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The purpose of this paper is to expand the study of representative bureaucracy by exploring attitudes about the use of public funds to support privately‐owned real estate…
The purpose of this paper is to expand the study of representative bureaucracy by exploring attitudes about the use of public funds to support privately‐owned real estate development projects. Data collected from over 1,400 members of the American Planning Association are used to determine if urban planners' demographic characteristics influence attitudes about public‐private partnerships designed to achieve different policy goals. By examining these linkages, conclusions can be drawn as to whether diversity in the planning profession offers a means of ensuring citizen preferences are taken into account when collaborative arrangements are formed to encourage urban development.
Ordinal logistic regression models are estimated to determine if the characteristics of urban planners influence perceptions about real estate projects designed to: provide affordable housing; eliminate urban blight; encourage the use of public transportation; prevent urban sprawl; enhance pedestrian mobility; and preserve historic structures.
Strong support for public‐private partnerships was observed in the sample and demographic characteristics were found to influence attitudes. Minority planners tended to be more supportive of programs designed to provide affordable housing and eliminate blight, while female planners and planners in older age cohorts were more supportive of efforts to rejuvenate urban areas. Political ideology was, however, found to have the most consistent impact on attitudes.
The paper's results suggest diversity in the planning profession offers one means of protecting citizen preferences when public‐private partnerships are formed to encourage urban development. However, the benefits of diversity must be evaluated in conjunction with planners' attitudes about the appropriate role of government in real estate development.
This chapter draws upon ethnographic observation and walking interviews with private security staff to offer in-depth insight into the hyper-regulation of the city and the…
This chapter draws upon ethnographic observation and walking interviews with private security staff to offer in-depth insight into the hyper-regulation of the city and the lived dynamics of parkour’s inconsistent inclusion and exclusion from urban space. This chapter argues that the street-level governance of urban space is largely incoherent, fractured and characterised by a myriad of conflicting spatial interests. As neoliberalism has privatised and fractured the city into a series of microspheres of spatial sovereignty, there is a lack of any notion of the common urban good; therefore, what should be allowed and prohibited from urban space. This is a manifestation of the broader trend towards post-political forms of governance. It is argued that the confusion and contradiction that surrounds what city spaces should be for actively contributed to the forms of spatial compromise developed between private security and the traceurs.
Outlook for civil service reform in Myanmar.
This chapter traces the evolution of political–administrative relationships in the South African public service. It traces how segregation and apartheid laid down the…
This chapter traces the evolution of political–administrative relationships in the South African public service. It traces how segregation and apartheid laid down the foundation of the country’s governmental system. The public service was effectively set up for Whites and poorly resourced self-governing territories were set up for Blacks. The National Party (NP) was in office from 1948 to 1994 and this long period in office led to the politicisation of the bureaucracy, with public servants gradually starting to adopt the government’s way of thinking instead of being impartial. In the 1980s, under President P.W. Botha, the government embarked on public sector reform, which included politicisation of the top levels of the public sector.
The role of the PSC/CoA is discussed – it had omnipotent human resources powers over the public service, particularly during the dying days of apartheid. The chapter then examines constitutional change in the 1990s, looking at both the Interim and Final Constitutions, which laid down the foundation of a democratic society. There is particular emphasis on political–administrative relationships and the declining influence of the PSC.
This chapter provides an overview of the South Pacific states from geographic, environmental, cultural, political, economic and demographic perspectives. Topics covered…
This chapter provides an overview of the South Pacific states from geographic, environmental, cultural, political, economic and demographic perspectives. Topics covered include environments and hazards, climate change, cultural diversity, colonialism and late independence, economic development, population and migration, trade, and aid. The contribution of the most important industries of agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining and tourism are reviewed. In terms of the future, it is argued that the key challenge in the South Pacific states is that of creating sustainable development, alongside employment and growth, and coping with environmental change.
Over the past decade, policy researchers and advocates have called for the decentralization of teacher hiring decisions from district offices to school principals. The…
Over the past decade, policy researchers and advocates have called for the decentralization of teacher hiring decisions from district offices to school principals. The purpose of this paper is to document the trends across two and a half decades in principals’ reported influence over teacher hiring decisions in the USA and explore how and whether principal influence varies systematically across contexts.
Regression analysis with secondary data using seven waves of nationally representative data from the Schools and Staffing Survey.
Principals report increased influence over the 25 years that the data span. While principals of urban schools were much more likely to report having less influence over teacher hiring compared to their non-urban counterparts in the late 1980s and early 1990s, their reported influence increased more than that of other principals.
Empowering principals as primary decision-makers assumes that they have the best information on which to make hiring decisions. At the same time, other research suggests that local teacher labor market dynamics contribute to the inequitable sorting of teachers across schools. This study raises questions regarding the implications of the increased influence of principals in teacher hiring on equity of access to quality teachers across schools.
This is the first study to explore whether and how principal influence in teacher hiring decisions has changed over time.
This article uses Michel Foucaultʼs theoretical work in examining relations of power within the unique context of street-level bureaucracies (Lipsky, 1980). Through Foucaultʼs techniques of discipline (1995), it analyzes how employees and managers are both objectified and selfproduced within collective bargaining agreements from street level organizations. Findings show that ‘managers’, ‘employees’ and ‘union representatives’ are produced but also constrained within these documents. These collective bargaining agreements also serve to ‘fix’ relationships discursively affirmed as unequal. Constrained by this ‘reality’, any potential for changing relationships between managers and employees through prescriptions that ask street-level bureaucrats to be ‘leaders’; “responsible choice-makers” (Vinzant & Crothers, 1998, p. 154) rather than policy implementers simply carrying out management directives are largely futile.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate resilience to extreme weather events (EWE) in a sample of Italian local councils (LCs), impacted by flood disasters. Whether…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate resilience to extreme weather events (EWE) in a sample of Italian local councils (LCs), impacted by flood disasters. Whether resilience as a concept is adopted by the affected councils and factors that promote or inhibit LC resilience are explored.
Using semi-structured interviews, the authors investigate seven Italian LCs that were severely impacted by the flood event. An interview protocol was developed and background information collected. A number of themes were drawn from the interview transcripts and relationships with the relevant literature were examined.
The findings highlight that the adoption of the concept of resilience is at an early stage in the LCs decision and policy making. The authors find that the financial resources and the external relations management with other public entities, NGOs and local communities, promote the LCs resilience during and after an EWE. By contrast, bureaucratic constraints and poor urban planning restrain resilience. The findings suggest that LCs resilience needs to be distinguished from local community resilience.
The paper contributes to the literature on public sector management and investigates the under-researched area of resilience within the context of the public sector, vis-à-vis, local government. In particular the realization that EWE are not the realm only of emergency personnel, but that local government managers have an integral role placed upon them during and especially after the EWE.
Investigations of urban public services remain confined to western settings while research on urban public services in non-western cities focuses mainly on the…
Investigations of urban public services remain confined to western settings while research on urban public services in non-western cities focuses mainly on the availability and delivery of basic services. Using the case study of Calcutta, this study is an empirical investigation of the evolution, spatial distribution, and changes in spatial patterns of public libraries for the period 1850–1991. It seeks to demonstrate the provision and accessibility to public libraries at the intraurban scale thereby extending research of urban service delivery to a non-western city. Within the context of urban service delivery – who benefits and why, the location of libraries in three time periods are analyzed. The study finds that the urban morphology of the colonial city continues to exert a strong influence on the growth and spatial distribution of public libraries. Empirical evidence suggests that there is no locational bias based on physical accessibility in the distribution of public libraries. No progressive or regressive spatial arrangement based on socioeconomic variables is indicated.