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Book part

Ben Carterette, Evangelos Kanoulas and Emine Yilmaz

Purpose — The overall quality of an information retrieval system depends on many different aspects of the system and its users' information seeking behaviour, such as the…

Abstract

Purpose — The overall quality of an information retrieval system depends on many different aspects of the system and its users' information seeking behaviour, such as the speed of the system, the user interface, the query language and the features provided by the engine. One of the most important aspects is the effectiveness of the retrieval system, i.e. its ability to retrieve items that are relevant to the information need of an end user. This chapter focuses on methods for measuring effectiveness, in particular focusing on recent work that more directly models the utility of an engine to its users.

Methodology/approach — We discuss traditional approaches to effectiveness evaluation based on test collections, then transition to approaches based on test collections along with explicit models of user interaction with search results. We contrast this with approaches for which the user is ‘in the loop’, such as user studies and online evaluations.

Research limitations/implications — If it were possible to model users perfectly, we could directly estimate the utility of a search engine to its users; this would undoubtedly have a transformative effect on information retrieval and web search research. In practice, this goal will never be achievable because users exhibit far too much variability in how they approach the search engine, and furthermore provide valuable feedback that models and simulations cannot provide. Nevertheless, better models of user interaction will help develop better web search engines for a wider variety of tasks more rapidly.

Originality/value of paper — This is the first work that surveys recent work on user model-based evaluation and places it in a context with traditional evaluation based on the Cranfield paradigm.

Details

Web Search Engine Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-636-2

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Article

Gerd Berget, Andrew MacFarlane and Nils Pharo

A substantial number of models have been developed over the years, with the purpose of describing the information seeking and searching of people in various user groups…

Abstract

Purpose

A substantial number of models have been developed over the years, with the purpose of describing the information seeking and searching of people in various user groups and contexts. Several models have been frequently applied in user studies, but are rarely included in research on participants with impairments. Models are purposeful when developing theories. Consequently, it might be valuable to apply models when studying this user group, as well. The purpose of this study was to explore whether existing models are applicable in describing the online information seeking and searching of users with impairments, with an overall aim to increase the use of models in studies involving impairments.

Design/methodology/approach

Six models were selected according to the following criteria: the model should address information seeking or searching, include the interaction between users and systems whilst incorporating assistive technology. Two user groups were selected from each of the categories: cognitive, sensory and motor impairments, namely dyslexia, autism, blindness, deafness, paralysation and Parkinson's. The models were then analysed based on known barriers reported for these cohorts.

Findings

All the selected models had potential to be applied in user studies involving impairments. While three of the models had the highest potential to be used in the current form, the other three models were applicable either through minor revisions or by combining models.

Originality/value

This study contributes with a new perspective on the use of models in information seeking and searching research on users with impairments.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 77 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article

Andrew Jennings and Hideyuki Higuchi

New methods are needed for accessing very large information services. This paper proposes the use of a user model neural network to allow better access to a news service…

Abstract

New methods are needed for accessing very large information services. This paper proposes the use of a user model neural network to allow better access to a news service. The network is constructed on the basis of articles read, and articles marked as rejected. It adapts over time to better represent the user's interests and rank the articles supplied by the news service. Using an augmented keyword search we can also search for articles using keywords in conjunction with the user model neural network. Trials of the system in a USENET news environment show promising results for the use of this approach in information retrieval.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 10 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article

Daniela Godoy, Silvia Schiaffino and Analía Amandi

Recommender agents are used to make recommendations of interesting items in a wide variety of application domains, such as web page recommendation, music, e‐commerce…

Abstract

Purpose

Recommender agents are used to make recommendations of interesting items in a wide variety of application domains, such as web page recommendation, music, e‐commerce, movie recommendation, tourism, restaurant recommendation, among others. Despite the various and different domains in which recommender agents are used and the variety of approaches they use to represent user interests and make recommendations, there is some functionality that is common to all of them, such as user model management and recommendation of interesting items. This paper aims at generalizing these common behaviors into a framework that enables developers to reuse recommender agents' main characteristics in their own developments.

Design/methodology/approach

This work presents a framework for recommendation that provides the control structures, the data structures and a set of algorithms and metrics for different recommendation methods. The proposed framework acts as the base design for recommender agents or applications that want to add the already modeled and implemented capabilities to their own functionality. In contrast with other proposals, this framework is designed to enable the integration of diverse user models, such as demographic, content‐based and item‐based. In addition to the different implementations provided for these components, new algorithms and user model representations can be easily added to the proposed approach. Thus, personal agents originally designed to assist a single user can reuse the behavior implemented in the framework to expand their recommendation strategies.

Findings

The paper describes three different recommender agents built by materializing the proposed framework: a movie recommender agent, a tourism recommender agent, and a web page recommender agent. Each agent uses a different recommendation approach. PersonalSearcher, an agent originally designed to suggest interesting web pages to a user, was extended to collaboratively assist a group of users using content‐based algorithms. MovieRecommender recommends interesting movies using an item‐based approach and Traveller suggests holiday packages using demographic user models. Findings encountered during the development of these agents and their empirical evaluation are described here.

Originality/value

The advantages of the proposed framework are twofold. On the one hand, the functionality provided by the framework enables the development of recommender agents without the need for implementing its whole set of capabilities from scratch. The main processes and data structures of recommender agents are already implemented. On the other hand, already existing agents can be enhanced by incorporating the functionality provided by the recommendation framework in order to act collaboratively.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article

Werner Kurschl, Mirjam Augstein, Thomas Burger and Claudia Pointner

The purpose of this paper is to present an approach where a novel user modeling wizard for people with motor impairments is used to gain a deeper understanding of very…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an approach where a novel user modeling wizard for people with motor impairments is used to gain a deeper understanding of very specific (touch-based and touchless) interaction patterns. The findings are used to set up and fill a user model which allows to automatically derive an application- and user-specific configuration for natural user interfaces.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on expert knowledge in the domain of software/user interfaces for people with special needs, a test-case –based user modeling tool was developed. Task-based user tests were conducted with seven users for the touch-based interaction scenario and with five users for the touchless interaction scenario. The participants are all people with different motor and/or cognitive impairments.

Findings

The paper describes the results of different test cases that were designed to model users’ touch-based and touchless interaction capabilities. To evaluate the tool’s findings, experts additionally judged the participants’ performance (their opinions were compared to the tool’s findings). The results suggest that the user modeling tool could quite well capture users’ capabilities.

Social implications

The paper presents a tool that can be used to model users’ interaction capabilities. The approach aims at taking over some of the (very time-consuming) configuration tasks consultants have to do to configure software according to the needs of people with disabilities. This can lead to a wider accessibility of software, especially in the area of gesture-based user interaction.

Originality/value

Part of the approach has been published in the proceedings of the Interactional Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing and Multimedia 2014. Significant additions have been made since (e.g. all of the touchless interaction part of the approach and the related user study).

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article

Feicheng Ma, Ye Chen and Yiming Zhao

This paper aims to propose a conceptual model for improving the organization of user needs information in the big data environment.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a conceptual model for improving the organization of user needs information in the big data environment.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual model of the organization of user needs information based on Linked Data techniques is constructed. This model has three layers: the Data Layer, the Semantic Layer and the Application Layer.

Findings

Requirements for organizing user needs information in the big data environment are identified as follows: improving the intelligence level, establishing standards and guidelines for the description of user needs information, enabling the interconnection of user needs information and considering individual privacy in the organization and analysis of user needs.

Practical implications

This Web of Needs model could be used to improve knowledge services by matching user needs information with increasing semantic knowledge resources more effectively and efficiently in the big data environment.

Originality/value

This study proposes a conceptual model, the Web of Needs model, to organize and interconnect user needs. Compared with existing methods, the Web of Needs model satisfies the requirements for the organization of user needs information in the big data environment with regard to four aspects: providing the basis and conditions for intelligent processing of user needs information, using RDF as a description norm, enabling the interconnection of user needs information and setting various protocols to protect user privacy.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Article

William Hemmig

Looks at the pathfinder approach to library instruction, which was developed in the 1960s by Patricia Knapp. Knapp's system focused, not on the simple provision of answers…

Abstract

Purpose

Looks at the pathfinder approach to library instruction, which was developed in the 1960s by Patricia Knapp. Knapp's system focused, not on the simple provision of answers to questions, but on the teaching of the effective use of the library and its resources– in other words, on the finding of one's “way” in the library.

Design/methodology/approach

A traditional theoretical model for the creation and evaluation of pathfinders (subject research guides) can be identified through study of the literature. This model, expressed in the design criteria of consistency, selectivity, transparency and accessibility, sprang from an impulse to serve the inexperienced user by emulating or facilitating the user's search process.

Findings

A gap in this model can be detected, in the form of a missing multi‐dimensional picture of the user and the user's experience of the information service via the pathfinder. In an attempt to fill the gap, literature examining information behavior, the search process, the design of user‐centered services, and the information retrieval interaction is discussed.

Originality/value

An experience‐centered model for online research guide design and evaluation is derived from the findings.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article

Eduardo Castillejo, Aitor Almeida and Diego López-de-Ipiña

The purpose of this paper is to review the state-of-the-art in adaptive user interface systems by studying their historical development over the past 20 years. Moreover…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the state-of-the-art in adaptive user interface systems by studying their historical development over the past 20 years. Moreover, this paper contributes with a specific model combining three main entities (users, context and devices) that have been demonstrated to be always represented in these environments. Novel concepts that should be taken into account in these systems are also presented.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors first provide a review and a comparison of current user interface adaptive systems. Next, the authors detail the most significant models and the set of techniques used to, finally, propose a novel model based on the studied literature.

Findings

Literature solutions for adaptive user interface systems tend to be very domain dependant. This situation restricts the possibility of sharing and exporting the information between such systems. Furthermore, the studied approaches barely highlight the dynamism of these models.

Originality/value

The paper is a review of adaptive user interface systems and models. Although there are several reviews in this area, there is a lack of research for modelling users, context and devices simultaneously in this domain. The paper also presents several significant concepts that should be taken into account to bring an adaptive and dynamic perspective to the studied models.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article

Jingshuai Zhang, Yuanxin Ouyang, Weizhu Xie, Wenge Rong and Zhang Xiong

The purpose of this paper is to propose an approach to incorporate contextual information into collaborative filtering (CF) based on the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose an approach to incorporate contextual information into collaborative filtering (CF) based on the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) and deep belief networks (DBNs). Traditionally, neither the RBM nor its derivative model has been applied to modeling contextual information. In this work, the authors analyze the RBM and explore how to utilize a user’s occupation information to enhance recommendation accuracy.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed approach is based on the RBM. The authors employ user occupation information as a context to design a context-aware RBM and stack the context-aware RBM to construct DBNs for recommendations.

Findings

The experiments on the MovieLens data sets show that the user occupation-aware RBM outperforms other CF models, and combinations of different context-aware models by mutual information can obtain better accuracy. Moreover, the context-aware DBNs model is superior to baseline methods, indicating that deep networks have more qualifications for extracting preference features.

Originality/value

To improve recommendation accuracy through modeling contextual information, the authors propose context-aware CF approaches based on the RBM. Additionally, the authors attempt to introduce hybrid weights based on information entropy to combine context-aware models. Furthermore, the authors stack the RBM to construct a context-aware multilayer network model. The results of the experiments not only convey that the context-aware RBM has potential in terms of contextual information but also demonstrate that the combination method, the hybrid recommendation and the multilayer neural network extension have significant benefits for the recommendation quality.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

Abstract

Purpose

Ubiquitous web applications (UWA) are a new type of web applications which are accessed in various contexts, i.e. through different devices, by users with various interests, at anytime from anyplace around the globe. For such full‐fledged, complex software systems, a methodologically sound engineering approach in terms of model‐driven engineering (MDE) is crucial. Several modeling approaches have already been proposed that capture the ubiquitous nature of web applications, each of them having different origins, pursuing different goals and providing a pantheon of concepts. This paper aims to give an in‐depth comparison of seven modeling approaches supporting the development of UWAs.

Design/methodology/approach

This methodology is conducted by applying a detailed set of evaluation criteria and by demonstrating its applicability on basis of an exemplary tourism web application. In particular, five commonly found ubiquitous scenarios are investigated, thus providing initial insight into the modeling concepts of each approach as well as to facilitate their comparability.

Findings

The results gained indicate that many modeling approaches lack a proper MDE foundation in terms of meta‐models and tool support. The proposed modeling mechanisms for ubiquity are often limited, since they neither cover all relevant context factors in an explicit, self‐contained, and extensible way, nor allow for a wide spectrum of extensible adaptation operations. The provided modeling concepts frequently do not allow dealing with all different parts of a web application in terms of its content, hypertext, and presentation levels as well as their structural and behavioral features. Finally, current modeling approaches do not reflect the crosscutting nature of ubiquity but rather intermingle context and adaptation issues with the core parts of a web application, thus hampering maintainability and extensibility.

Originality/value

Different from other surveys in the area of modeling web applications, this paper specifically considers modeling concepts for their ubiquitous nature, together with an investigation of available support for MDD in a comprehensive way, using a well‐defined as well as fine‐grained catalogue of more than 30 evaluation criteria.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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