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Article

Melek Akın Ateş, Jan Van den Ende and Guido Ianniello

The purpose of this paper is to investigate inter-organizational coordination (IOC) patterns between the buying firm, design agency, and component supplier in new product…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate inter-organizational coordination (IOC) patterns between the buying firm, design agency, and component supplier in new product development (NPD) projects and to identify the determinants of these approaches.

Design/methodology/approach

Seven NPD projects are examined using the multiple-case study method. Data are collected from five design agencies, two buying firms, and two suppliers in Italy and the Netherlands.

Findings

Building on organizational information-processing and resource dependence theories, and based on the case study findings, four patterns of IOC approaches are proposed: buyer as mediator, buyer-designer partnership, designer as integrator, and team design activities. Two determinants of these approaches are suggested: the degree of novelty of the product/project (radical vs incremental) and the design approach (user oriented vs design driven).

Research limitations/implications

Although the NPD projects are chosen from a wide variety of industries, the relatively small number of cases limits generalizability. The four IOC approaches proposed in this study should be tested in wider samples, possibly by means of the survey method.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that practitioners need to understand the determinants of the different IOC approaches to manage joint NPD projects most effectively. The authors also suggest that practitioners pay attention to the distinct roles of different types of suppliers while deciding on the appropriate coordination mechanisms to adopt. Finally, the results illustrate that buying firms need to consider empowering a supplier in an incremental NPD project if the supplier has a very distinctive capability that does not exist in the buying firm.

Originality/value

Previous research primarily focusses on dyadic-level buyer-supplier relationships in NPD projects. In this study, the authors adopt triads as the unit of analysis and specifically focus on cases that involve both component suppliers and design agencies.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 35 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Book part

Kerstin Röse

This chapter is focused on the specification and integration of intercultural variables for human machine systems and the description of content analysis for these…

Abstract

This chapter is focused on the specification and integration of intercultural variables for human machine systems and the description of content analysis for these variables. Starting with basics of culture-oriented design, these are followed by an approach to machine localization issues and a cost model, then basics of the intercultural design and human machine system engineering process, a definition and specification of intercultural variables, a systematic treatment for their integration into the process, and a description of how to use these variables in the process. Finally, an example of an intercultural variables approach to “information coding” in a human-machine system is presented for China and Germany.

Details

Cultural Ergonomics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-049-4

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Article

Roel Gijsbers and Jos Lichtenberg

Most buildings are hardly ever technically equipped to adapt to ever changing user demands. Adaptability of building components is known as an essential technical aid to…

Abstract

Purpose

Most buildings are hardly ever technically equipped to adapt to ever changing user demands. Adaptability of building components is known as an essential technical aid to facilitate flexible use. However, for designers and developers it is very difficult to foresee how design decisions related to flexible use effect the efficiency of the technical system, especially when adaptations have to be realized in the future. Due to the large number of variables and interrelations, a structured approach is indispensable to translate (future) user demands into technical solutions for flexible use. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to present a novel method that can assist designers to systematically find suitable measures for flexible use. This method, named comparative selection method for adaptability measures (CSA method), is developed specifically to impartially select and compare adaptability measures.

Design/methodology/approach

The CSA method is principally based on a performance approach, where technical solutions are compared and matched to performance requirements. To accomplish that, specific tools and theories were transferred from industrial product development. The CSA method displays the benefits of lifespan-oriented design, since a distinction is made between initial, once occurring effects and the effects that come with each expected adaptation.

Findings

In contemporary building practice the initial phase is critical for decision making. By a number of case studies, the application of the CSA method reveals that tailor-made solutions with a high degree of adaptability are in fact the most efficient for the long term. Hereby the view is confirmed that a lifespan-oriented approach in design decisions is essential for a sustainable and future-proof building stock.

Originality/value

The CSA method is a newly developed and unique support tool that assists in optimizing flexible building design through the search for best fit adaptability solutions.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

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Article

ŞEule Taşlı Pektaş and Bülent Özgüç

This paper re-visits the basic premises of open building: designing for change as well as for stability, including the users in the design decision-making processes, and…

Abstract

This paper re-visits the basic premises of open building: designing for change as well as for stability, including the users in the design decision-making processes, and disentangling the building systems into the levels and allowing replacement; then, addresses the limitations of conventional design media in terms of the capabilities to support these aims. It is discussed that the design media should be predictive, dynamic, and interactive. Virtual prototyping as an enabling technology is reviewed and proposals are made for the future use of this technology for open building design.

Details

Open House International, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article

Farid Mokhtar Noriega, Stephen Heppell, Nieves Segovia Bonet and Julliette Heppell

The purpose of this paper is to describe the relevant role of users/learners as designers/creators of meaningful and effective learning places and spaces in both digital

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the relevant role of users/learners as designers/creators of meaningful and effective learning places and spaces in both digital and virtual worlds.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on research and observation of changing trends in users' behavior in physical and digital collaborative workplaces and spaces all over the world.

Findings

In this third millennium, the new spirit of knowmadic workers and learners is breaking down old design concepts and rules. The progressively more subtle frontier between virtual and physical learning environments and working environments is changing the use by, and the behavior of, learners in these places and spaces. In this context, the transversal‐thinking, designer‐guided paradigm is rendered effectively useless. The era of user‐led design has started. User‐oriented design is an old trend; it has changed over time. In societies and economies based on learning, reflection and constant collaboration, the individualistic design guru has no place.

Originality/value

This paper discusses the evolving strategic role of users/learners as designers and co‐creators of their own places. Traditional design criteria and theories are outdated. The role of the designer as master/creator is not compatible with the collegiate and collaborative, reflective spirit of knowmadic learners. A consequence is a requirement for new strategies and a redefinition of the designer's role in the creation of space. The axis of design control has shifted.

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Article

Linda C. Smith

At present the end user must often rely on an intermediary to make use of available online systems. Artificial intelligence (AI) holds the possibility of making systems…

Abstract

At present the end user must often rely on an intermediary to make use of available online systems. Artificial intelligence (AI) holds the possibility of making systems accessible to a wider range of people. AI research is a branch of computer science which attempts to develop programs to enable computer systems to communicate more fluently, to explain why they have taken certain actions, to handle unforeseen situations, and to exhibit other similar signs of intelligent behavior. This paper reviews a number of studies which demonstrate how AI techniques can be applied in the design of end user‐oriented interfaces to existing online systems as well as in the development of future generations of online systems intended for the end user. Criteria proposed for user‐oriented systems are summarized and suggestions are given of the ways in which AI techniques may enable one to realize them. These criteria are found to focus on the language for man—machine communication and on approaches to delegating more aspects of the retrieval process to the system. Available technology such as intelligent terminals can be used to augment the interface of existing online systems by varying command languages and display formats. The features of two prototypes demonstrating this approach are described. AI work on man—machine communication and knowledge‐based systems which is likely to influence the design of future online systems is highlighted. Finally, Licklider's proposal for “procognitive systems” is recalled, and it is suggested that AI techniques provide indications of how such systems could eventually be built.

Details

Online Review, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-314X

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Article

Christa Liedtke, Maria Jolanta Welfens, Holger Rohn and Julia Nordmann

The purpose of this paper is to summarize and discuss the results from the LIVING LAB design study, a project within the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to summarize and discuss the results from the LIVING LAB design study, a project within the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union. The aim of this project was to develop the conceptual design of the LIVING LAB Research Infrastructure that will be used to research human interaction with, and stimulate the adoption of, sustainable, smart and healthy innovations around the home.

Design/methodology/approach

A LIVING LAB is a combined lab‐/household system, analysing existing product‐service‐systems as well as technical and socioeconomic influences focused on the social needs of people, aiming at the development of integrated technical and social innovations and simultaneously promoting the conditions of sustainable development (highest resource efficiency, highest user orientation, etc.). This approach allows the development and testing of sustainable domestic technologies, while putting the user on centre stage.

Findings

As this paper discusses the design study, no actual findings can be presented here but the focus is on presenting the research approach.

Originality/value

The two elements (real homes and living laboratories) of this approach are what make the LIVING LAB research infrastructure unique. The research conducted in LIVING LAB will be innovative in several respects. First, it will contribute to market innovation by producing breakthroughs in sustainable domestic technologies that will be easy to install, user friendly and that meet environmental performance standards in real life. Second, research from LIVING LAB will contribute to innovation in practice by pioneering new forms of in‐context, user‐centred research, including long‐term and cross‐cultural research.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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Abstract

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Abstract

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Article

Florence, T.F. Tse and Catherine Y.P. Chan

This paper aims to suggest a user-approach to doing style designs for apparel products.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to suggest a user-approach to doing style designs for apparel products.

Design/methodology/approach

A case of the approach to produce a collection of party dresses for mothers-to-be was presented. Two consecutive studies were conducted to understand and identify the needs of contemporary business women for maternity party dresses to attend banquets and functions. In these two studies, direct dialogue with target customers and scene deployment were used to collect the voice of the customer (VOC); affinity diagramming was used to organize the collected VOC data into items that were required by target customers; and the pairwise comparison method of analytic hierarchy process was used to identify important requirements.

Findings

In using various design techniques and incorporating appropriate fashion elements, style designs were produced with the primary focus on meeting user needs.

Originality/value

It has been a common practice that marketers do market research and designers do style creation. However, a joint effort of these two parties is required to better understand and address user needs. With the main focus on collecting and analyzing the VOC and organizing it into customer needs before applying various design techniques and incorporating appropriate fashion elements, the style designs that were produced in this case study were highly capable of satisfying user needs.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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