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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2020

Shahid Ali, Junrui Zhang, Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Kaleem Khan, Farman Ullah Khan and Muhammad Abubakkar Siddique

This study aims to investigate the question concerning whether tournament incentives motivate chief executive officers (CEOs) to be socially responsible.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the question concerning whether tournament incentives motivate chief executive officers (CEOs) to be socially responsible.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from all A-share Chinese companies listed on the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges for the period from 2010 to 2015 are used. To draw inferences from the data, ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and cluster OLS are used as a baseline methodology. To control for the possible issue of endogeneity, firm-fixed-effects regression, two-stage least squares regression and propensity score matching are used.

Findings

A reliable evidence is found that tournament incentives motivate CEOs to be more socially responsible. Additional analysis reveals that the positive effect of CEO tournament incentives on corporate social responsibility performance (CSRP) is more pronounced in state-owned firms than it is in non-state-owned firms. The study’s findings are consistent with tournament theory and the conventional wisdom hypothesis, which proposes that better incentives lead to competitiveness, which improves financial and social performance.

Practical implications

The study’s findings have implications for companies and regulators who wish to enhance CSRP by giving tournament incentives to top managers. Investment in social responsibility may reduce the conflict between executives and employees and improve the corporate culture.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing literature by providing the first evidence that CEOs’ tournament incentives play a vital role in CSRP. The study’s findings contribute to tournament theory.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Hamid, Zafar Hayat Khan, Rizwan Ul Haq and Waqar Ahmed Khan

This study aims to deal with the numerical investigation of ferrofluid flow and heat transfer inside a right-angle triangular cavity in the presence of a magnetic field…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to deal with the numerical investigation of ferrofluid flow and heat transfer inside a right-angle triangular cavity in the presence of a magnetic field. The vertical wall is partially heated, whereas other walls are kept cold. The effects of thermal radiation are included in the analysis. The governing equations including continuity, momentum and energy equations are converted to nondimensional form using viable variables.

Design/methodology/approach

Finite element method (FEM)-based simulations are performed using finite element approach to investigate the effects of the volume fraction of ferroparticles (Fe3O4), the length of the heating element and the dimensionless numbers including Rayleigh and Hartmann numbers on the streamlines, isotherms and Nusselt number.

Findings

It is demonstrated that both horizontal and vertical velocity components increase with the length of the heating element, whereas the dimensionless temperature decreases the heating domain. It is observed that an increase of 10% in the volume fraction of ferroparticles increases Nusselt number more than 12%, and 20% increase in the volume fraction of ferroparticles increases more than 30%, depending upon the length of the heating element.

Originality/value

This is a new study showing the significance of the magnetic nanoparticles for the enhancement of heat transfer rate in a triangular cavity.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 July 2019

Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Umar Farooq, Junrui Zhang, Nanyan Dong and Muhammad Abdul Majid Makki

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the crucial question of whether gender diversity in boardroom is associated with CEO pay and CEO pay-performance link.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the crucial question of whether gender diversity in boardroom is associated with CEO pay and CEO pay-performance link.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used the data of companies listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange for a sample consisting of KSE-100 index companies for the period of five years. The authors used the ordinary least square regression technique to test the developed hypotheses. The authors also used the two-step Heckman selection model, two-stage least square regression and propensity score matching method to control the problem of endogeneity.

Findings

The authors find reliable evidence of a negative association between gender diversity and CEO pay and of board gender diversity’s strengthening the relationship between CEO pay and firm performance. The authors also find that women director are more effective in setting the optimal contract in non-family-owned firms and firms with dispersed ownership structure as compared to family-owned firms and firms with concentrated ownership structure. Moreover, results also reflect that the influence of board diversity on both CEO pay and CEO pay-performance link is stronger when gender diversity goes beyond tokenism.

Practical implications

The findings have implications in terms of providing the basis for policy makers to accord the same level of importance to gender diversity in the boardroom as well as contributing to the current debate on the desirability of mandating or recommending gender diversity on boardrooms.

Originality/value

This study is among the few studies which investigate the moderating role of boardroom gender diversity on the CEO pay-performance link. In addition, this study contributes to the institutional theory by providing the empirical evidence that the effect boardroom gender diversity on CEO pay and CEO pay-performance link varies by type of ownership.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 40 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Usman Khan and Federico Lega

Abstract

Details

Health Management 2.0
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-345-8

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Book part
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Usman Khan

Abstract

Details

Health Management 2.0
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-345-8

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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2020

Shoaib Khan, Usman Bashir and Md. Saiful Islam

The purpose of this study is to investigate the most important factors that affect the capital structure of commercial banks in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the most important factors that affect the capital structure of commercial banks in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses annual data of 11 Saudi commercial, national banks listed on the tadawul Saudi stock exchange for the period 2010–2017. Data was collected from the banks financial statements, tadawul annual publications and Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority. By constructing a balanced panel, this study uses pooled ordinary least squares regression along with fixed effects and random effects to examine the relationship between the bank’s book leverage as the dependent variable and bank-specific explanatory variables that include profitability, tangibility, earnings volatility, growth opportunities and bank size, while controlling for macroeconomic conditions.

Findings

The findings of this study suggest that banks in Saudi Arabia are highly leveraged, endorsing the fact that the nature of banks’ business is different from non-banking firms. Earnings volatility, growth and bank size show positive and significant relations with book leverage. Profitability and tangibility are negatively related to the book leverage. Empirically, the explanatory variables profitability, earnings volatility, tangibility, growth and bank size have material effects on the capital structure decisions of Saudi commercial banks. In summary, the determinants of capital structure for Saudi banks are the same as those of non-financial firms but are distinctive in nature.

Research limitations/implications

An extensive study on all the banks operating in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries is suggested.

Practical implications

The findings have practical implications for bank managers, which will help them to identify the bank-specific factors affecting the capital structure and choose the values enhancing optimal capital structure. The results of this study can assist regulatory agencies to formulate an effective regulatory framework. Moreover, the findings lay a foundation for the development of financial sector under the umbrella of the Vision 2030 program in the Kingdom.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to explore the factors affecting the capital structure choices of commercial banks operating in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Moreover, the findings of the study would prove useful in detailed studies of capital structure in the GCC countries as well.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Usman Khan and Federico Lega

Abstract

Details

Health Management 2.0
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-345-8

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Usman Khan

Abstract

Details

Health Management 2.0
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-345-8

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Usman Khan and Federico Lega

Abstract

Details

Health Management 2.0
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-345-8

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 28 November 2019

Muhammad Sohail and Sana Tariq

Thermal and species transport of magneto hydrodynamic Casson liquid over a stretched surface is investigated theoretically in this examination for the three-dimensional…

Abstract

Purpose

Thermal and species transport of magneto hydrodynamic Casson liquid over a stretched surface is investigated theoretically in this examination for the three-dimensional boundary layer flow of a yield exhibiting material. The phenomenon of heat and species relocation is based upon modified Fourier and Fick’s laws that involves the relaxation times for the transportation of heat and mass. Conservation laws are modeled under boundary layer analysis in the Cartesian coordinates system. The purpose of this paper is to find the influence of different emerging parameters on fluid velocity, temperature and transport of species.

Design/methodology/approach

Reconstructed nonlinear boundary layer ordinary differential equations are analyzed through eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Due to the complexity and non-existence of the exact solution of the transformed equations, a convergent series solution by the homotopy algorithm is also derived. The reliability of the applied scheme is presented by comparing the obtained results with the previous findings.

Findings

Physical quantities of interest are displayed through graphs and tables and discussed for sundry variables. It is discerned that higher magnetic influence slows down fluid motion, whereas concentration and temperature profiles upsurge. Reliability of the recommended scheme is monitored by comparing the obtained results for the dimensionless stress as a limiting case of previous findings and an excellent agreement is observed. Higher values of Schmidt number reduce the concentration profile, whereas mounting the values of Prandtl number reduces the dimensionless temperature field. Moreover, heat and species transfer rates increase by mounting the values of thermal and concentration relaxation times.

Originality/value

The phenomenon of heat and species relocation is based upon modified Fourier and Fick’s laws which involves the relaxation times for the transportation of heat and mass. Conservation laws are modeled under boundary layer analysis in the Cartesian coordinates system.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

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