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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Udo E. Simonis

The purpose of this paper is to present some basic conceptual aspects and empiric examples of urban mitigation and adaptation to climate change, of greening urban

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present some basic conceptual aspects and empiric examples of urban mitigation and adaptation to climate change, of greening urban development, as there is strong need for further research and education on these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Starting with a review of the 4th IPCC report and the Stern Review, a strategy is developed on how to make cities main actors in fighting climate change. First examples of successful urban greening are presented.

Findings

Cities are main drivers of climate change, and they are driven by climate change. Therefore, there is a strong need for “greening” urban development, i.e. for both mitigation and adaptation activities.

Practical implications

Mitigation requires the reduction (more or less drastically) of urban energy and material flows. Adaptation requires restructure (more or less radically) of the established urban stocks.

Originality/value

Until recently, cities and urban areas have not been in the focus of climate change research and climate policy. The paper shows the need for change of both theory and practice.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 38 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Chunlu Liu and Yan Li

The rapid and ongoing expansion of urbanised impervious areas could lead to more frequent flood inundation in urban flood-prone regions. Nowadays, urban flood inundation…

Abstract

Purpose

The rapid and ongoing expansion of urbanised impervious areas could lead to more frequent flood inundation in urban flood-prone regions. Nowadays, urban flood inundation induced by rainstorm is an expensive natural disaster in many countries. In order to reduce the flooding risk, eco-roof systems (or green roof systems) could be considered as an effective mechanism of mitigating flooding disasters through their rainwater retention capability. However, there is still a lack of examining the stormwater management tool. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects on flooding disaster from extensive green roofs.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on geographical information system (GIS) simulation, this research presents a frame of assessing eco-roof impacts on urban flash floods. The approach addresses both urban rainfall-runoff and underground hydrologic models for traditional impervious and green roofs. Deakin University’s Geelong Waurn Ponds campus is chosen as a study case. GIS technologies are then utilised to visualise and analyse the effects on flood inundation from surface properties of building roofs.

Findings

The results reveal that the eco-roof systems generate varying degrees of mitigation of urban flood inundation with different return period storms.

Originality/value

Although the eco-roof technology is considered as an effective stormwater management tool, it is not commonly adopted and examined in urban floods. This study will bring benefits to urban planners for raising awareness of hazard impacts and to construction technicians for considering disaster mitigation via roof technologies. The approach proposed here could be used for the disaster mitigation in future urban planning.

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Article
Publication date: 29 August 2008

Kanako Iuchi and Ann‐Margaret Esnard

The purpose of this paper is to show that the Philippines is often described as the melting pot of natural disasters (typhoons, floods and torrential rains). As part of…

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1547

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show that the Philippines is often described as the melting pot of natural disasters (typhoons, floods and torrential rains). As part of the Pacific ring of fire, the Philippines is also prone to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. In the current disaster management scheme, the poor are likely to be put last. Conventional risk reduction mitigation methods (such as land use and building codes) are failing. A paradigm shift is needed – one that enables poor communities to maximize their limited resources and contribute to risk reduction.

Design/methodology/approach

Interviews and field investigations were conducted between 2001 and 2006 in three case study neighborhoods in Metro Manila to understand the risk components that exist and the resources (or lack of) for dealing with them.

Findings

Field surveys highlighted three major risk components: liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), illegal electrical connections, and residential buildings. Mitigation efforts need to be implemented by: developing hybrid community organizations; minimizing direct physical damage; developing neighborhood cooperatives through microfinance schemes; and developing an in‐kind community insurance system.

Originality/value

While this research focused on earthquake impact mitigation, the inquiry and findings with respect to the urban poor in high risk areas, have applicability to other localities in the developing world. Furthermore, Manila's situation is not unique. Disaster threats, rapid substandard urban development, growth in the number of the poor, and degradation of social capital, are phenomena present in other parts of the developing world. In such settings, traditional mitigation approaches are difficult to carry out effectively as well.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Paola Lassandro and Teresa Cosola

This paper aims to increase the resilience of building systems, especially roofs, in relation to climate changes. The focus is on Mediterranean cities, where, often, there…

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210

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to increase the resilience of building systems, especially roofs, in relation to climate changes. The focus is on Mediterranean cities, where, often, there is no regulation about these issues. Therefore, it is necessary to define resilience indicators through comparative studies of adaptive roof solutions to mitigate overheating in summer.

Design/methodology/approach

Through software simulations and data comparison, a specific methodological approach is used to analyze the resilience levels of different roof solutions (phase change materials, aerogel, green and cool roof), starting from energy efficiency as a prerequisite of resilience. Moreover, a case study of a historic existing building in a southern Italian town is examined.

Findings

The findings show the best strategies for building systems, especially for roofs, to decrease urban heat island effects according to the defined resilience indicators against overheating mitigation.

Research limitations/implications

Other building systems, such as facades, also have to be investigated in relation to climate change mitigation.

Practical implications

The implementation of resilient solutions that can also affect neighborhood for urban heat island mitigation.

Social implications

Because of resilience indicators definition, it is easier to introduce economic incentives according to reference thresholds and to increase community involvement.

Originality/value

The paper provides a new approach for the evaluation of technological solutions for a building from a resilience point of view, which has energy efficiency as pre-condition.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article
Publication date: 2 June 2021

Dimitra Dritsa and Nimish Biloria

This paper presents a critical review of studies which map the urban environment using continuous physiological data collection. A conceptual model is consequently…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents a critical review of studies which map the urban environment using continuous physiological data collection. A conceptual model is consequently presented for mitigating urban stress at the city and the user level.

Design/methodology/approach

The study reviews relevant publications, examining the tools used for data collection and the methods used for data analysis and data fusion. The relationship between urban features and physiological responses is also examined.

Findings

The review showed that the continuous monitoring of physiological data in the urban environment can be used for location-aware stress detection and urban emotion mapping. The combination of physiological and contextual data helps researchers understand how the urban environment affects the human body. The review indicated a relationship between some urban features (green, land use, traffic, isovist parameters) and physiological responses, though more research is needed to solidify the existence of the identified links. The review also identified many theoretical, methodological and practical issues which hinder further research in this area.

Originality/value

While there is large potential in this field, there has been no review of studies which map continuously physiological data in the urban environment. This study covers this gap and introduces a novel conceptual model for mitigating urban stress.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Leila Irajifar, Neil Sipe and Tooran Alizadeh

This paper examines the impact of urban form on disaster resiliency. The literature shows a complex relationship between urban form factors such as density and diversity…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the impact of urban form on disaster resiliency. The literature shows a complex relationship between urban form factors such as density and diversity and disaster recovery. The empirical analysis in this paper tests the impact of land use mix, population density, building type and diversity on the reconstruction progress in three, six and nine months after the 2010 flood in Brisbane and Ipswich as proxies of disaster resilience. Considerable debate exists on whether urban form factors are the causal incentive or are they mediating other non-urban form causal factors such as income level. In view of this, the effects of a series of established non-urban form factors such as income and tenure, already known as effective factors on disaster resilience, are controlled in the analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The structure of this paper is based on a two-phase research approach. In the first phase, for identification of hypothetical relationships between urban form and disaster resiliency, information was gathered from different sources on the basis of theory and past research findings. Then in phase two, a database was developed to test these hypothetical relationships, employing statistical techniques (including multivariate regression and correlation analysis) in which disaster recovery was compared among 76 suburbs of Brisbane and Ipswich with differing levels of population density and land use mix.

Findings

The results indicate that population density is positively related to disaster resilience, even when controlling for contextual variables such as income level and home ownership. The association between population density and disaster reconstruction is non-linear. The progress of reconstruction to population density ratio increases from low, medium to high densities, while in very low and very high density areas the reconstruction progress does not show the same behavior, which suggests that medium-high density is the most resilient.

Originality/value

The originality of this paper is in extracting hypothetical relationships between urban form and resiliency and testing them with real world data. The results confirmed the contribution of density to recovery process in this case study. This illustrates the importance of attention to disaster resiliency measures from the early stages of design and planning in development of resilient urban communities.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2014

Penelope Allan and Martin Bryant

This paper aims to propose the concept of resilience as a way of aligning these disciplines. Theories of recovery planning and urban design theories have a common interest…

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1541

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose the concept of resilience as a way of aligning these disciplines. Theories of recovery planning and urban design theories have a common interest in providing for the health and safety of urban communities. However, the requirements of safe refuge and recovery after a disturbance, such as an earthquake, are sometimes at odds with theories of urbanism.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyses the data from two case studies: the earthquake and fire of 1906 in San Francisco and the Chile earthquake of 2010. It uses a set of resilience attributes already embedded in the discourse of urban theory to evaluate each city’s built environment and the way people have adapted to that built environment to recover following an earthquake.

Findings

The findings suggests that resilience attributes, when considered interdependently, can potentially assist in the design of resilient cities which have an enhanced capacity to recover following an earthquake.

Originality/value

They also suggest that the key to the successful integration of recovery planning and urban design lies in a shift of thinking that sees resilience as a framework for the design of cities that not only contributes significantly to the quality of everyday urban life but also can be adapted as essential life support and an agent of recovery in the event of an earthquake.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2011

Bishawjit Mallick, Khan Rubayet Rahaman and Joachim Vogt

The opportunities and potentials of the coastal zone all over the world have not received much attention, and also the disaster mitigation approaches are seen as a…

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2080

Abstract

Purpose

The opportunities and potentials of the coastal zone all over the world have not received much attention, and also the disaster mitigation approaches are seen as a curative measure rather than protective, both of which raise questions about sustainable coastal belt planning and development. What is needed is a multidisciplinary approach to tackle the complexity of social systems, and patterns of vulnerability in those systems. The aim of this paper is to attempt to understand those challenges in context of cyclone SIDR 2007 in Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

The combination of spatial and socio‐economic data in this study is based on an empirical analysis. After clustering the geographical boundary, a systematic random sampling technique was applied to identify the respondents for a household survey. A total of 47 percent of the respondents were illiterate and thus required the help of data collectors. In‐depth interviews were conducted with the victims of cyclone Sidr to ascertain their experiences during the event.

Findings

The heterogeneous characteristics of the respondents show that the impact of disasters varies from individual to individual, group to group and community to community. It is evident that an affected community waiting for relief and reconstruction materials attracts “dependency on relief works” which makes them more “vulnerable” to other calamities. In the long run it increases the poverty ratio and pressurizes them to stay in a “vulnerability trap” in any type of calamity. Furthermore, it reveals a socio‐infrastructural vulnerability and also the overall “social vulnerability” concepts by using a combination of socio‐spatial data.

Originality/value

This paper contains valuable information regarding the adaptation strategies to cyclone hazards resorted to by coastal peoples in Bangladesh.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 8 March 2021

Ga Yoon Choi, Hwan Sung Kim, Hyungkyoo Kim and Jae Seung Lee

In cities with high density, heat is often trapped between buildings which increases the frequency and intensity of heat events. Researchers have focused on developing…

Abstract

Purpose

In cities with high density, heat is often trapped between buildings which increases the frequency and intensity of heat events. Researchers have focused on developing strategies to mitigate the negative impacts of heat in cities. Adopting green infrastructure and cooling pavements are some of the many ways to promote thermal comfort against heat. The purpose of this study is to improve microclimate conditions and thermal comfort levels in high-density living conditions in Seoul, South Korea.

Design/methodology/approach

This study compares six design alternatives of an apartment complex with different paving and planting systems. It also examines the thermal outcome of the alternatives under normal and extreme heat conditions to suggest strategies to secure acceptable thermal comfort levels for the inhabitants. Each alternative is analyzed using ENVI-met, a software program that simulates microclimate conditions and thermal comfort features based on relationships among buildings, vegetation and pavements.

Findings

The results indicate that grass paving was more effective than stone paving in lowering air temperature and improving thermal comfort at the near-surface level. Coniferous trees were found to be more effective than broadleaf trees in reducing temperature. Thermal comfort levels were most improved when coniferous trees were planted in paired settings.

Practical implications

Landscape elements show promise for the improvement of thermal conditions because it is much easier to redesign landscape elements, such as paving or planting, than to change fixed urban elements like buildings and roads. The results identified the potential of landscape design for improving microclimate and thermal comfort in urban residential complexes.

Originality/value

The results contribute to the literature by examining the effect of tree species and layout on thermal comfort levels, which has been rarely investigated in previous studies.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 8 November 2011

Bishawjit Mallick and Joachim Vogt

This paper aims to discuss issues related to disaster mitigation planning provisions in Bangladesh, one of the most disaster‐prone countries in Asia. It seeks to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss issues related to disaster mitigation planning provisions in Bangladesh, one of the most disaster‐prone countries in Asia. It seeks to concentrate on the issues related to the role of local groups in establishing cyclone shelters.

Design/methodology/approach

In February 2008, a field study was conducted in the Southwest coastal region of Bangladesh. Combining the most recent empirical data, the location of cyclone shelters and the social supremacy structure are explored in this paper. Vulnerability due to infrastructure is defined here on the basis of available infrastructural facilities i.e. cyclone shelters, by using catchment area analysis in the geographical information system (GIS) software ArcGIS. The paper bases its argument on the assumption that the location of an infrastructure item like a cyclone shelter is dependent on the influential and motivational power of local elites and not on the necessity of the deprived people. Vulnerability, from this perspective, is interpreted in this study as a result of socio‐political supremacy in establishing cyclone shelters in coastal regions of Bangladesh.

Findings

The results indicate that locally supreme groups are located the closest to the cyclone shelter and may control local‐level disaster mitigation planning.

Research limitations/implications

The paper outlines the “social supremacy” concept based on one rural union and the communication rationalities of the general people. Both describe the ways of identification, the social spectrum of public interests as well as the decision‐making process in rural Bangladesh.

Originality/value

The paper contains valuable information regarding rural society and its socio‐political structure as well as planning problems in coastal Bangladesh.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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