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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2008

Uzma Iram and Muhammad S. Butt

The main purpose of this study is to identify and quantify the relative importance of various socioeconomic factors and maternal care practices which may have significant…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is to identify and quantify the relative importance of various socioeconomic factors and maternal care practices which may have significant role in determining child mortality at different level of child ages in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines the role of household, demographic and environment factors as determinants of early children mortality in Pakistan. A number of individual, household and local characteristics are related to the probability of child mortality. This study employed a sequential model which is based on a sequence of binary choice models for the conditional probability of choosing a higher response category.

Findings

This study identifies that mother feeding protects children from early exposure to diseases and ill‐health in different ways. It also appeared that mother's education is strongly related to neonatal mortality, infant mortality as well as child mortality not only through the improved child caring practices but also through other proximate determinants such as prenatal care, income and environmental contamination.

Research limitations/implications

Social policies attempting to promote early initiation of mother feeding and utilization of prenatal care could make major contribution to the reduction of under five years mortality in Pakistan

Practical implications

Health care intervention programmes should focus on illiterate mothers whose children have all the cumulative risks due to poor health care utilization.

Originality/value

This could be the first ever effort in describing child mortality status with the help of sequential probit technique for Pakistan.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 35 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 September 2008

Uzma Iram and Ambreen Fatima

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the causal links between, foreign direct investment (FDI), openness through trade, poverty, value added of agriculture sector…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the causal links between, foreign direct investment (FDI), openness through trade, poverty, value added of agriculture sector as share of GDP, urban population and child labor by using annual data for Pakistan over the period 1970‐2003.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodological framework for causality testing is a multivariate vector autoregression (VAR) model. This permits investigation of the importance of factors on the incidence of child labor in Pakistan. More generally, this study seek to establish the causal link between these factors and child labor, which might suggest important implications for eradicating child labor's strategies for Pakistan.

Findings

This study presents strong and robust evidence that in the long‐run trade openness raises the output of the exportable sector and increases the demand for child labor as well as the child‐wage. However, FDI is found to lower the incidence of child labor, indicating that because of low labor standards and a high incidence of child labor, Pakistan is not attracting a greater inflow of FDI.

Practical implications

This study provides several implications for the policy debate on globalization and child labor and end by suggesting that rich countries should restrict the sale of goods from developing countries that lack or do not enforce child labor laws. Yet many doubt the ability of trade sanctions to eliminate child labor.

Originality/value

This could be the first ever effort in describing child labor incidence with the help of VAR technique for Pakistan.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 35 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

Uzma Iram and Muhammad S. Butt

The main purpose of this paper is to increase the level of knowledge pertaining to nutritional status of preschoolers and to identify/quantifying the relative importance…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to increase the level of knowledge pertaining to nutritional status of preschoolers and to identify/quantifying the relative importance of various socioeconomic and environmental factors which may have significant role in determining nutritional status of preschoolers in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

Household food availability, childcare practices, and child health status being focused as proximate determinants of child nutritional status pose problems for the simple regression analysis. An ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation of the regression with nutrition as an outcome and these three proximate variables as determinants could be biased for two reasons. First, there may be unobserved variables that are relegated to the error term but are correlated with the variables included on the right side. Second, explanatory variables may exit that are endogenous or codetermined with the outcome variable and hence are correlated with the error term. The approach to address these problems is to use instrumental variables (IV) approach. The credibility of the IV approach will rest on the ability to find variables that are correlated with the suspected endogenous explanatory variables but that do not affect the outcome variable (other than through the explanatory variable being instrumented).

Findings

The results from empirical analysis shows that factors on the maternal and household level are more important determinants of child nutritional status. Food availability, childcare practices and child health (diarrhea) are significantly related to child nutritional status. Household size has negative and significant impact on child nutritional status. Household income has an important and significant impact on child nutritional status. Childcare practices are negatively and significantly related to child nutritional status. This may suggest that as childcare practices improve, they may complement the need for other sources of improved energy for preschooler's nutritional status. The findings suggest that women's education plays a very important role in improving children's nutritional status and that the nutrition status among children depends on both better sanitary conditions and on dietary intake.

Research limitations/implications

Owing to data limitation present analysis employed child calorie adequacy ratio (CCAR) as a proxy of child nutritional status. For that to estimate, commonly used measures are nutrient intake, caloric adequacy ratio and relative caloric allocation.

Practical implications

A key message of this research is that significant achievement could be made toward reducing malnutrition through actions in sectors that have not been the traditional focus of nutritional interventions like improved hygiene conditions.

Originality/value

This could be the first ever effort in describing child nutritional status with the help relative more robust analytical technique for Pakistan.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2004

Uzma Iram and Muhammad S. Butt

Food security is a broad concept, encompassing issues related to the nature, quality, and security of the food supply as well as issues of food access. The world has been…

Abstract

Food security is a broad concept, encompassing issues related to the nature, quality, and security of the food supply as well as issues of food access. The world has been facing a paradox of widespread food insecurity and malnutrition amid net food surpluses. Increased food supplies do not automatically enhance access to food by the poorer groups of society. Food security measures alone may have a limited effect on the nutritional well being of individuals, unless the reinforcing detrimental linkages between food insecurity, disease, poor sanitation and inadequate education are addressed. Current theory holds that good nutrition for pre‐schoolers depends on household food security, an adequate health environment, and adequate maternal and childcare. Pakistan is a low‐income developing country with a per capita income of US$443, one of the lowest in the world. Pakistan is not a food insecure country. It generally has the economic ability to import the required food. This paper considers the main features of determinants of food security in Pakistan, particularly household economy assessment, and looks at what conclusions can realistically be drawn out of analysis when conducted within a conceptual framework.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 31 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

Uzma Iram and Muhammad Sabihuddin Butt

The role of care as a critical influence on child nutrition, health, and development has received increasing attention in the last decade. While the role of care has been…

Abstract

The role of care as a critical influence on child nutrition, health, and development has received increasing attention in the last decade. While the role of care has been well elaborated at a conceptual level, we still lack simple valid and reliable tools to measure many aspects of care. Psychosocial care includes the behaviors and practices that support children's healthy growth and psychosocial development. The research presented here constitutes one of the first attempts to quantify some of the various dimensions of child‐care practices (namely type, quality, and frequency) and to summarize the information into a composite, age‐specific index of child‐care practices. The main purpose of this research is to examine, specifically within the context of Pakistan, which of the maternal and household characteristics constituted more severe constraints to the provision of good child care. The main findings of this research have important policy implications. They suggest that specific training in child feeding and the use of preventive health services for poor mothers with little formal education could have a large impact on the growth of children living in impoverished environments.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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