple sensors of varying sensitivities and output ranges could be integrated on the same chip. Over the last few years, newly emerging micro‐electro‐mechanical‐systems technology and micro‐fabrication techniques have gained popularity and importance in the miniaturization of a variety of sensors and actuators.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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