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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2020

Shahid Ali, Junrui Zhang, Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Kaleem Khan, Farman Ullah Khan and Muhammad Abubakkar Siddique

This study aims to investigate the question concerning whether tournament incentives motivate chief executive officers (CEOs) to be socially responsible.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the question concerning whether tournament incentives motivate chief executive officers (CEOs) to be socially responsible.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from all A-share Chinese companies listed on the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges for the period from 2010 to 2015 are used. To draw inferences from the data, ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and cluster OLS are used as a baseline methodology. To control for the possible issue of endogeneity, firm-fixed-effects regression, two-stage least squares regression and propensity score matching are used.

Findings

A reliable evidence is found that tournament incentives motivate CEOs to be more socially responsible. Additional analysis reveals that the positive effect of CEO tournament incentives on corporate social responsibility performance (CSRP) is more pronounced in state-owned firms than it is in non-state-owned firms. The study’s findings are consistent with tournament theory and the conventional wisdom hypothesis, which proposes that better incentives lead to competitiveness, which improves financial and social performance.

Practical implications

The study’s findings have implications for companies and regulators who wish to enhance CSRP by giving tournament incentives to top managers. Investment in social responsibility may reduce the conflict between executives and employees and improve the corporate culture.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing literature by providing the first evidence that CEOs’ tournament incentives play a vital role in CSRP. The study’s findings contribute to tournament theory.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 April 2022

Hafiz Faiz Rasool, Muhammad Ali Qureshi, Abdul Aziz, Zain Ul Abiden Akhtar and Usman Ali Khan

This paper aims to improve the computational efficiency of higher-order accurate Noye–Hayman [NH (9,9)] implicit finite difference scheme for the solution of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to improve the computational efficiency of higher-order accurate Noye–Hayman [NH (9,9)] implicit finite difference scheme for the solution of electromagnetic scattering problems in tunnel environments.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed method consists of two major steps: First, the higher-order NH (9,9) scheme is numerically discretized using the finite-difference method. The second step is to use an algorithm based on hierarchical interpolative factorization (HIF) to accelerate the solution of this scheme.

Findings

It is observed that the simulation results obtained from the numerical tests illustrate very high accuracy of the NH (9,9) method in typical tunnel environments. HIF algorithm makes the NH (9,9) method computationally efficient for two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) problems. The proposed method could help in reducing the computational cost of the NH (9,9) method very close to O(n) usual O(n3) for a full matrix.

Research limitations/implications

For simplicity, in this study, perfect electric conductor boundary conditions are considered. Future research may also include the utilization of meteorological techniques, including the effects of backward traveling waves, and make comparisons with the experimental data.

Originality/value

This study is directly applicable to typical problems in the field of tunnel propagation modeling for both national commercial and military applications.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 January 2022

Hafiz Faiz Rasool, Muhammad Ali Qureshi, Abdul Aziz, Zain Ul Abiden Akhtar and Usman Ali Khan

The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief introduction of the finite difference based parabolic equation (PE) modeling to the advanced engineering students and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief introduction of the finite difference based parabolic equation (PE) modeling to the advanced engineering students and academic researchers.

Design/methodology/approach

A three-dimensional parabolic equation (3DPE) model is developed from the ground up for modeling wave propagation in the tunnel via a rectangular waveguide structure. A discussion of vector wave equations from Maxwell’s equations followed by the paraxial approximations and finite difference implementation is presented for the beginners. The obtained simulation results are compared with the analytical solution.

Findings

It is shown that the alternating direction implicit finite difference method (FDM) is more efficient in terms of accuracy, computational time and memory than the explicit FDM. The reader interested in maximum details of individual contributions such as the latest achievements in PE modeling until 2021, basic PE derivation, PE formulation’s approximations, finite difference discretization and implementation of 3DPE, can learn from this paper.

Research limitations/implications

For the purpose of this paper, a simple 3DPE formulation is presented. For simplicity, a rectangular waveguide structure is discretized with the finite difference approach as a design problem. Future work could use the PE based FDM to study the possibility of utilization of meteorological techniques, including the effects of backward traveling waves as well as making comparisons with the experimental data.

Originality/value

The proposed work is directly applicable to typical problems in the field of tunnel propagation modeling for both national commercial and military applications.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 2 January 2023

Shakir Ullah, Usman Khan, Abida Begum, Heesup Han and Abdullah Mohamed

This paper explores the indigenous climate knowledge (ICK) of the Gwadar fishing community in Pakistan. The main purpose of this paper is to explore the accuracy of ICK…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores the indigenous climate knowledge (ICK) of the Gwadar fishing community in Pakistan. The main purpose of this paper is to explore the accuracy of ICK and how climatic change brings changes to it and the social lives of local fishers.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative research methods, including participant observation, in-depth interviews and oral histories, were used to collect the data.

Findings

Finding from this long fieldwork shows that this fishing community has a harmonious relationship with nature and local ecology. Their knowledge of local ecology enables them to have equal access to natural resources, sustainable resource management, disaster risk reduction and strong social organization on the coast of Gwadar. Recently their deep relationship with local ecology and sociocultural organization has been disturbed due to huge climate changes caused by human manipulation of the environment. Their ability to foresee climatic events has been reduced. They are finding it impossible to estimate fish availability due to massive climate changes. Local communities are losing their traditional livelihoods and socioeconomic autonomy as a result of growing climate change. Climatic change adds to the existing poverty situation and increases political instability in the region.

Practical implications

The study suggests using the fishermen’s valuable indigenous knowledge of local ecology, climate and its ties to local traditions, culture and resource management for a scientific understanding of climate change and marine resource management in Gwadar, Pakistan.

Originality/value

This is an ethnographic study based on a long term field work. Fishing community is passing through catastrophic climatic changes in the region. This community has been ignored by both government and researchers to record their problems and bring them to academia and media. Therefore, this study will help them raise their voices.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Hamid, Zafar Hayat Khan, Rizwan Ul Haq and Waqar Ahmed Khan

This study aims to deal with the numerical investigation of ferrofluid flow and heat transfer inside a right-angle triangular cavity in the presence of a magnetic field…

157

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to deal with the numerical investigation of ferrofluid flow and heat transfer inside a right-angle triangular cavity in the presence of a magnetic field. The vertical wall is partially heated, whereas other walls are kept cold. The effects of thermal radiation are included in the analysis. The governing equations including continuity, momentum and energy equations are converted to nondimensional form using viable variables.

Design/methodology/approach

Finite element method (FEM)-based simulations are performed using finite element approach to investigate the effects of the volume fraction of ferroparticles (Fe3O4), the length of the heating element and the dimensionless numbers including Rayleigh and Hartmann numbers on the streamlines, isotherms and Nusselt number.

Findings

It is demonstrated that both horizontal and vertical velocity components increase with the length of the heating element, whereas the dimensionless temperature decreases the heating domain. It is observed that an increase of 10% in the volume fraction of ferroparticles increases Nusselt number more than 12%, and 20% increase in the volume fraction of ferroparticles increases more than 30%, depending upon the length of the heating element.

Originality/value

This is a new study showing the significance of the magnetic nanoparticles for the enhancement of heat transfer rate in a triangular cavity.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 July 2019

Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Umar Farooq, Junrui Zhang, Nanyan Dong and Muhammad Abdul Majid Makki

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the crucial question of whether gender diversity in boardroom is associated with CEO pay and CEO pay-performance link.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the crucial question of whether gender diversity in boardroom is associated with CEO pay and CEO pay-performance link.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used the data of companies listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange for a sample consisting of KSE-100 index companies for the period of five years. The authors used the ordinary least square regression technique to test the developed hypotheses. The authors also used the two-step Heckman selection model, two-stage least square regression and propensity score matching method to control the problem of endogeneity.

Findings

The authors find reliable evidence of a negative association between gender diversity and CEO pay and of board gender diversity’s strengthening the relationship between CEO pay and firm performance. The authors also find that women director are more effective in setting the optimal contract in non-family-owned firms and firms with dispersed ownership structure as compared to family-owned firms and firms with concentrated ownership structure. Moreover, results also reflect that the influence of board diversity on both CEO pay and CEO pay-performance link is stronger when gender diversity goes beyond tokenism.

Practical implications

The findings have implications in terms of providing the basis for policy makers to accord the same level of importance to gender diversity in the boardroom as well as contributing to the current debate on the desirability of mandating or recommending gender diversity on boardrooms.

Originality/value

This study is among the few studies which investigate the moderating role of boardroom gender diversity on the CEO pay-performance link. In addition, this study contributes to the institutional theory by providing the empirical evidence that the effect boardroom gender diversity on CEO pay and CEO pay-performance link varies by type of ownership.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 40 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Usman Khan and Federico Lega

Abstract

Details

Health Management 2.0
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-345-8

Book part
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Usman Khan

Abstract

Details

Health Management 2.0
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-345-8

Article
Publication date: 5 November 2020

Shoaib Khan, Usman Bashir and Md. Saiful Islam

The purpose of this study is to investigate the most important factors that affect the capital structure of commercial banks in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the most important factors that affect the capital structure of commercial banks in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses annual data of 11 Saudi commercial, national banks listed on the tadawul Saudi stock exchange for the period 2010–2017. Data was collected from the banks financial statements, tadawul annual publications and Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority. By constructing a balanced panel, this study uses pooled ordinary least squares regression along with fixed effects and random effects to examine the relationship between the bank’s book leverage as the dependent variable and bank-specific explanatory variables that include profitability, tangibility, earnings volatility, growth opportunities and bank size, while controlling for macroeconomic conditions.

Findings

The findings of this study suggest that banks in Saudi Arabia are highly leveraged, endorsing the fact that the nature of banks’ business is different from non-banking firms. Earnings volatility, growth and bank size show positive and significant relations with book leverage. Profitability and tangibility are negatively related to the book leverage. Empirically, the explanatory variables profitability, earnings volatility, tangibility, growth and bank size have material effects on the capital structure decisions of Saudi commercial banks. In summary, the determinants of capital structure for Saudi banks are the same as those of non-financial firms but are distinctive in nature.

Research limitations/implications

An extensive study on all the banks operating in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries is suggested.

Practical implications

The findings have practical implications for bank managers, which will help them to identify the bank-specific factors affecting the capital structure and choose the values enhancing optimal capital structure. The results of this study can assist regulatory agencies to formulate an effective regulatory framework. Moreover, the findings lay a foundation for the development of financial sector under the umbrella of the Vision 2030 program in the Kingdom.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to explore the factors affecting the capital structure choices of commercial banks operating in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Moreover, the findings of the study would prove useful in detailed studies of capital structure in the GCC countries as well.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Usman Khan and Federico Lega

Abstract

Details

Health Management 2.0
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-345-8

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