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Book part
Publication date: 15 September 2017

Xiaojun Yang and Wei-chiao Huang

This paper examines the impact of residents’ human capital investment inequality on the urban–rural income gap, using China’s provincial panel data from 1997 to 2013. The…

Abstract

This paper examines the impact of residents’ human capital investment inequality on the urban–rural income gap, using China’s provincial panel data from 1997 to 2013. The results show that, at the national level as well as at the regional level, residents’ overall human capital investment inequality has a positive significant impact on the urban–rural income gap. In addition, the impact of overall human capital investment inequality increased monotonically from the eastern region inward to the western region. In terms of the relative impact of each component of human capital investment inequality on the urban–rural income gap, migration investment inequality appears to have the greatest impact at the national level, whereas health investment inequality has the greatest impact on the urban–rural income gap in the eastern region, and education investment inequality exhibits the greatest impact in the central and western regions. We also investigate the impact of human capital investment inequality on the urban–rural income gap over different periods. The results show that residents’ overall human capital investment inequality had a positive impact on the urban–rural income gap in the period 1997–2008, but the impact rapidly shrunk in 2009–2013. Furthermore, the impact of residents’ health investment inequality on the urban–rural income gap shows a downward trend, and the impact of residents’ education investment inequality trended slightly upward from 1997 to 2008, and then rapidly shrunk in 2009–2013. Finally, the impact of residents’ migration investment inequality was only significant in 1997–2002.

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Advances in Pacific Basin Business Economics and Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-409-7

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2011

Yuheng Li

Urban‐rural interaction in China has evolved over time and presented features in different periods since 1949. The aim of this paper is to measure urban‐rural interaction…

Abstract

Purpose

Urban‐rural interaction in China has evolved over time and presented features in different periods since 1949. The aim of this paper is to measure urban‐rural interaction in China in a 50‐year period from 1958 to 2007, and to see if it bears resemblance to the historical evolution.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper historically reviews urban‐rural interaction in four periods after 1949. Then, it uses principal component analysis (PCA) and assesses this interaction in the study period.

Findings

The quantification of urban‐rural interaction bears resemblances to its historical evolution. Reform and opening‐up as well as the rural‐favored policies contribute a lot to the increase of urban‐rural interaction.

Originality/value

The paper systematically reviews the evolution of urban‐rural interaction in China, and analyzes the features of this interaction in different periods since 1949. It introduces PCA and measures urban‐rural interaction.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Zhenghe Zhang and Yawen Lu

In the 69 years since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, especially the 40 years since the reform and opening-up, the relationship between urban and rural…

Abstract

Purpose

In the 69 years since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, especially the 40 years since the reform and opening-up, the relationship between urban and rural areas has undergone profound change. When the deepening reform of the urban-rural relationship is entering a critical period, it is necessary to reassess the evolution of the urban-rural relationship in China and draw a picture for that relationship in the future. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper combs the policies on the urban and rural development since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, and analyzes macro data on the industries, population, personal income, and other aspects.

Findings

The study found that this urbanism affects individuals’ lives and the choices of society through the will of the state, and then provides feedback at the whole level of social values.

Originality/value

This paper divides the evolution of China’s urban-rural relationship into two major stages – nurturing cities with rural areas and leading rural areas with cities, which are then subdivided into five periods. The features of the relationship between the urban and rural areas in different periods are analyzed, and the future development of urban-rural relations is also considered.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Chunlai Chen

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on urban-rural income inequality in China.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on urban-rural income inequality in China.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses the provincial-level panel data and employs the fixed-effects instrumental variable regression technique to investigate empirically the impact of FDI on urban-rural income inequality in China.

Findings

The study finds that while FDI has directly contributed to reducing urban-rural income inequality through employment creation, knowledge spillovers and contribution to economic growth, FDI has also contributed to increasing urban-rural income inequality through international trade.

Practical implications

The study has some policy implications. First, as the study finds that FDI not only contributes to reducing urban-rural income inequality through employment creation, knowledge spillovers and contribution to economic growth, but also contributes to increasing urban-rural income inequality through international trade, therefore, apart from improving local economic and technological conditions to attract more FDI inflows, China should re-design FDI policies by shifting away from encouraging export-oriented FDI to encouraging FDI flows into the industries and sectors in line with China’s overall economic structural adjustments and industrial upgrading. Second, policies should focus on increasing investment in infrastructure development and in public education, which not only can reduce urban-rural income inequality but also can attract more FDI inflows. And finally policies should be designed to accelerate urbanisation development by focusing on urban-rural integrated development, household registration system reform and proper settlement of rural migrants in urban areas, thus reducing urban-rural income inequality.

Originality/value

The paper makes two major contributions to the literature. First, the paper adopts the fixed-effects instrumental variable regression technique to deal with the endogeneity issues in estimating the impact of FDI on urban-rural income inequality, producing more consistent estimates. Second, the paper investigates not only the direct impact of FDI on urban-rural income inequality through the effects of employment creation, knowledge spillovers and contribution to economic growth, but also the indirect impact of FDI on urban-rural income inequality through its activities in international trade, adding new empirical evidence to the sparse literature on the impact of FDI on income inequality in China.

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China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2011

Yitao Jiang, Xiaojun Shi, Shunming Zhang and Jingjing Ji

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the effect of high‐level human capital investment, using tertiary education as the proxy, on the urban‐rural income gap in China.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the effect of high‐level human capital investment, using tertiary education as the proxy, on the urban‐rural income gap in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a panel dataset covering 28 provinces of China over the period from 1988 to 2007, this paper employs Hansen's method and two‐step GMM‐SYS estimator to estimate the threshold regression model and the dynamic fixed‐effect panel model, respectively.

Findings

The urban‐rural income gap is found to be related to high‐level human capital investment in an inverted U‐shaped pattern with respect to economic development level. The estimated threshold turning point is around 20,000 RMB GDP per capita. This estimate is sufficiently robust to model specifications and variants of the dependent variable.

Social implications

The authors forecast that high‐level human capital investment could play a role in bridging the urban‐rural income gap at the national level by 2014, when China's GDP per capita assumes an annual growth rate of 7.5 percent.

Originality/value

This, it is believed, is the first research to find an inverted U‐shaped pattern for high‐level human capital investment and urban‐rural income gap nexus in China.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Baoping Ren and Xiaojing Chao

Based on the theoretical definition of the quality of economic growth as well as the availability and reliability of the given data, the purpose of this paper is to build…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the theoretical definition of the quality of economic growth as well as the availability and reliability of the given data, the purpose of this paper is to build an evaluation system of a regional economic growth quality on three levels: conditions, processes and results.

Design/methodology/approach

From the perspective of economic quality, this paper offers a theoretical interpretation on how the urban–rural income gap affects the quality of economic growth and takes an empirical test on the sample panel data from 30 provinces and regions through difference GMM and system GMM models.

Findings

The results show that the excessively large income gap will influence economic growth in terms of the foundation, operation and the outcome, thereby, restricting the quality of economic growth. In addition, investments in human and physical capital and improvements in terms of transport infrastructure, industrial structure and economic openness play an active role in economic growth quality, whereas government expenditure scale, financial development and the deviation of industrial structure have a negative effect.

Originality/value

There has been a substantial amount of experience and evidence on the research about the issue of China’s income distribution and the quantity of economic growth, whereas there are relatively fewer discussions about the income distribution and the quality of economic growth. This paper, based on what has been mentioned above, tries to give a theoretical interpretation and an empirical test to describe the relationship between urban–rural income gap and the quality of economic growth from the quality point of view.

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China Political Economy, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-1652

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2010

Yuheng Li, Hans Westlund and Göran Cars

The purpose of this paper is to make a general comparison between urban‐rural relationship in China and that in the developed countries, aiming to draw some experiences…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to make a general comparison between urban‐rural relationship in China and that in the developed countries, aiming to draw some experiences based on which future tendencies of urban‐rural relationship in China could be predicted.

Design/methodology/approach

The core analysis of this paper examines how the urban‐rural relationship develops especially when urbanization rate reaches a very high level. Through literature review, this paper explores the evolution of urban‐rural relationship in developed nations by referring to some international cities in different industrial stages. In parallel, it goes through this relationship in China from 1949 until now.

Findings

This paper shows that future urbanization development in China will be generated largely by rural‐urban migration especially the eastern‐inclined migration while rural industrialization‐lead urbanization would develop at the provincial level. It also points that education and training to the labor force is the crucial issue to future urbanization development in China.

Originality/value

The obvious value of this paper is to predict, through a historical review and comparison, urban‐rural relationship in China when it is approaching to high urbanization level. Literature review finds some experiences in developed countries that will somehow take place in China. It also analyzes the eastern‐oriented rural‐urban migration, rural industrialization and their influence on urban‐rural relationship in China.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 19 November 2020

Rujing Zhao and Hao Zhou

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the temporal development of noncognitive abilities of children and the development trajectory of rural and urban children's…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the temporal development of noncognitive abilities of children and the development trajectory of rural and urban children's noncognitive abilities in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Lexis diagram is used as the research framework to depict the development trajectory of rural and urban children's noncognitive abilities in China. By employing the nationally representative longitudinal survey data, China Family Panel Studies (2010–2016), the difference of rural and urban children's noncognitive abilities is disentangled into temporal, age and cohort effects.

Findings

There is a significant temporal rural–urban difference in children's noncognitive abilities, but the rural–urban gap would expand, narrow or show more complex development trends under different measurements. The results of age and cohort comparison are similar to those of temporal comparison, that is, there are divergent trajectories of rural–urban gap due to the different measurements and different ages and/or cohorts. Specifically, urban children perform better in self-esteem, but rural children always have a higher social responsibility, such a contrast between urban children's weak social responsibility under the advantageous condition and rural children's strong social responsibility in the relatively disadvantageous environment.

Originality/value

Children's noncognitive ability is not innate but is a gradually acquired characteristic through training and cultivation. The rural–urban difference of children's noncognitive abilities implies educational issues concerning educational principles in the urban environment and the educational resources' allocation in the rural society in China. Besides, as the unidimensional measurement of children's noncognitive ability is insufficient, the systematic measurement composed of multidimensional indicators utilizing cohort data or longitudinal data would be needed.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

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Book part
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Chengming Han and Jiehua Lu

Purpose. This chapter explored the effects of egalitarian gender attitudes and routine housework on subjective well-being among older adults in China.…

Abstract

Purpose. This chapter explored the effects of egalitarian gender attitudes and routine housework on subjective well-being among older adults in China.

Design/methodology/approach. Data were drawn from the Third Wave Survey on the Social Status of Women in China (2010). The sample included 1,260 older adults aged 63–95, consisted of 428 urban respondents and 832 rural respondents, among which included 638 men and 622 women. Stratified linear regression models were used to examine the effects of egalitarian gender attitudes and routine housework on subjective well-being among urban–rural and gender subsamples.

Findings. The results indicated that egalitarian gender attitudes were positively related to subjective well-being. Routine housework was still gendered work in both urban and rural places in China. Routine housework predicted better subjective well-being only among rural women. There were significant differences in egalitarian gender attitudes and the division of housework between urban and rural samples.

Originality/value. Gender egalitarian attitudes and the division of housework in China were patterned not only by genders but also by the urban–rural division. Different from previous studies, housework did not have influence on subjective well-beings, except a positive association among rural women in the sample.

Details

Chinese Families: Tradition, Modernisation, and Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-157-0

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2011

Xianbo Zhou and Fengping Tian

The purpose of this paper is to present a nonparametric comparative study on the HCMS consumption of urban and rural households in China.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a nonparametric comparative study on the HCMS consumption of urban and rural households in China.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper applies the panel data for China's thirty provinces in 1991‐2007 as a sample and presents a local linear estimation to the nonparametric Working‐Leser panel data models on the HCMS consumption of the rural and urban households in China. The nonparametric Hausman test is applied to test the random effects specification against the fixed effects.

Findings

Both the parametric and nonparametric estimation of the Working‐Leser panel data models give us a similar result: that the HCMS commodity is quite elastic in both the rural and urban China. Nonparametric estimate also shows that the urban‐rural difference of the HCMS expenditure share in the total expenditure is mainly due to the large urban‐rural difference of total expenditure. Under the same total expenditure, the HCMS is more elastic in the urban than in the rural regions.

Practical implications

To decrease the urban‐rural difference in the HCMS consumption, the government should enhance the income or total expenditure level of the rural households, especially in the impoverished and remote areas in China. Urbanization plays a critical role in access to health care and can help make substantial changes in rural health care in China.

Originality/value

Compared to the parametric estimation, the nonparametric estimation gives us the added information that the expenditure elasticity of the HCMS consumption in China gradually declines as one moves up the per capita total expenditure distribution. The paper could make a contribution to the relatively thin literature on the Chinese medical and health consumption market.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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