The current datafication of cities raises questions about what Lefebvre and many after him have called “the right to the city.” In this contribution, I investigate how the…
The current datafication of cities raises questions about what Lefebvre and many after him have called “the right to the city.” In this contribution, I investigate how the use of data for civic purposes may strengthen the “right to the datafied city,” that is, the degree to which different people engage and participate in shaping urban life and culture, and experience a sense of ownership. The notion of the commons acts as the prism to see how data may serve to foster this participatory “smart citizenship” around collective issues. This contribution critically engages with recent attempts to theorize the city as a commons. Instead of seeing the city as a whole as a commons, it proposes a more fine-grained perspective of the “commons-as-interface.” The “commons-as-interface,” it is argued, productively connects urban data to the human-level political agency implied by “the right to the city” through processes of translation and collectivization. The term is applied to three short case studies, to analyze how these processes engender a “right to the datafied city.” The contribution ends by considering the connections between two seemingly opposed discourses about the role of data in the smart city – the cybernetic view versus a humanist view. It is suggested that the commons-as-interface allows for more detailed investigations of mediation processes between data, human actors, and urban issues.
The chapter advances some critical reflections around commons and commoning in the smart city. It suggests that so-called smart commons – that is, forms of ownership of…
The chapter advances some critical reflections around commons and commoning in the smart city. It suggests that so-called smart commons – that is, forms of ownership of data and digital infrastructure increasingly central to the discourse around appropriation and co-production of smart technologies – tends to focus more on the outcome (open data or free software) rather than the process which maintains and reproduces such commons. Thus, the chapter makes a positional argument for a “smart approach” to the commons, advocating for a central role for the public as a stakeholder in advancing, nurturing, and maintaining urban commons in the smart city. The argument is illustrated through three brief case studies which reflect on instances of commons and commoning in relation to the implementation of public Internet infrastructure.
During Gezi Protests of June 2013, hundred thousands of people from different and even opposite groups were together on the streets of Turkey against government for a month. The abruptness, severity, diversity and creativity of Gezi Movement make it unique among urban movements in Turkey. Protesters not only challenged the police violence and authoritarian policies but also defended public spaces of their city. My analysis of Gezi Movement is based on the comparison of Lefebvre, Harvey, and Bookchin who all integrated the critique of capitalism and revolutionary vision into urban movements. However, they are different in terms of what revolution, city, class, citizen, and urban social movements are. Gezi Movement is discussed through the similarities and differences of three approaches.
Gezi Movement is a good example of New Social Movements which lacks an organization, hierarchy and a leader. As an urban movement it provided a glimpse of heterotopia of Lefebvre where many different groups and identities challenge the abstract space of neoliberal capitalism. The protesters, as the producers and the consumers of urban commons claimed Gezi Park and Taksim Square as Harvey stated. The transformation of protests into neighborhood forums despite losing power and participation shows the civic potential of urban movement that may develop direct democracy of citizens as a revolutionary alternative to capitalism. The spatial analysis of Gezi Movement provided insight to the revolutionary potential of urban movements in neoliberal age.
Cities by the sea have a strong identity which comes from the historic relationship between an urban community and the ocean and is important in attracting tourists. This…
Cities by the sea have a strong identity which comes from the historic relationship between an urban community and the ocean and is important in attracting tourists. This chapter analyzes urban regeneration, waterfront redevelopment, touristic valorization, and marketing strategies used by seaside cities that, by sharing their maritime culture, have achieved integrated urban transformations. This is facilitated by developing a “collaborative commons” of producers and consumers for the touristic enhancement of the metropolitan area such as Naples.
The pattern of racial segregation in U.S. elementary and secondary schools has changed significantly over the last 25 years. This chapter examines the relationship between…
The pattern of racial segregation in U.S. elementary and secondary schools has changed significantly over the last 25 years. This chapter examines the relationship between the racial composition of schools and the choices white parents make concerning the schools their children attend. Restricted access files at the Bureau of the Census allow us to identify each household's Census block of residence and, in turn, suburban public school districts and urban public school attendance areas. We find that the racial composition of schools and neighborhoods are very important in the school and location decisions of white families.
This paper aims to present a legal study addressing the way in which tourism development and planning in mountain areas can be adapted to climate change issues. It gives…
This paper aims to present a legal study addressing the way in which tourism development and planning in mountain areas can be adapted to climate change issues. It gives examples of attempts to regulate such development by law. Recent legislation in France has created new obligations targeted at ski resort managers. Urban planning and tourism development are key topics of the new French Mountain Act (law of 28 December 2016). The law moves back and forth between two goals, economic development and the protection of nature, and it is sometimes difficult to understand the general coherence of the text. Nevertheless, two significant new legal elements can be highlighted. Planning policies in mountain areas have to take climate change issues into account in the process of authorising major tourism building projects. Moreover, for the first time, the law requires obsolete ski lifts to be dismantled when they are no longer in use. Of course, although these measures are only legally theoretical at the moment, they represent important progress and are initially relevant to many ski resorts affected by global warming, especially in low-altitude mountain areas. Many of these are already experiencing a lack of snow, and a new economic model needs to be drawn up.
This paper is based on a review of French laws having an effect on mountain areas’ adaptation to climate change.
This paper presents two innovations included in the new French Mountain Act (law of 28 December 2016).
This paper underscores problems emanating from global warming in mountain areas. Some ski resorts are facing a lack of snow. The main issue is to anticipate the fact that many ski lifts, or other structures or buildings created for the snow economy, could become obsolete. Legal tools can provide a solution by forcing administrations or operators to be cautious when making decisions relating to new tourist investments, and to dismantle obsolete ski lifts.
The purpose of this paper is to attempt to find out whether the new information and communication technologies can make a significant contribution to the achievement of…
The purpose of this paper is to attempt to find out whether the new information and communication technologies can make a significant contribution to the achievement of the objective of good governance. The study identifies the factors responsible for creating a conducive environment for effective and successful implementation of e-governance for achieving good governance and the possible barriers in the implementation of e governance applications. Based on the comprehensive analysis it proposes a strategic policy framework for good governance in Punjab in India. Punjab is a developed state ranked amongst some of the top states of India in terms of per capita income and infrastructure.
The study designs a framework for good governance by getting the shared vision of all stakeholders about providing good quality administration and governance in the Indian context through “Participatory Stakeholder Assessment”. The study uses descriptive statistics, perception gap, ANOVA and factor analysis to identify the key factors for good governance, the priorities of public regarding e-services, the policy makers’ perspectives regarding good governance to be achieved through e-governance.
The study captures the good governance factors mainly contributing to the shared vision. The study further highlights that most Indian citizens in Punjab today believe in the power of information and communication technology (ICT) and want to access e-governance services. Major factors causing pain and harassment to the citizens in getting the services from various government departments include: unreasonable delay, multiple visits even for small services; poor public infrastructure and its maintenance in government offices. In the understanding of citizens the most important factors for the success of e-governance services are: overall convenience and experience of the citizens; reduction in the corruption levels by improvement in the transparency of government functioning and awareness about the availability of service amongst general masses.
The present study has evolved a shared vision of all stakeholders on good governance in the Indian context. It has opened up many new possibilities for the governments, not only to use ICTs and help them in prioritizing the governance areas for focused attention, but also help to understand the mindset of the modern citizenry, their priorities and what they consider as good governance. The study will help policy makers focus on these factors for enhancing speedy delivery of prioritized services and promote good governance in developing countries similar to India.
The purpose of this paper is to identify the value of the arts play in public spaces in replicating a contemporary commons.
The study is an exploratory investigation which uses a case study of cultural events in public parks – the Vancouver Parks Board’s fieldhouse residency program (2012-2015). The study uses content analysis of the social media sites created for these projects to identify how the sites and the cultural events were valued by stakeholders and participants.
The paper finds that, in combination, the park events and the social media discussion of them function as a form of the commons, in which new urban communities are formed or defined around specific common social interests.
The paper finds that, in combination, the park events and the reflective engagement prompted by the social media discussion of them function as a form of the commons, in which new urban communities are formed or defined around specific common social interests.
It is anticipated that cultural programs will increasingly interact with common public places.
The study supports the increased use of and recognition of public places as culturally significant.
The study aims to encourage the expansion of arts and cultural policy and programs to incorporate common public places.