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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Jon Coaffee, Jonathan Clarke and Peadar T. Davis

Resilience is a topical concept in many academic disciplines world-wide and also among practitioners. In Europe, however, the current conceptualisations of urban resilience

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Abstract

Purpose

Resilience is a topical concept in many academic disciplines world-wide and also among practitioners. In Europe, however, the current conceptualisations of urban resilience are highly specific to institutional contexts, national cultures and traditions and emergent risks faced in particular countries and their urban areas. The differences in how urban resilience is understood and applied are important, and yet such differences are only scarcely addressed in current resilience literature. This paper draws from the EU’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration security project HARMONISE – A Holistic Approach to Resilience and Systematic Actions to Make Large Scale Built Infrastructure Secure.

Design/methodology/approach

The project develops a comprehensive, multifaceted, yet mutually reinforcing concept for the enhanced security, resilience and sustainability of urban infrastructure and development. As part of the project, 61 experts were interviewed in six European countries (UK, Ireland, Germany, Italy, Spain and Finland) to establish a comprehensive understanding of the current role and position of resilience in urban-built infrastructure. These interviews elicit the current views of professionals from a number of contributory and competing disciplines.

Findings

Results indicate that there is no shared holistic understanding of urban resilience in Europe. The definitions of the concept vary across disciplines. The research identifies that there are a number of existing theoretical and practice gaps that require to be addressed.

Originality/value

This paper presents a number of research and practice “gaps” which are being addressed in the HARMONISE project and which require to be addressed by the wider academic and practice communities.

Details

Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-4387

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Book part
Publication date: 30 March 2011

Akhilesh Surjan, Anshu Sharma and Rajib Shaw

Urban resilience is a fairly new but rapidly emerging area of interest. Academia as well as the professional and practitioner communities are increasingly engaged in…

Abstract

Urban resilience is a fairly new but rapidly emerging area of interest. Academia as well as the professional and practitioner communities are increasingly engaged in understanding the characteristics of resilience in complex urban issues. The year 2007–2008 was a historical milestone in human history for two reasons. First, the percentage of urban population to total population in the world touched 50 percent; second, the works of climate scientists were recognized as being so significant that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) received the Nobel Prize for Peace in 2007. Both events are closely associated with and provide special impetus to further research into and understanding of urban resilience, which this chapter discusses further in the following sections.

Details

Climate and Disaster Resilience in Cities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-319-5

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Taedong Lee and Taehwa Lee

Ongoing climate risks require all levels of society to be resilient. Urban areas, which are densely developed with huge levels of population and infrastructure, are…

Abstract

Purpose

Ongoing climate risks require all levels of society to be resilient. Urban areas, which are densely developed with huge levels of population and infrastructure, are critical places to develop adaptation and resilience strategies. This study aims to conceptualize evolutionary urban climate resilience strategies with a step-by-step analytic framework that will be called 3R: Recognition–Readiness–Response.

Design/methodology/approach

This analytic framework is then applied to assess whether and to what extent the components of urban climate resilience are incorporated into the pertinent ordinances and policies of the Seoul Metropolitan Government, including climate change, urban planning and disaster management.

Findings

The findings of this study suggest that the climate change ordinances of Seoul have focused on climate mitigation rather than resilience.

Practical implications

Thus, comprehensive efforts are required to incorporate evolutionary urban climate resilience strategies into ordinances and practices.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to build an analytic framework that provides a step-by-step process with check-list questions based on the sub-components of urban climate resilience procedure.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 8 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Zeynep Deniz Yaman Galantini and Azime Tezer

This paper aims to describe an updated urban planning process to expose a theoretical model bridging the resilience concept and urban planning, and then it explains this…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe an updated urban planning process to expose a theoretical model bridging the resilience concept and urban planning, and then it explains this process through Istanbul case.

Design/methodology/approach

A hypothetical framework is proposed based on the three different but complementary aspects of resilience which are identified as “resilience to what”, “resilience where” and “resilience how”, as well as “five elements process” referring the upgraded components of urban planning processes. Additionally, the methodology conducted to figure out a resilient urban planning process is listed as an expert opinion survey, a two-stage policy Delphi survey, public opinion survey and multi-criteria analysis.

Findings

It is possible to apply this process in many different case studies for various scales and temporalities for coping with the key vulnerabilities and promote the administrative response capacity.

Research limitations/implications

Considering size of the study area and the unclarified roles of urban authorities, it is difficult to have a consensus on the key vulnerabilities and the prior urban policies.

Originality/value

The proposed process is beneficial in addressing the most prominent vulnerabilities and developing capacity to manage unexpected changes, through the collaborative decisions of a wide range of urban planning authorities. Depending on the severity of the disturbances, applying this process to identify changing priorities can be a crucial policy, both for long- or short-term urban policy-making, for further studies.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article
Publication date: 23 April 2020

Maksims Feofilovs, Francesco Romagnoli, Charlotte Kendra Gotangco, Jairus Carmela Josol, Jean Meir Perez Jardeleza, Joseph Emanuel Litam, Joaquin Ignacio Campos and Katrina Abenojar

This paper aims to present the concepts of two different ways of generating a dynamic structure of the urban system to further allow in understanding specific urban

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the concepts of two different ways of generating a dynamic structure of the urban system to further allow in understanding specific urban behavior facing against flood and further evaluate the potential effect of specific resilience strategies aiming to decrease the exposure and vulnerability of the system.

Design/methodology/approach

Two system dynamics model structures are presented in form of Casual Loop Diagrams.

Findings

The main differences among the tow approaches are the time horizon and the approach that regulates the assessment of the resilience through a dynamic composite indicator: the first model refers to baseline at initial simulation time; the second model is focused on the ratio service supply to demand.

Research limitations/implications

Within the approach, the purpose is to properly and efficiently evaluate the effect of different Flood Risk Management strategies, i.e. prevention, defence, mitigation, preparation and recovery for consistent and resilient flood governance plans with different type of resilience scenarios.

Originality/value

The need for such tool is underlined by a lack on the assessment of urban resilience to flood as whole, considering the physical and social dimensions and the complex interaction among their main components. There are several assessment tools based on an indicator approach that have been proposed to meet this need. Nevertheless, indicator-based approach has the limitation to exclude the complexity of the system and its systemic interaction in terms of feedbacks’ effects among the identified components or variables selected for the system description. This peculiarity can be provided by System Dynamics modeling.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article
Publication date: 25 July 2018

Nicole Baron and Zegeye Cherenet

Resilience has recently attracted widespread interest in the field of urban planning and theory. However, the research that has been conducted on urban resilience in…

Abstract

Purpose

Resilience has recently attracted widespread interest in the field of urban planning and theory. However, the research that has been conducted on urban resilience in Africa has major theoretical and methodological gaps. This can lead to problems when designing and implementing resilience strategies there. Understanding African perspectives can be a way of tackling these. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the example of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, this paper analyses expert interviews based on a grounded theory approach. The goal is to explore locally specific perceptions of and pathways to urban resilience. By comparing these findings to those reported in the existing literature, differences and overlaps are identified.

Findings

This study provides evidence for the existence of locally specific perceptions of and pathways to urban resilience. Furthermore, it identifies urban development pathways such as complete urban makeover (tabula rasa) and complete negation of change (resistance).

Research limitations/implications

Because this study uses Addis Ababa as a singular case and expert interviews as method, it rather represents an initial attempt at exploring a new research field than claiming generalisability. Its quality and significance lie in its discursive approach and theory formation.

Practical implications

This exemplary study from Ethiopia demonstrates that a regionally specific understanding of urban resilience is valuable for the design and implementation of urban resilience strategies.

Originality/value

This study offers unique insights into urban resilience from an African perspective and into the manifestation of urban resilience in Addis Ababa.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2016

Alessandra Feliciotti, Ombretta Romice and Sergio Porta

The sheer complexity and unpredictability characterising cities challenges the adequacy of existing disciplinary knowledge and tools in urban design and highlights the…

Abstract

The sheer complexity and unpredictability characterising cities challenges the adequacy of existing disciplinary knowledge and tools in urban design and highlights the necessity to incorporate explicitly the element of change and the dimension of time in the understanding of, and intervention on, the form of cities. To this regard the concept of resilience is a powerful lens through which to understand and engage with a changing world. However, resilience is currently only superficially addressed by urban designers, and an explicit effort to relate elements of urban form to resilience principles is still lacking. This represents a great limit for urban designers, as the physical dimension of cities is the matter they work with in the first place. In this paper, we combine established knowledge in urban morphology and resilience theory. We firstly look at resilience theory and consistently define five proxies of resilience in urban form, namely diversity, redundancy, modularity, connectivity and efficiency. Secondly, we discuss the configuration of, and interdependencies between, several constituent elements of the physical city, as defined in urban morphology and design, in light of the mentioned five proxies. Finally, we conduct this exploration at five scales that are relevant to urban morphology and design: plot, street edge, block, street and sanctuary area / district.

Details

Open House International, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2018

Shirleyana Shirleyana, Scott Hawken and Riza Yosia Sunindijo

The purpose of this paper is to bring a new perspective on the meaning of resilience in Indonesia’s main urban settlement type, known as kampung. The paper reviews kampung

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to bring a new perspective on the meaning of resilience in Indonesia’s main urban settlement type, known as kampung. The paper reviews kampung in major urban centres in Indonesia, but focuses on a case study of Surabaya, Indonesia’s second largest city. Despite effectively accommodating the majority of Surabaya’s population, kampung inhabitants are stigmatised and kampung are viewed as slum-like habitats. Such a pejorative view neglects to consider the importance of kampung and ignores their inherent and potential resilience. It is important to study both the risks and resilience of kampung so that they can be developed to address social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities in Southeast Asian cities.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify the risks and resilience of kampung. Key themes were mapped from the literature and used to construct a framework for understanding and enhancing resilience within this distinctive vernacular settlement type. In addition, a place-based approach constructed from remote sensing and field studies provide a deeper understanding of the structure of this urban settlement type.

Findings

Kampung play an important role in housing the majority of Surabaya’s population and are an intrinsic part of the city’s urban structure. The characteristics and conditions of kampung vary throughout Indonesia. Surabaya has a variety of kampung types which demonstrates distinctive forms of both risk and resilience. This research finds that there are many positive dimensions of kampung and that this vital form of settlement is well suited to support the growth and sustainability of Southeast Asia’s emerging megacities.

Research limitations/implications

This paper evaluates the current state of knowledge on risk and resilience of kampung within Surabaya. To gain a clearer understanding of why kampung are resilient, long-term field work and deeper analysis of kampung, in particular the social and physical structures, are needed.

Practical implications

Planning for high-density urban development needs to integrate kampung as a part of existing and new urban settlements to accommodate diverse populations.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates that knowledge on kampung resilience is relevant to the adaptation of existing urban settlements and the future development of new urban settlements. This paper contributes a clearer understanding of why kampung in Surabaya are not slums and establishes a framework that supports the development of kampung as a resilient and functional settlement type in current and future urban developments. Considering the large and rapidly growing populations who depend on kampung in the Southeast Asian region, this research is of considerable significance.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2021

Wenping Xu, Jinting Cong and David G. Proverbs

The purpose of this study is to undertake an evaluation of the resilient capacity of the infrastructure systems in the city of Wuhan. This evaluation focuses on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to undertake an evaluation of the resilient capacity of the infrastructure systems in the city of Wuhan. This evaluation focuses on the ability of the infrastructure to cope with extreme weather from multiple dimensions and to propose effective interventions against such risks.

Design/methodology/approach

This research draws on a review and synthesis of the theory of resilience and adopts the literature induction method to build an evaluation index for five urban systems, namely: roads; water supply and drainage; energy and power; urban disaster reduction; and communications. Index data from the period of 1990–2019 are combined with the views of experts from Wuhan and analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) to calculate the weightings of the five urban systems. A fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is then used to investigate the resilient capacity of these five urban infrastructure systems in the city.

Findings

Generally, the results show that the resilience of the infrastructure systems in Wuhan are at a high level. Based on the results, the communications and roads systems are found to have higher levels of resilience, while the disaster mitigation system is found to have a relatively low level of resilience. Recommendations are suggested to help improve resilience and prioritize investments in the development of the city's infrastructure systems.

Research limitations/implications

The development of these specific indicators and quantitative requirements have not been studied in detail, so a more comprehensive, systematic evaluation of quantitative indicators and methods of urban infrastructure resilience is still required. In addition, the research on the resilience of urban infrastructure under extreme weather is still in its infancy, and it is essential to further increase the quantitative assessment of the resilience of urban infrastructure under construction. This will also be indispensable information in the subsequent implementation of a resilient planning process.

Originality/value

This research builds a rigorous and reliable evaluation model that avoids any subjective bias in the results and represents a new approach to evaluate the resilience of the infrastructure systems in the city of Wuhan, which could be applied to other cities.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2021

Bui P.L., (Charline) Tzu-Ling Chen and Eugenia Wickens

COVID-19 impacts different groups and subsectors of tourism unevenly, with massive vulnerabilities in tourism operating systems among urban tourism areas. Different types…

Abstract

Purpose

COVID-19 impacts different groups and subsectors of tourism unevenly, with massive vulnerabilities in tourism operating systems among urban tourism areas. Different types of COVID-19 related crises depend on isolation or returning to “normal” in various urban areas. Boosting domestic tourism activities to spark resilience before international demand returns is essential to stimulating local demand worldwide. This paper aims to build upon a non-exhaustive review of the scientific literature about tourism resilience issues to see the bigger picture of tourism resilience on three levels worldwide.

Design/methodology/approach

This research applies a content analysis technique to collect research data from the latest scientific papers on tourism resilience issues. This study will use searching and filtering on the Scopus web database and based on the VOSviewer algorithm to identify useful insights and determine a framework for tourism resilience issues on three levels.

Findings

The outcome of three aspects of resilience, which mainly relate to the development of tourism industry sectors (transportation, accommodation, food and beverage) and other industries (research and education) connected to urban tourism resilience, could be useful for future researchers to explore less-studied issues and policymakers’ future application.

Research limitations/implications

The research data are mostly from literature reviews of papers that may not interpret all contemporary resilience issues and the research data are based on urban areas alone.

Originality/value

The research idea is fresh and adds new knowledge to professionals’ or policymakers’ future applications.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

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