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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

V. Gorbachev, V. Lipping and A. Dryomov

Progress in machine building is connected with computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) development. An essential part of CIM is a computer aided design (CAD) system for…

Abstract

Progress in machine building is connected with computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) development. An essential part of CIM is a computer aided design (CAD) system for off‐line creation of manufacturing control programs. Each technological process is characterised by special equipment and operations, which complicate development of CAD off‐line programming systems. More than 90 robot programming systems and languages are now in existence. However, programming all technological aspects into one single CAD system is not possible so far; besides, a teaching method being required, the programs contain many operators, and the database of CAD/CAM is not sufficiently used.

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Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Mary C. Martin and Cara Okleshen Peters

The objective of this study is to explore adolescent girls' knowledge about the types of beauty valued in contemporary American popular and commercial culture.

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Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this study is to explore adolescent girls' knowledge about the types of beauty valued in contemporary American popular and commercial culture.

Design/methodology/approach

Eighty girls ranging from seven to thirteen years old participated in a card sorting and collage construction exercise using 47 advertisements that featured models.

Findings

Differences were found among girls according to age. Preferred beauty types were more complex with age. Furthermore, older girls made more product and brand associations.

Research limitations/implications

The findings indicate that the beauty match‐up hypothesis holds among young girls.

Practical implications

Advertisers may be overlooking the audience of young women by neglecting to use models who represent their desired type(s) of beauty. They may even be alienating young girls by using anti‐ideals such as nudity and sexiness. Furthermore, advertisers must use models who convey the appropriate personality traits to create persuasive ads.

Originality/value

This study is important because it expands upon previous work that has assessed how and why young girls are affected by highly attractive models in ads. However, instead of conceptualizing physical attractiveness as a simple bipolar continuum from “attractive or pretty” to “unattractive or ugly”, this work considers the complex, multidimensional properties of beauty.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Book part
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Balakrishnan Muniapan

There are ten universal principles of United Nations Global Compact in four areas namely human rights, labour, environmental and anti-corruption, and this chapter will…

Abstract

Purpose

There are ten universal principles of United Nations Global Compact in four areas namely human rights, labour, environmental and anti-corruption, and this chapter will explore the sixth principle of labour standard on elimination of discrimination in employment and occupation, in particular the doctrine of constructive dismissal in Malaysian labour relations. Constructive dismissal is creating a new challenge in labour relation in Malaysia.

Methodology/approach

This chapter specifically analyses some of the constructive dismissal awards and its implication to labour relations in Malaysia. The methodology employed in this chapter is the analysis of case laws using criterion-based sampling from the Industrial and Superior Court awards on constructive dismissal.

Findings

There has been an increasing number of awards on constructive dismissal made by the Malaysian Industrial Court over the last nine years. From the year 2009–2013, the Industrial Court has made 663 awards on constructive dismissal, mostly against employers. With compensation awarded to each employee amounted to as much as 24 months of back-pay salary plus a month’s pay for every year of service, employers can no longer neglect this pressing issue.

Research limitations/implications

The concept of constructive dismissal falls within the purview of section 20 of the Industrial Relations Act 1967 in Malaysia. Constructive dismissal is a ‘deemed dismissal’ if an employer is guilty of a breach of the employment contract which goes to the root of the contract. It arises when a workman terminates his/her contract of employment and considers himself/herself discharged from further obligations because of the employer’s conduct.

Practical implications

With a good understanding of the constructive dismissal awards, it is expected that organizations will manage and treat their human resources as their greatest assets and prevent constructive dismissal claims from taking place. This will eventually help to improve and maintain harmonious labour relations. This chapter is likely to provide insights into the Malaysian labour relations environment for international business operations.

Originality/value

In the context of Malaysian labour relations, studies on constructive dismissal are limited as it is considered as a new area and a specific area of study. This chapter therefore hopes to fill the existing gap in the literature, to highlight some of the recent awards and lessons to prevent constructive dismissal claims from taking place and generally to contribute to the constructive dismissal literature.

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Beyond the UN Global Compact: Institutions and Regulations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-558-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1999

William Lankford and Alma Mintu‐Wimsatt

The fast pace of business diversification, the “I and me” work ethic, and 1980s entrepreneurship have been superseded by downsizing, teaming, and total quality management…

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1829

Abstract

The fast pace of business diversification, the “I and me” work ethic, and 1980s entrepreneurship have been superseded by downsizing, teaming, and total quality management. Some managers, who believe that finding the “right” or “strong” culture enhances corporate effectiveness, attempt to conceptualize the culture of organizations. This study examines employees’ perceptions of today’s organizational culture. The assumption here is that organizational culture in the 1990s has changed when compared to the 1980s era of diversification, mergers, and entrepreneurship. This study provides evidence that the emphasis on external stakeholders’ interest has led to so much downsizing that employee loyalty is adversely affected. As a result, organizations are not meeting the increased need for teamwork and problem‐solving.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Desheng Zhang, Weidong Shi, Dazhi Pan and Guangjian Zhang

– The purpose of this paper is to predict the unstable cavitation shedding flow around a 2D Clark-y hydrofoil.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to predict the unstable cavitation shedding flow around a 2D Clark-y hydrofoil.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper studies Partially Averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) model which was employed in the two-phase flow with a homogeneous cavitation model.

Findings

Maximum density ratio affects the mass transfer rate between the liquid and the vapor significantly. The cavitating flow predicted by PANS model can resolve more turbulent scales by decreasing the parameter fk.

Originality/value

The accuracy of numerical prediction is improved by increasing the maximum density ratio and decreasing fk.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2021

Adnen Mezghani, Abdalla R. Nassar, Corey J. Dickman, Eduardo Valdes and Raul Alvarado

An integral component in heat pipes (HPs) and vapor chambers (VCs) is a porous wicking structure. Traditional methods for manufacturing wicking structures within HPs and…

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59

Abstract

Purpose

An integral component in heat pipes (HPs) and vapor chambers (VCs) is a porous wicking structure. Traditional methods for manufacturing wicking structures within HPs and VCs involve secondary manufacturing processes and are generally limited to simple geometries. This work aims to leverage the unprecedented level of design freedom of laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing (AM) to produce integrated wicking structures for HPs and VCs.

Design/methodology/approach

Copper wicking structures are fabricated through LPBF via partial sintering and via the formation of square, hexagonal and rectangular arrangements of micro-pins and micro-grooves, produced in multiple build directions. Wicks are characterized by conducting capillary performance analysis through the measurement of porosity, permeability and capillary rate-of-rise.

Findings

Copper wicking structures were successfully fabricated with capillary performance, K/reff, ranging from 0.186–1.74 µm. The rectangular-arrangement micro-pin wick presented the highest performance.

Originality/value

This work represents the first published report on LPBF AM of copper wicking structures for HPs/VCs applications and represents foundational knowledge for fabricating complete assemblies of copper VCs and HPs through LPBF AM.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1997

Evert Gummesson

Stresses issues brought up in the first World Wide Web conference on relationship marketing. Based on research on relationship marketing going back to the early 1970s…

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10214

Abstract

Stresses issues brought up in the first World Wide Web conference on relationship marketing. Based on research on relationship marketing going back to the early 1970s which resulted in the definition of 30 relationships in marketing ‐ the 30R approach. Brings up inconsistencies in marketing, among them the mix‐up between relationship marketing as a phenomenon and a term; values and ethics; practice versus theory and education; differences between Europe and the USA; and the ghost‐hunt for an unambiguous definition. Concludes that relationship marketing requires a dramatic change in marketing thinking and behaviour; it is a paradigm shift, not an add‐on to traditional marketing management.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

Sifco Ireland is investing over £1.6 million in new plant to protect components from the very high temperatures experienced in the new generation of aero engines developed…

Abstract

Sifco Ireland is investing over £1.6 million in new plant to protect components from the very high temperatures experienced in the new generation of aero engines developed by Rolls‐Royce, Pratt & Whitney, CFMI and GE. An order has been placed with Sulzer Metco of Newport Gwent for its low pressure plasma spraying system (LPPS).

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 67 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2021

Annick Hortense Dominique Van Rossem

The present research offers insights into the generational stereotypical beliefs that different generations of nurses hold about the own and the other generations and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The present research offers insights into the generational stereotypical beliefs that different generations of nurses hold about the own and the other generations and the implications on the work floor.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross-sectional, exploratory study employs a cognitive mapping approach known as the repertory grid. The sample consisted of 15 Generation Y, 15 Generation X and 15 Baby Boomer nurses.

Findings

Beliefs of nurses about their own and the other generations direct social categorization and generational stereotypes of the in-group and out groups. These stereotypes mold nurses' beliefs and attitudes towards their coworkers and are enacted leading to self-fulfilling prophecies. Especially Generation Y and Baby Boomer nurses are negatively stereotyped and have their ways to deal with these negative stereotypes.

Practical implications

Nurses and their managers who hold generational stereotypes may unknowingly create cliques within an organization and adopt behaviors and expectations based on generational (self-) stereotypes. The author offers noteworthy insights for fostering intergenerational synergies amongst nurses, which are important since the level of interdependent relations amongst nurses required to provide care.

Originality/value

The present study moves away from the research about the typical characteristics of nurses across the generational workforce. Instead, mental models about how different generations of nurses construe their coworkers belonging to different generations including their own generation are drawn. Employing the repertory grid technique (RGT), an established method for uncovering people's personal and collective belief systems, the present study shows how generational stereotyping and self-stereotyping among nurses belonging to varying generational cohorts occurs and debates its implications.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 August 2021

Naren Shankar R., Ganesan V.G., Dilip Raja N., Sathish Kumar K. and Vijayaraja K.

The effect of increasing lip thickness (LT) and Mach number on subsonic co-flowing Jet (CFJ) decay at subsonic and correctly expanded sonic Mach numbers has been analysed…

Abstract

Purpose

The effect of increasing lip thickness (LT) and Mach number on subsonic co-flowing Jet (CFJ) decay at subsonic and correctly expanded sonic Mach numbers has been analysed experimentally and numerically in this study. This study aims to a critical LT below which mixing enhances and above which mixing inhibits.

Design/methodology/approach

LT is the distance, separating the primary nozzle and the secondary duct, present in the co-flowing nozzle. The CFJ with LT ranging from 2 mm to 150 mm at jet exit Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 were studied in detail. The CFJ with 2 mm LT is used for comparison. Centreline total pressure decay, centreline static pressure decay and near field flow behaviour were analysed.

Findings

The result shows that the mixing enhances until a critical limit and a further increase in the LT does not show any variation in the jet mixing. Beyond this critical limit, the secondary jet has a detrimental effect on the primary jet, which deteriorates the process of mixing. The CFJ within the critical limit experiences a significantly higher mixing. The effect of the increase in the Mach number has marginal variation in the total pressure and significant variation in static pressure along the jet axis.

Practical implications

In this study, the velocity ratio (VR) is maintained constant and the bypass ratio (BR) was varied from low value to very high values for subsonic and correctly expanded sonic. Presently, commercial aircraft engine operates under these Mach numbers and low to ultra-high BR. Hence, the present study becomes essential.

Originality/value

This is the first effort to find the critical value of LT for a constant VR for a Mach number range of 0.6 to 1.0, compressible CFJ. The CFJs with constant VR of unity and varying LT, in these Mach number range, have not been studied in the past.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 93 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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