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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Urbi Garay

The purpose of this paper is to present the progress and trends of the literature on art as an investment and to outline potential research lines to be developed.

Abstract

Objective

The purpose of this paper is to present the progress and trends of the literature on art as an investment and to outline potential research lines to be developed.

Design/methodology/approach

This work gathers, analyses and critically discusses the attributes of investments in art in general, and in Latin American art in particular.

Findings

Most studies report that art (art in general, and Latin American in particular) has offered relatively low but positive real returns, which have tended to be below those offered by stocks and similar to those realized by bonds. Art has a low correlation with other investments.

Research limitations and implications

The literature on the attributes of Latin American art as an investment is limited and new research would help to close the knowledge gap with respect to this segment of the art market as it continues to grow.

Practical implications

Similarly to the research carried out into other segments of the art market, studies on Latin American art suggest that the works of art are worth more, ceteris paribus: the more renowned the artist, the larger the work, whether they were executed in oil, and if they were auctioned at Sotheby’s or Christie’s. The paper also details a series of practical implications for those who participate in the art market.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first exhaustive review of the literature on the attributes of Latin American art as an investment. The findings of this study are useful for academics, art collectors, auction houses, gallerists and others who take part in the arts market.

Propósito

Presentar los avances y las tendencias de la literatura sobre el arte como inversión, y delinear líneas de investigación a ser desarrolladas.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Este trabajo reúne, analiza y discute críticamente los atributos de inversión del arte, en general, y latinoamericano, en particular.

Hallazgos

La mayoría de los estudios reportan que el arte (tanto el arte, en general, como el arte latinoamericano, en particular) ha ofrecido rendimientos reales positivos, aunque relativamente bajos, los cuales tienden a ser inferiores de los de las acciones y a ser similares a los de los bonos. El arte tiene una baja correlación con otras inversiones.

Limitaciones e implicaciones de la investigación

La literatura sobre los atributos del arte latinoamericano como inversión es limitada. Es de esperar que nuevas investigaciones permitan ir cerrando la brecha del conocimiento con respecto a esta parte del mercado del arte a la par que éste continúe creciendo.

Implicaciones prácticas

Los estudios de arte latinoamericano sugieren, similar a las investigaciones sobre otros segmentos del mercado del arte, que las obras de arte valen más, ceteris paribus: cuando el artista es más reputado, a medida que el área de las obras es mayor, si han sido ejecutadas en óleo, y cuando son subastadas en las casas de subastas Sotheby’s o Christie’s. En el trabajo se detallan, además, una serie de implicaciones prácticas para los participantes del mercado de arte.

Originalidad/valor

Hasta donde se ha podido comprobar, esta es la primera revisión exhaustiva acerca de los atributos del arte latinoamericano como inversión. Los resultados de esta investigación son de utilidad para: académicos, coleccionistas de arte, casas de subastas, galeristas, y demás participantes en el mercado del arte.

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Article
Publication date: 17 September 2019

Jennifer Cinefra, Urbi Garay, Claudia Mibelli and Eduardo Pérez

Relatively little is known about the determinants of the prices of paintings. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the price determinants of the art of Joan Miró, one…

Abstract

Purpose

Relatively little is known about the determinants of the prices of paintings. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the price determinants of the art of Joan Miró, one of the great masters of Modern Art.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analysed 255 artworks by Miró sold at Sotheby’s and Christie’s between 2003 and 2017, and performed a hedonic price regression to measure the impact of a series of variables on the prices of this artist’s works.

Findings

Miró’s works command higher prices, ceteris paribus, when they were painted on canvas, were sold at Sotheby’s and in New York City or London, were traded during the evening session and depending on the period in which they had been painted, the size of their surface area, the number of words used to describe the respective lot and whether they had appeared in an art book. The prices of Miró’s paintings increased substantially between 2003 and 2008 and then declined, coinciding with the global financial crisis of 2009.

Research limitations/implications

The results were obtained from prices established in art auctions, which represent only one portion of the market.

Originality/value

This is the first exhaustive study carried out on the determinants of the prices of Joan Miró’s works. The artist represents an ideal case due to the large number of his works that have been sold at auctions. As yet, only studies of Pablo Picasso and Andy Warhol have been conducted. Joan Miró has well-defined artistic periods, which also allows us to determine the impact on the price of the works of the period in which it was created. This paper also offers a methodological contribution to parties involved in the art sector (artists, galleries, collectors, investors, museums, etc.).

Objetivo

Se conoce relativamente poco acerca de los determinantes de los precios de las obras de arte de artistas específicos. Este estudio analiza los determinantes de los precios de las pinturas de Joan Miró, uno de los grandes maestros del arte moderno.

Diseño/Metodología/Enfoque

Se analizaron 255 pinturas de Miró que fueron vendidas en Sotheby’s y Christie’s entre 2003 y 2017, y se estimó una regresión hedónica de precios con el objetivo de medir el impacto de una serie de variables en los precios de las obras de este artista.

Hallazgos

Las obras de Miró obtuvieron precios más altos, ceteris paribus, cuando estaban puintadas sobre lienzo, se vendieron en Sotheby’s y en la ciudad de Nueva York o Londres, se subastaron durante la sesión de la noche, y dependiendo del período en que se pintaron, el tamaño de su área, la cantidad de palabras utilizadas para describir el lote respectivo y si habían aparecido en un libro de arte. Los precios de las pinturas de Miró aumentaron sustancialmente entre 2003 y 2008 y luego disminuyeron, coincidiendo con la crisis financiera mundial de 2009.

Limitaciones de la investigación/implicaciones

Los resultados se obtuvieron a partir de los precios establecidos en las subastas de arte, los cuales representan solo una porción del mercado.

Originalidad/valor

Este es el primer estudio exhaustivo realizado sobre los determinantes de los precios de las obras de Joan Miró. El artista representa un caso ideal debido a la gran cantidad de sus obras que se han vendido en subastas. Hasta el momento, solo se han realizado estudios de Pablo Picasso y Andy Warhol. Joan Miró tiene períodos artísticos bien definidos, lo que también permitió determinar el impacto que en el precio de las obras podía tener el período en que éstas se crearon. Este trabajo también ofrece una contribución metodológica a las partes involucradas en el sector del arte (artistas, galerías, coleccionistas, inversores, museos, etc.).

Details

Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1012-8255

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Urbi Garay, Gwendoline Vielma and Edward Villalobos

The purpose of this paper is to present the formulation of the first exhaustive price index for Argentinian (and other Latin American countries) visual artists using 5,069…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the formulation of the first exhaustive price index for Argentinian (and other Latin American countries) visual artists using 5,069 works sold in auctions by 71 Argentinian artists during the years 1980-2014.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors estimated a regression of hedonic prices using the ordinary least squares method. When the regression was run and the results were analysed, the authors then estimated the annual price index of Argentinian artists’ work to then compare them with different financial and economic variables.

Findings

The average annual nominal arithmetic rate of return in dollars for Argentinian art during this period was 6.81 per cent, with a 29.11 per cent standard deviation. Argentinian art shows a low correlation with Argentinian and US companies’ shares and a slightly negative correlation with US bonds. This is the reason for artworks to be included in investors’ portfolios despite the relatively high volatility.

Research limitations/implications

Valuating works of art in Argentina can be explained by a series of their attributes. The benefits of art as an investment should be contrasted with factors including illiquidity and high transaction costs that are inherent when investing in works of art.

Practical implications

Argentinian artists’ works have higher prices when, ceteris paribus, they are dated; they are auctioned in either Christie’s, Sotheby’s, Galería Arroyo, Roldan & Cia, Meeting Art, or Naon & Cia; they are oil or acrylic paintings; they are larger in size – although the price increase is decreasing when the size of the painting increases; and when the artist dies before their work is auctioned.

Originality/value

This work presents the first rigorous price index of Argentinian artists’ works. Additionally, and as far as the authors have been able to observe, the time-period in this article is the longest that has been used in studies on art as an investment in emerging markets.

Propósito

Este trabajo presenta la elaboración del primer índice exhaustivo de precios de artistas plásticos de Argentina (y de cualquier otro país de Latino América) a partir de 5.069 ventas de obras de 71 artistas argentinos realizadas en subastas durante el período 1980-2014.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Se estimó una regresión de precios hedónica por el Método de Mínimos Cuadrados Ordinarios. Una vez corrida la regresión y analizados sus resultados, se procedió a estimar el índice anual de precios de obras de artistas argentinos, para posteriormente relacionarlos con diversas variables financieras y económicas.

Hallazgos

El rendimiento promedio aritmético nominal anual en dólares del arte argentino durante ese período fue de 6,81% con una desviación estándar de 29,11%. El arte argentino exhibe una baja correlación con las acciones de empresas argentinas y de EEUU y ligeramente negativa con bonos de EEUU, lo cual le confiere atributos para ser incluido en las carteras de los inversionistas, a pesar de la elevada volatilidad.

Limitaciones e implicaciones de la investigación

Se consigue que la valoración de arte en Argentina puede ser explicada por una serie de atributos de las obras de arte. Los beneficios del arte como inversión deben ser evaluados con la iliquidez y los elevados costos de transacción, entre otros costos, inherentes a la inversión en obras de arte.

Implicaciones prácticas

Las obras de artistas argentinos tienen precios más altos cuando, ceteris paribus: están fechadas, se subastan en Christie's, en Sotheby's o en Galería Arroyo, son ejecutadas en óleo o en acrílico, tienen un mayor área, aunque el aumento de precio es decreciente al aumentar el área, y cuando el artista ya había fallecido al momento de celebrase la subasta.

Originalidad/valor

Este trabajo propone el primer índice riguroso de precios de obras de artistas de Argentina. Además, y hasta donde hemos podido comprobar, el período utilizado en este trabajo es el más largo que se haya empleado en estudios del arte como inversión en mercados emergentes.

Details

Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1012-8255

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 10 April 2019

Carlos M. Baldo, Carmen Aurora Matteo and Kyle Hull

The intention of this chapter is to review and test the degree to which organizational changes related to gender parity, adopted within Venezuela since 1999, have affected…

Abstract

Purpose

The intention of this chapter is to review and test the degree to which organizational changes related to gender parity, adopted within Venezuela since 1999, have affected the C-level positions and Boards of Directors among banking institutions.

Design/Methodology/Approach

Through review and qualitative analysis of primary and secondary data, along with triangulation, given names were used as proxy to define gender among groups of individuals.

Findings

Evidence indicates that besides some parity in lower positions, middle management, and some C-level positions, at the Board of Director level, there remains a gender imbalance. Government-owned institutions show improved gender balance, but still there is a need for progress.

Practical Implications

Coercive isomorphisms may be the most common explanation for organizational change; nevertheless, this is not necessarily the case unless there is clear law enforcement. Practitioners must analyze the underlying reasons that females may reach a C-level position, yet don’t reach the Board of Directors in the same proportion.

Originality/Value

This research analyzes gender issues and composition among corporate governance bodies (Board of Directors and C-level positions) in Venezuela. It offers preliminary insights on gender imbalance within the upper echelon of Venezuelan banking institutions.

Details

Diversity within Diversity Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-821-3

Keywords

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