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Progress in machine building is connected with computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) development. An essential part of CIM is a computer aided design (CAD) system for…
Progress in machine building is connected with computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) development. An essential part of CIM is a computer aided design (CAD) system for off‐line creation of manufacturing control programs. Each technological process is characterised by special equipment and operations, which complicate development of CAD off‐line programming systems. More than 90 robot programming systems and languages are now in existence. However, programming all technological aspects into one single CAD system is not possible so far; besides, a teaching method being required, the programs contain many operators, and the database of CAD/CAM is not sufficiently used.
The inhibition efficiencies of ethyl phosphonic acid (EPA) and 2‐chloroethyl phosphonic acid (2‐Cl EPA) in the presence of Zn2+, in controlling the corrosion of mild steel…
The inhibition efficiencies of ethyl phosphonic acid (EPA) and 2‐chloroethyl phosphonic acid (2‐Cl EPA) in the presence of Zn2+, in controlling the corrosion of mild steel in a neutral aqueous environment containing 60ppm Cl‐ have been evaluated by weight‐loss method and compared. It is observed that 2‐Cl EPA‐Zn2+ system has more inhibition efficiency than an EPA‐Zn2+ system. It is due to the electron withdrawing power of the Cl atom and its size. The nature of the protective film formed on the surface of the metal has been analysed by X‐ray diffraction, uv‐visible reflectance and luminescence spectra.
As in many other aspects of Soviet life, industrial relationsprocedures and practices are undergoing a peaceful revolution. There isa trend away from the bureaucratic and…
As in many other aspects of Soviet life, industrial relations procedures and practices are undergoing a peaceful revolution. There is a trend away from the bureaucratic and centralised system towards greater democracy in workplace relationships, much of this being predicated in a new structure for employment law. In this interview, Professor Baglai expands on these issues and many more in opening the black box of industrial relations in the USSR.
Corrosion inhibition by some thiourea derivatives of zinc in hydrochloric acid was measured using hydrogen evolution and weight loss techniques. The tested compounds…
Corrosion inhibition by some thiourea derivatives of zinc in hydrochloric acid was measured using hydrogen evolution and weight loss techniques. The tested compounds affect the dissolution rate in one of two manners: (a) inhibition throughout all concentrations added and (b) inhibition at lower concentration and acceleration at higher ones. The effect of structural changes in these compounds on their inhibition efficiency has been discussed.
Attempts to discover an internal logic in the high‐speed events taking place in the former Soviet Union. In addressing the problems of the country′s disintegration, examines the issue in its socioeconomic, political and territorial‐administrative aspects. Analyses, for this purpose, the nature of Soviet society prior to Gorbachev′s reforms, its present transitional stage and its probable direction in the near future.
Gorbachev′s vision of democratic, decentralised and market‐orientedsocialism has generated diverse and controversial perceptions in theSoviet Union. Gorbachev′s claim that…
Gorbachev′s vision of democratic, decentralised and market‐oriented socialism has generated diverse and controversial perceptions in the Soviet Union. Gorbachev′s claim that the USSR is not retreating from socialism but advancing towards it, having dismantled the Stalinist Command model, is assessed.
Gorbachev′s book Perestroika is used to explain why theauthor believes the new policy of restructuring of the Soviet economycannot and will not work. The policies of…
Gorbachev′s book Perestroika is used to explain why the author believes the new policy of restructuring of the Soviet economy cannot and will not work. The policies of Perestroika are introduced and evaluated and the existing socio‐economic system presented. At the end of this sceptical Western analysis, it is concluded that the policy is cosmetic restructuring and Gorbachev′s downfall, like Khruschev′s, is assured.
Examines Gorbachev′s (1985‐1991) period of Soviet development as anexemplar of a self‐declared movement towards a more democratic andhumane socialism. Gorbachev′s…
Examines Gorbachev′s (1985‐1991) period of Soviet development as an exemplar of a self‐declared movement towards a more democratic and humane socialism. Gorbachev′s perestroika envisaged a fundamental structural and technological renovation of Soviet economy, reactivation of Soviet persons and attitudes, and overall redirection of the nation′s economic, political and social priorities. Analyses Gorbachev′s model of democratizing socialism with respect to underlying causes or origins, and institutions and policies initiated in the Gorbachev years.
Current events in the Soviet Union cannot be understood withoutcomprehending the nature of Soviet communism. Begins with a descriptionof the system singlehandedly imposed…
Current events in the Soviet Union cannot be understood without comprehending the nature of Soviet communism. Begins with a description of the system singlehandedly imposed on the Soviet Union by Lenin and Stalin, focusing on the key elements of Marxist‐Leninist ideology and the nomenklatura. Brings to light a seldom‐recognized characteristic of communist governments, which is obscured by official propaganda, that Marxism‐Leninism is firmly grounded on “science”. It involves the rejection, by communist policy makers, of any coherent intellectual framework which would guide and also explain their actions. This, however, is not surprising, because any theoretical blueprint would force these leaders to spell out the precise goals they are pursuing, as well as the costs (to whom?) and the benefits (also to whom?) of their actions. It would, additionally, make the communist party accountable for its policies, a fact that would represent an intolerable restriction of its practically unlimited power. Perestroika has not changed this situation. The absence of a programme or of a priori guidelines allows Gorbachev to declare his willingness to introduce market processes, while, at the same time, emphasizing that all his reforms are made “in accordance with the socialist choice”. A case study of the recently legalized Soviet “co‐operative” sector confirms this lack of commitment to unambiguous policies. The prerequisites for a transition from a centrally planned to a market economy are therefore developed by Western, not Soviet, experts. They invariably call for the abandonment of the communist system and the demise of its beneficiary, the nomenklatura. Gorbachev, who has risen to power as an exponent of the “new class” (Milovan Djilas) is unwilling to accept this trade‐off. He can therefore be expected to continue his policy of vacillation, while his country′s economic, political, and social problems remain unresolved.
The Eastern and Western worlds are diametrically opposed to each other not only politically and militarily but also economically and socially. In the socialist lands the…
The Eastern and Western worlds are diametrically opposed to each other not only politically and militarily but also economically and socially. In the socialist lands the communist one‐party system is dominant; in the West it is political pluralism, in Comecon the planned economy prevails, and in the Common Market and the USA it is the market economy, of course, although not in the form it took in the nineteenth century. From a social point of view the Eastern bloc guarantees full employment at a lower standard of living, in the market economy the higher standard of living is accompanied by structural, cyclical unemployment. Each system claims to be superior to the other.