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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2012

Rudie Nel and Gerhard Nienaber

Since its introduction in South Africa during 2009, the ability of vehicle emissions tax to reduce CO2 emissions has been questioned, but not yet assessed. The purpose of…

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Abstract

Purpose

Since its introduction in South Africa during 2009, the ability of vehicle emissions tax to reduce CO2 emissions has been questioned, but not yet assessed. The purpose of this paper is to attempt such an assessment by considering tax designs to reduce passenger vehicle CO2 emissions.

Design/methodology/approach

In this exploratory study, the authors reviewed literature on tax designs to reduce CO2 emissions, and compared the design of current taxes on passenger vehicles in South Africa to the tax designs most advocated in the literature to evaluate the effectiveness of the current South African design for this purpose.

Findings

Tax designs refer to the stage when taxes are levied (purchase/ownership/usage taxes) – levying taxes at one stage may more effectively reduce emissions than levying them at another. The current tax focus on consumers may indeed affect taxes' ability to reduce emissions, and in the current tax mix, taxes on passenger vehicles may not be the most effective way of reducing emissions. The investigation of a “feebate” policy as an alternative initiative to address increased passenger vehicle CO2 emissions is recommended.

Originality/value

Only anecdotal evidence questions the ability of the vehicle emissions tax to reduce CO2 emissions. This study is intended to elicit further discussions on other fiscal reform initiatives aimed at reducing CO2 emissions by passenger vehicles in South Africa.

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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2020

Amneh Alkurdi and Ghassan H. Mardini

Adopting agency theory, the purpose of this study is to explore the impact of ownership structure and board of directors’ composition on the extent of tax avoidance strategies.

Abstract

Purpose

Adopting agency theory, the purpose of this study is to explore the impact of ownership structure and board of directors’ composition on the extent of tax avoidance strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample included all of the Jordanian first market companies listed on the Amman Stock Exchange from 2012 to 2017, comprising 348 observations.

Findings

The main finding of the paper is that tax avoidance is negatively related to managerial and institution ownership structures, which reduces the usage of tax avoidance strategies. Foreign ownership, however, has a positive relation that increases the likelihood of adopting tax avoidance strategies.

Practical implications

This study has policy implications for policymakers in relation to designing future tax systems to reduce the possibility of engaging in tax avoidance practices.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first of its kind that investigates the effects of the managerial, foreign and institutional ownership classes and board composition on tax avoidance for Jordanian listed companies.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2021

Anissa Dakhli

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the direct and indirect relationship between institutional ownership and corporate tax avoidance using corporate social…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the direct and indirect relationship between institutional ownership and corporate tax avoidance using corporate social responsibility (CSR) as a mediating variable.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses panel data set of 200 French firms listed during the 2007–2018 period. The direct and indirect effects between managerial ownership and tax avoidance were tested by using structural equation model analysis.

Findings

The results indicate that institutional ownership negatively affects tax avoidance. The greater the proportion of the institutional ownership, the lower the likelihood of tax avoidance usage. From the result of the Sobel test, this study indicated that CSR partially mediates the effect of institutional ownership on corporate tax avoidance.

Practical implications

The findings have some policy and practical implications that may help regulators in improving the quality of transactions and in achieving more efficient market supervision. They recommend to the government to add regulations and restrictions to the structure of corporate ownership to control corporate tax avoidance in French companies.

Originality/value

This study extends the existing literature by examining both the direct and indirect effect of institutional ownership on corporate tax avoidance in French companies by including CSR as a mediating variable.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Sharon P. Cox and Robert J. Eger III

This paper examines the relationship between the procedural tax administration system and the characteristics of the decision-maker in the decision to comply with the tax

Abstract

This paper examines the relationship between the procedural tax administration system and the characteristics of the decision-maker in the decision to comply with the tax code. Specifically, we examine the motor fuel tax system. The motor fuel tax system requires an organization to collect and remit taxes at both the federal and state levels. Using a path model, we find that the procedural complexity of the tax system contributes to an increase in tax non-compliance.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2019

George Okello Candiya Bongomin, Pierre Yourougou and John C. Munene

Premised on the assertion that financial digitalization is currently the panacea and game changer in delivering progress towards the sustainable development goals (SDGs…

Abstract

Purpose

Premised on the assertion that financial digitalization is currently the panacea and game changer in delivering progress towards the sustainable development goals (SDGs) through universal financial inclusion, especially in developing countries, the purpose of this paper is to establish the moderating effect of transaction tax exemptions in the relationship between mobile money adoption and usage and financial inclusion.

Design/methodology/approach

A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 379 micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs), which use mobile money services drawn from the Northern District of Gulu in Uganda to provide responses for this study. The predictive relevancy and the effect size of the model were determined by running partial least square algorithm through structural equation model (SEM) with 5,000 bootstrap samples in SmartPLS-SEM 3.0.

Findings

The findings indicated that all the latent variables of transaction tax exemptions showed significant and positive impact on mobile money adoption and usage to advance financial inclusion in developing countries. Moreover, when combined together, the overall SEM predictive model revealed a significant moderating effect of transaction tax exemptions in the relationship between mobile money adoption and usage and financial inclusion. This implies that transaction tax exemptions on digital financial innovations such as the mobile money services can stimulate economic growth through increased level of financial inclusion labeled as the main enabler in achieving the SDGs by the year 2030.

Research limitations/implications

Whereas data were collected from users of mobile money services, the samples were drawn specifically from MSMEs’ owners located in the Northern District of Gulu in Uganda. Thus, users located in other districts were not included in the sample for this study. Similarly, this study limited itself to only financial services offered through the mobile money platform. It ignored other digital financial channels such as the internet and electronic banking.

Practical implications

Going forward, in order to improve the economic well-being of households at the “bottom of the pyramid,” governments in developing countries should embrace the significant role of transaction tax exemptions in promoting digital financial innovations such as the mobile money services for increased level of financial inclusion. The governments in developing countries where mobile money has greatly spurred financial inclusion should not only reduce the existing transaction taxes on mobile money services but scrap it off in order to champion progressive increase in the level of universal financial inclusion prescribed as a key enabler in eliminating global poverty, especially in developing countries.

Originality/value

This study hints on the moderating effect of transaction tax exemptions in the relationship between mobile money adoption and usage and financial inclusion. The paradox in the current trends on transaction taxes on mobile money services, especially in developing countries remain a dearth in the nascent global FINTECH ecosystem.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 24 June 2019

Oktavia Oktavia, Sylvia Veronica Siregar, Ratna Wardhani and Ning Rahayu

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of financial derivatives usage and country’s tax environment characteristics on the relationship between financial…

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3557

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of financial derivatives usage and country’s tax environment characteristics on the relationship between financial derivatives and tax avoidance.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a cross-country analysis with the scope of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) countries which consists of the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore.

Findings

The level of financial derivatives usage positively affects the level of tax avoidance. This finding indicates that financial derivatives can be used as tax avoidance tool. Furthermore, the positive effect of the level of financial derivatives usage on the level of tax avoidance is lower in countries with a competitive tax environment than in countries with an uncompetitive tax environment. This finding indicates that in country with a competitive tax environment, the use of financial derivatives as a tax avoidance tool can be replaced by the tax facilities provided by that country.

Research limitations/implications

This study uses four countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations region and does not test the sample based on the financial derivative types.

Practical implications

Tax authorities need to establish a clear tax regulation in regard to the tax treatment of financial derivatives transactions, e.g. define the definition of financial derivatives for hedging purposes and financial derivatives for speculative purposes; and define specific criteria to separate financial derivatives for hedging purposes from financial derivatives for speculative purposes. It is necessary to determine whether losses arising from derivative transactions are classified as deductible expenses or non-deductible expenses.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is also the first that provide empirical evidence that the relationship between financial derivatives and tax avoidance activities depends on a country’s tax environment.

Details

Asian Journal of Accounting Research, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2443-4175

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 16 June 2008

Peter J. Westort and Richard Cummings

The impact of paid tax return preparers on the horizontal equity (HE) of the federal tax system has significance for regulatory and tax policy reasons. Using multiple…

Abstract

The impact of paid tax return preparers on the horizontal equity (HE) of the federal tax system has significance for regulatory and tax policy reasons. Using multiple analytical techniques to consider data from the Statistics of Income Division's 2000 Individual Model File (IMF), this study shows that the HE measure is generally greater (implying less HE) for the paid-preparer returns than for the self-prepared returns, even after controlling for complexity and other variables that may differ systematically by tax preparation mode.

Details

Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84663-912-8

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2010

Lai Ming Ling and Nurul Hidayah Ahamad Nawawi

This study aims to examine the ICT skills needed by a fresh accounting graduate when first joining a tax firm; to find out usage of electronic tax (e‐tax) applications in…

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1989

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the ICT skills needed by a fresh accounting graduate when first joining a tax firm; to find out usage of electronic tax (e‐tax) applications in tax practice; to assess the rating of senior tax practitioners on fresh graduates' ICT and e‐tax applications skills; and to solicit tax practitioners' opinion regarding integrating ICT skills and tax software into a tax course.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey method was used to collect the data. An online survey was distributed to 385 tax practitioners who worked in the accounting/tax firms that participated in the university's internship programs. A total of 112 usable questionnaires were analyzed.

Findings

The survey found that the three most important ICT skills with which fresh graduates should be familiar before graduating were spreadsheet software, word‐processing software, and e‐mail. The result shows that the usage of e‐tax applications is still not pervasive in tax practice. Overall, senior tax practitioners rated fresh accounting graduates' ICT skills as “average”. Both senior (75 percent) and junior (73.7 percent) tax practitioners agreed that ICT skills and tax software should be integrated in the tax course offered by the universities.

Practical implications

This study has provided insights to policy makers and tax educators to revamp the existing tax curriculum, and to introduce learning tax software in classes, and to place more emphasis in imparting ICT skills in tax education.

Originality/value

Scholarly study on tax education and ICT is scant. Little is known about whether the existing tax education is adequate in meeting the needs of the employers in the job market. This paper has emerged to fill a knowledge gap.

Details

Campus-Wide Information Systems, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-0741

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2017

Kim U. Hoffman and Joseph Yuichi Howard

With the late-2000s recession, state and local governments have struggled to find the necessary revenue to sustain citizens' demands of governmental services. One…

Abstract

With the late-2000s recession, state and local governments have struggled to find the necessary revenue to sustain citizens' demands of governmental services. One potential revenue source is to allow the citizens' themselves to choose the services to fund through the usage of voluntary taxes. Counties and cities in Arkansas have the authority to levy a voluntary property tax to support specific public services. In this study, we explore the prevalence and adequacy of the voluntary property tax by local governments in Arkansas. We identify 58 different voluntary taxes used in 27 counties and 17 cities throughout the state. Moreover, using revenue and expenditure data, we find the tax to be a significant revenue source for several county programs.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2013

Shih‐wu Liang and Hsi‐peng Lu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that influence the willingness of the public to adopt online tax filing services.

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2218

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that influence the willingness of the public to adopt online tax filing services.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was conducted from which 400 valid questionnaires were recovered. The questionnaire data were used to research the degree of acceptance among Taiwanese taxpayers with regard to the online tax filing system. Respondents were classified into existing users (who were sub‐categorised into early adopters and late adopters) and potential adopters.

Findings

The results demonstrate that the perceived attributes of trialability and observability significantly influence the adoption intention of late adopters. However, these attributes did not have a significant influence on early adopters. Social norms and the perceived attributes of relative advantage, compatibility, and complexity significantly influence the adoption intention of current users. For potential adopters, only social norms had a significant effect on their intention to use the online tax filing system.

Practical implications

This study recommends that a more convenient and user‐friendly design for online tax‐filing processes would enhance the perception of the system and encourage taxpayers to continue or consider using this e‐government service.

Originality/value

While online tax‐filing systems are getting more attention in e‐government development, little is known about why people are willing to use them. This paper investigates the reasons by applying innovation diffusion theory, social cognitive theory and contingency theory. The results could be applicable to other e‐government services.

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