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Book part
Publication date: 30 July 2020

Kyle S. Bunds, Christopher M. McLeod and Joshua I. Newman

The purpose of this chapter is to adopt and demonstrate the value of a political ecology approach in examining sport stadia, particularly stadia in the United States. We…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to adopt and demonstrate the value of a political ecology approach in examining sport stadia, particularly stadia in the United States. We attempt to highlight how in the development of stadia key decision-makers sometimes overlook questions of community and environmental health and security.

We took an ontological approach in considering what it means for the stadium to exist in the current political ideological time period. For us, this meant raising questions about how we understand the varying human and nonhuman components of the stadium, and how they connect and influence one another. From there, we outline why political ecology is a useful framework for examining the environmental costs of stadia and their development. We utilize the city of Detroit's decision to provide funding for Little Caesars Arena – home to professional basketball and hockey competitions – to argue that investment in sport stadia creates environmental opportunity costs to the “host” community.

In the case of Detroit, we argue that private economic gain took precedence over community and environmental health and security when decisions were made on infrastructure. Specifically, despite the city going through bankruptcy and locking citizens out of water, the decision was made to provide millions of dollars for the construction of Little Caesars Arena and the development of the land immediately surrounding the arena. Through this, we suggest the need to produce informed case studies surrounding the environmental consideration.

The focus on community and environmental health and security is lacking from the discourse of stadia development in the United States. This chapter seeks to bring this consideration to the forefront by offering a way to examine these issues from a political ecological standpoint, and we urge researchers to conduct case studies using a political ecological framework with a community focus.

Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2014

Steven B. Scyphers and Susannah B. Lerman

Climate change is a global threat to social, economic, and environmental sustainability. In an increasingly urbanized world, homeowners play an important role in climate…

Abstract

Purpose

Climate change is a global threat to social, economic, and environmental sustainability. In an increasingly urbanized world, homeowners play an important role in climate adaptation and environmental sustainability through decisions to landscape and manage their residential properties.

Methodology/approach

In this chapter, we review the potential impacts of climate change on environmental sustainability in urban ecosystems and highlight the role of urban and suburban residents in conserving biodiversity. We focus extensively on the interactions of homeowners and residential landscapes in urban coastal and desert environments.

Practical implications

Understanding how human-environment interactions are linked with a changing climate is especially relevant for coastal and desert cities in the United States, which are already experiencing visible impacts of climate change. In fact, many homeowners are already making decisions in response to environmental change, and these decisions will ultimately shape the future structure, function and sustainability of these critically important ecosystems.

Social implications

Considering the close relationship between biodiversity and the health and well-being of human societies, understanding how climate change and other social motivations affect the landscaping decisions of urban residents will be critical for predicting and enhancing sustainability in these social-ecological systems.

Details

From Sustainable to Resilient Cities: Global Concerns and Urban Efforts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-058-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1991

Ekhart Hahn and Udo E. Simonis

Cities are “built thought”; they represent the mostmaterialised form of the relation between society and environment. Thus,in a special sense, cities worldwide have become…

Abstract

Cities are “built thought”; they represent the most materialised form of the relation between society and environment. Thus, in a special sense, cities worldwide have become a symbol of the environmental crisis, of the transformation of valuable natural resources into waste and pollutants. Cities, however, have also always been places of innovations. Solutions emanate from people whose living conditions are threatened. Many signs indicate that the time is ripe for basic changes in production and consumption processes, in people′s attitudes and behaviour, and also in the built‐up structures of cities. This article, therefore, introduces the concept of “ecological urban restructuring”. The concept was theoretically developed and empirically tested in an international comparative research project. The three main elements of the concept are: (1) eight points of orientation as general guidelines; (2) fields of action and building blocks as methodological aids for integrated strategies; (3) concept of ecological neighbourhood development as a concept for action on the urban neighbourhood level. Finally, an overview is given on recent initiatives by international organisations on the topic of urban ecology.

Details

Environmental Management and Health, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2008

Richard C. Smardon

The purpose of this paper is the comparison of Local Agenda 21 – sustainability plan implementation and research activity between Europe, North America and India.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is the comparison of Local Agenda 21 – sustainability plan implementation and research activity between Europe, North America and India.

Design/methodology/approach

Intensive literature and web search for European, North American and Indian Local Agenda 21 sustainability planning and implementation status.

Findings

Close to 6,000 sustainability plans have been prepared for European communities versus about 100 for North American communities. A total of 20 Indian cities have started sustainability planning efforts. There is an extensive support network for European communities and much less so or North American and Indian communities. Most sustainability/biodiversity/urban ecosystems research is ongoing in Europe and North America and there is a beginning surge of activity in India.

Practical implications

Knowledge of Local Agenda 21 implementation status between these three regions can hopefully spur more activity in North America and India. Comparisons of applicable planning innovations and approaches could be useful.

Originality/value

There has not been a comparison of Local Agenda 21 implementation that compares Europe, North America and India. There have been some reviews respective to each region.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2012

Nitin Srivastava, Sunil Prashar, Akhilesh Surjan and Rajib Shaw

The chapter tries to trace the development of concept of urban ecosystem as a problem-solving approach for urban problems, including the unwarranted problems caused by…

Abstract

The chapter tries to trace the development of concept of urban ecosystem as a problem-solving approach for urban problems, including the unwarranted problems caused by climate change. Urban management has increasingly shifted from infrastructure-based to a more regional-based approach. There has been a shift in the domain of urban ecosystem as well, from the established urbanized area to the aggregation of urban and surrounding rural area. Also, urban-rural linkages are given more attention in resource management in urban areas, thereby reducing the overall risk due to climate change. The chapter provides examples and challenges of urban ecosystem management from across the world.

Details

Ecosystem-Based Adaptation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-691-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Vesa Yli‐Pelkonen, Karoliina Pispa and Inari Helle

Urban stream ecosystems have often been seen as channels of water flow rather than as the valuable parts of an urban green space system providing ecosystem services. The…

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Abstract

Purpose

Urban stream ecosystems have often been seen as channels of water flow rather than as the valuable parts of an urban green space system providing ecosystem services. The study seeks to address the importance of urban stream ecosystems from the perspective of urban ecology, human health and social well‐being in the context of urban planning.

Design/methodology/approach

The case study area is the Rekolanoja stream ecosystem in the City of Vantaa, southern Finland. The data from the case study area were gathered from existing ecological studies and by conducting semi‐structured interviews, a resident inquiry and a writing contest.

Findings

The results from the Rekolanoja case show that intense management of the streamside vegetation and treatment of the stream channel in construction projects have decreased species richness and diminished valuable streamside biotopes. However, the stream corridor can function as an important recreational and educational element within the local green space network and thereby become a symbol of local identity.

Practical implications

Planners, decision‐makers and other interest groups can use the findings from this study in determining the values of small urban stream ecosystems in urban development.

Originality/value

The Rekolanoja case indicates that planners and residents see the value of such an aquatic element as increasingly important for urban biodiversity and ecological corridor functions, as well as for local human health and social well‐being, e.g. recreation and stress relief. Future land‐use decisions will show whether a genuine change in the values and thinking of planners and decision‐makers is taking place.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2018

Yu Xiaohui, Yang Ruhui and Liu Bo

Urban spatial form influences the social, economic, and ecological development modes of the city. The spatial form during the urbanization of Hanjiang River Basin in…

Abstract

Urban spatial form influences the social, economic, and ecological development modes of the city. The spatial form during the urbanization of Hanjiang River Basin in Southern Shaanxi needs to be studied. In this study, research methodologies on urban spatial form in China and abroad were summarized. The concept of ecology background was applied, and the research framework for urban spatial form, which integrated the background, framework, core, axis, cluster, and skin, was established. Valley cities in the Hanjiang River Basin in Southern Shaanxi were classified into wide valley, narrow valley, and canyon cities. The spatial form characteristics of these three types of valley cities were discussed. A case study based on a typical city-Yang County-was conducted to discuss the characteristics of the aforementioned six elements of urban spatial form. Finally, spatial form characteristics were summarized. These characteristics provide a basis for the study of the small valley urban spatial form in the Hanjiang River Basin in Southern Shaanxi.

Details

Open House International, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2016

Hai-ling Guan

With the development of social economy, the urbanization of the world has presented a new development trend. The green, ecological, and economic city has gradually…

Abstract

With the development of social economy, the urbanization of the world has presented a new development trend. The green, ecological, and economic city has gradually attracted people's attention. How to plan new cities and towns to coordinate economic development with nature has been the focus of domestic and foreign scholars. Based on this premise, this article elaborates the domestic and foreign research status of ecological city and puts forward a new type of green ecological civilization from the perspective of evolution of civilization. From the perspective of green ecological economy, the evolution of China's urban planning is studied in terms of the urban and rural areas, nature, pollution, industry, culture, and other aspects. To accumulate experience, green ecological planning in New York is also analyzed at multiple levels, such as urban expansion, energy, and urban water use. According to the development of our country in the past 30 years, the development strategy of urbanization suitable to China's national conditions is introduced on the basis of ecological economy. From the perspective of green ecological planning and economy, practice has proved that new urban planning is able to promote the establishment of a resource-saving society, to enhance the coordinated development of the population, resources, environment, and economy, and to comprehensively improve people's quality of life.

Details

Open House International, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 December 2007

Sharon L. Harlan, Anthony J. Brazel, G. Darrel Jenerette, Nancy S. Jones, Larissa Larsen, Lela Prashad and William L. Stefanov

The urban heat island is an unintended consequence of humans building upon rural and native landscapes. We hypothesized that variations in vegetation and land use patterns…

Abstract

The urban heat island is an unintended consequence of humans building upon rural and native landscapes. We hypothesized that variations in vegetation and land use patterns across an urbanizing regional landscape would produce a temperature distribution that was spatially heterogeneous and correlated with the social characteristics of urban neighborhoods. Using biophysical and social data scaled to conform to US census geography, we found that affluent whites were more likely to live in vegetated and less climatically stressed neighborhoods than low-income Latinos in Phoenix, Arizona. Affluent neighborhoods had cooler summer temperatures that reduced exposure to outdoor heat-related health risks, especially during a heat wave period. In addition to being warmer, poorer neighborhoods lacked critical resources in their physical and social environments to help them cope with extreme heat. Increased average temperatures due to climate change are expected to exacerbate the impacts of urban heat islands.

Details

Equity and the Environment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1417-1

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2016

Peng Wang, Xingpeng Chen and Xiaomeng Wei

On the basis of the research data of 120 enterprises from 10 development zones in Gansu Province, we conducted regional planning research combining enterprise architecture…

Abstract

On the basis of the research data of 120 enterprises from 10 development zones in Gansu Province, we conducted regional planning research combining enterprise architecture with ecological green space environment system. We determined that the largest part of the green space pattern is the “other green space,” which mainly depends on the formation of super large plantation. However, this part is consistently decreasing in recent years. Affiliated green space became the largest in the green space patterns because of the high degree of vertical greening of the enterprise architecture in the development zones. The high fragmentation of the affiliated green space also leads to the high fragmentation of the entire green space of the development zone. In future regional planning of development zones, future planning of the green space can take the current green space as the basis, use the road green space and green corridors nearby waters as the basic framework to connect other patterns of green space, and form a ring-shaped enclosure, reticular structure, and wedge-shaped and dotted supplemented regional pattern. Meanwhile, the road green space system can be reasonably arranged by setting new green space spots at road intersections and key strategic positions to connect the isolated green space patches and improve the connectivity of the green space.

Details

Open House International, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

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