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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2006

Daniel Pakkala and Juhani Latvakoski

A novel distributed middleware service platform, called MidGate platform, is presented in this paper. The central contribution is description of the developed MidGate…

Abstract

A novel distributed middleware service platform, called MidGate platform, is presented in this paper. The central contribution is description of the developed MidGate platform and its architecture focusing especially on the adaptation, context‐awareness, and personalization of mobile and pervasive services. The research problem addressed is how to facilitate the development of interoperable applications and services into heterogeneous and distributed service gateway based environments. A requirement analysis of future mobile and pervasive services and key technologies has been carried out to establish a solid base and requirements for the development of the MidGate platform. The key mechanisms supporting adaptation, context‐awareness, and personalization of applications and services are presented. The novel middleware architecture solution of the MidGate platform utilizing these key mechanisms is also described. The MidGate architecture utilizes the emerging Generic Service Elements (GSE) approach, where generic and collectively utilizable services are provided to applications as middleware services that are part of a service platform. The main contribution of this research is the definition of a set of GSEs, the related MidGate platform architecture and its evaluation. The evaluation of the MidGate platform has been carried out in series of laboratory prototypes. The evaluation indicates that the MidGate platform solution is well applicable in various service gateway‐based distributed systems and extends well into resource‐constrained mobile environments.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

A.S. Sodiya, H.O.D. Longe and A.T. Akinwale

Researchers have used many techniques in designing intrusion detection systems (IDS) and yet we still do not have an effective IDS. The interest in this work is to combine…

Abstract

Researchers have used many techniques in designing intrusion detection systems (IDS) and yet we still do not have an effective IDS. The interest in this work is to combine techniques of data mining and expert systems in designing an effective anomaly‐based IDS. Combining methods may give better coverage, and make the detection more effective. The idea is to mine system audit data for consistent and useful patterns of user behaviour, and then keep these normal behaviours in profiles. An expert system is used as the detection system that recognizes anomalies and raises an alarm. The evaluation of the intrusion detection system design was carried out to justify the importance of the work.

Details

Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-5227

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1997

JAN CHOWN

The topic of user profiling appears to be neglected in the records management literature although there is more on profiling in other fields, especially in education. An…

Abstract

The topic of user profiling appears to be neglected in the records management literature although there is more on profiling in other fields, especially in education. An efficient and effective records management system is one which meets the needs of its users and therefore the techniques of user profiling would seem highly relevant to the records manager. In this article the author investigates what is meant by a profile of users of a Records Management System (RMS) and explains why and when it is needed. Drawing on general experience of local government and particular experience gained in undertaking a user survey as part of a computer security audit throughout Gateshead MBC, she goes on to explore how such a profile could be produced, using Tynedale DC Planning Department as an example.

Details

Records Management Journal, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-5698

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Yuval Elovici, Bracha Shapira and Adlay Meshiach

The purpose of this paper is to prove the ability of PRivAte Web (PRAW) – a system for private web browsing – to stand possible attacks.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to prove the ability of PRivAte Web (PRAW) – a system for private web browsing – to stand possible attacks.

Design/methodology/approach

Attacks on the systems were simulated, manipulating systems variables. A privacy measure was defined to evaluate the capability of the systems to stand the attacks. Analysis of results was performed.

Findings

It was shown that, even if the attack is optimised to provide the attacker's highest utility, the similarity between the user profile and the approximated profile is pretty low and does not enable the eavesdropper to derive an accurate estimation of the user profile.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation is the “cold start” problem – in the current version, an observer might detect the first transaction, which is always a real user transaction. As a remedy for this problem, the first transaction will be randomly delayed and a random number of fake transactions played before the real one (according to Tr). Another limitation is that PRAW supports only link browsing, originated in search engine interactions (since it is the most common interaction on the web. It should be extended to include concealment of browsing to links originating in the “Favourites” list, that users tend to browse regularly (even a few times a day) for professional or personal reasons.

Practical implications

PRAW is feasible and preserves the privacy of web browsers. It is now undergoing commercialisation to become a shelf tool for privacy preservation.

Originality/value

The paper presents a practical statistical method for privacy preservation and proved that it is standing possible attacks. Methods usually proposed for this problem are not statistical, but cryptography oriented, and are too expensive in processing‐time to be practical.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Javier De Andrés, Beatriz Pariente, Martin Gonzalez-Rodriguez and Daniel Fernandez Lanvin

The purpose of this paper is to identify demographic differences based on how users interact with web applications. The research is needed to develop future systems able…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify demographic differences based on how users interact with web applications. The research is needed to develop future systems able to adapt the representation of online information to the user’s specific needs and preferences improving its usability. The following question guides this quest: is there a direct relationship between age and/or gender and interaction?

Design/methodology/approach

GOMS (goals, operators, methods, and selection rules) analysis was used to reduce complex interaction tasks into basic operators like pointing, dragging, typing, etc. An experiment was designed to analyse the user performance in the use of these operators through five complex tasks: point-and-click, drag-and-drop, text selection, text edition and menu selection. The sample comprises 592 individuals which took part in the experiment. The performance was analysed using multivariate regression analysis. User laterality and the the user experience were used as control variables.

Findings

The factors studied are significant enough to support user classification. The analysis evidenced that men performed significantly better than women when executing interaction pointing and dragging GOMS’s operators, but no significant differences arose with regard to the performance in the typing operators. Older users performed worse in all the interaction tasks. No significant performance differences were detected between left and right-handed users.

Research limitations/implications

The study pretends to lay the ground for developing artificial intelligence-based classification systems (e.g. neural networks, decision trees, etc.) able to detect significant differences in user performance, classifying users according to their age, gender and laterality.

Practical implications

This user profiling would drive the organisation, selection and representation of the online information according to the specific preferences and needs of each user. This would allow the design of new personalisation algorithms able to perform dynamic adaptation of user interfaces in order to improve the usability of online information systems.

Originality/value

This work extends previous research on user performance under a new approach and improved accuracy. First, it relies on the combined and simultaneous analysis of ageing and gender and the use of user laterality and experience as control variables. Second, the use of the GOMS analysis allowed the design of tests that closely resemble the user interaction in online information systems. Third, the size of the sample used in this analysis is much bigger than those used in previous works, allowing a more thorough data analysis which includes the estimation of an advanced model which is quantile regression.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2018

Corinne Amel Zayani, Leila Ghorbel, Ikram Amous, Manel Mezghanni, André Péninou and Florence Sèdes

Generally, the user requires customized information reflecting his/her current needs and interests that are stored in his/her profile. There are many sources which may…

Abstract

Purpose

Generally, the user requires customized information reflecting his/her current needs and interests that are stored in his/her profile. There are many sources which may provide beneficial information to enrich the user’s interests such as his/her social network for recommendation purposes. The proposed approach rests basically on predicting the reliability of the usersprofiles which may contain conflictual interests. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This approach handles conflicts by detecting the reliability of neighbors’ profiles of a user. The authors consider that these profiles are dependent on one another as they may contain interests that are enriched from non-reliable profiles. The dependency relationship is determined between profiles, each of which contains interests that are structured based on k-means algorithm. This structure takes into consideration not only the evolutionary aspect of interests but also their semantic relationships.

Findings

The proposed approach was validated in a social-learning context as evaluations were conducted on learners who are members of Moodle e-learning system and Delicious social network. The quality of the created interest structure is assessed. Then, the result of the profile reliability is evaluated. The obtained results are satisfactory. These results could promote recommendation systems as the selection of interests that are considered of enrichment depends on the reliability of the profiles where they are stored.

Research limitations/implications

Some specific limitations are recorded. As the quality of the created interest structure would evolve in order to improve the profile reliability result. In addition, as Delicious is used as a main data source for the learner’s interest enrichment, it was necessary to obtain interests from other sources, such as e-recruitement systems.

Originality/value

This research is among the pioneer papers to combine the semantic as well as the hierarchical structure of interests and conflict resolution based on a profile reliability approach.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2005

Yuval Elovici, Chanan Glezer and Bracha Shapira

To propose a model of a privacy‐enhanced catalogue search system (PECSS) in an attempt to address privacy threats to consumers, who search for products and services on the…

Abstract

Purpose

To propose a model of a privacy‐enhanced catalogue search system (PECSS) in an attempt to address privacy threats to consumers, who search for products and services on the world wide web.

Design/methodology/approach

The model extends an agent‐based architecture for electronic catalogue mediation by supplementing it with a privacy enhancement mechanism. This mechanism introduces fake queries into the original stream of user queries, in an attempt to reduce the similarity between the actual interests of users (“internal user profile”) and the interests as observed by potential eavesdroppers on the web (“external user profile”). A prototype was constructed to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the model.

Findings

The evaluation of the model indicates that, by generating five fake queries per each original user query, the user's profile is hidden most effectively from any potential eavesdropper. Future research is needed to identify the optimal glossary of fake queries for various clients. The model also should be tested against various attacks perpetrated against the mixed stream of original and fake queries (i.e. statistical clustering).

Research limitations/implications

The model's feasibility was evaluated through a prototype. It was not empirically tested against various statistical methods used by intruders to reveal the original queries.

Practical implications

A useful architecture for electronic commerce providers, internet service providers (ISP) and individual clients who are concerned with their privacy and wish to minimize their dependencies on third‐party security providers.

Originality/value

The contribution of the PECSS model stems from the fact that, as the internet gradually transforms into a non‐free service, anonymous browsing cannot be employed any more to protect consumers' privacy, and therefore other approaches should be explored. Moreover, unlike other approaches, our model does not rely on the honesty of any third mediators and proxies that are also exposed to the interests of the client. In addition, the proposed model is scalable as it is installed on the user's computer.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2020

Leandro Guarino Vasconcelos, Laercio Augusto Baldochi and Rafael Duarte Coelho Santos

This paper aims to presents Real-time Usage Mining (RUM), an approach that exploits the rich information provided by client logs to support the construction of adaptive…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to presents Real-time Usage Mining (RUM), an approach that exploits the rich information provided by client logs to support the construction of adaptive Web applications. The main goal of RUM is to provide useful information about the behavior of users that are currently browsing a Web application. By consuming this information, the application is able to adapt its user interface in real-time to enhance the user experience. RUM provides two types of services as follows: support for the detection of struggling users; and user profiling based on the detection of behavior patterns.

Design/methodology/approach

RUM leverages the previous study on usability evaluation to provide a service that evaluates the usability of tasks performed by users while they browse applications. This evaluation is based on a metric that allows the detection of struggling users, making it possible to identify these users as soon as few logs from their interaction are processed. RUM also exploits log mining techniques to detect usage patterns, which are then associated with user profiles previously defined by the application specialist. After associating usage patterns to user profiles, RUM is able to classify users as they browse applications, allowing the application developer to tailor the user interface according to the users’ needs and preferences.

Findings

The proposed approach was exploited to improve user experience in real-world Web applications. Experiments showed that RUM was effective to provide support for struggling users to complete tasks. Moreover, it was also effective to detect usage patterns and associate them with user profiles.

Originality/value

Although the literature reports studies that explore client logs to support both the detection of struggling users and the user profiling based on usage patterns, no existing solutions provide support for detecting users from specific profiles or struggling users, in real-time, while they are browsing Web applications. RUM also provides a toolkit that allows the approach to be easily deployed in any Web application.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2006

Sébastien Truchat, Gerhard Fuchs, Falko Dressler and Steffen Meyer

The importance of mobile services in our everyday life is growing while at the same time new interoperability issues arise due to hardware and software heterogeneity…

Abstract

The importance of mobile services in our everyday life is growing while at the same time new interoperability issues arise due to hardware and software heterogeneity. Therefore, new architectural paradigms and models are needed to enhance software engineering methodologies with regard to platform independence and interoperability. This paper describes an UML pattern based approach for developing reconfigurable autonomous mobile services. Through the analysis of an mcommerce project, the relevance of our proposed architecture will be explained. Our focus lays on a generic reconfiguration mechanism based on profile matching from software modules. This profiling part will be further described and discussed. Finally, the applicability of our approach is investigated within a project about reconfigurable indoor navigation computers and a project about robot assisted sensor networks.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

John Davies, Alistair Duke, Nick Kings, Dunja Mladenić, Kalina Bontcheva, Miha Grčar, Richard Benjamins, Jesus Contreras, Mercedes Blazquez Civico and Tim Glover

The paper shows how access to knowledge can be enhanced by using a set of innovative approaches and technologies based on the semantic web.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper shows how access to knowledge can be enhanced by using a set of innovative approaches and technologies based on the semantic web.

Design/methodology/approach

Emerging trends in knowledge access are considered followed by a description of how ontologies and semantics can contribute. A set of tools is then presented which is based on semantic web technology. For each of these tools a detailed description of the approach is given together with an analysis of related and future work as appropriate.

Findings

The tools presented are at the prototype stage but can already show how knowledge access can be improved by allowing users to more precisely express what they are looking for and by presenting to them in a form that is appropriate to their current context.

Research limitations/implications

The tools show promising results in improving access to knowledge which will be further evaluated within a practical setting. The tools will be integrated and trialled as part of case studies within the SEKT project. This will allow their usability and practical applicability to be measured.

Practical implications

Ontologies as a form of knowledge representation are increasing in importance. Knowledge management, and in particular knowledge access, will benefit from their widespread acceptance. The use of open standards and compatible tools in this area will be important to support interoperability and widespread access to disparate knowledge repositories.

Originality/value

The paper presents research in an emerging but increasingly important field, i.e. semantic web‐based knowledge technology. It describes how this technology can satisfy the demand for improved knowledge access, including providing knowledge delivery to users at the right time and in the correct form.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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