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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2018

Mingli Mei, Ru Zhao and Miaochen Zhu

This study investigated four different economic level areas of China (Shanghai, Shandong, Shaanxi, and Guizhou) to analyze the eastern and western urban and rural media…

Abstract

This study investigated four different economic level areas of China (Shanghai, Shandong, Shaanxi, and Guizhou) to analyze the eastern and western urban and rural media service status at different development stages. This set of data comes from the comparison of regional urban and rural areas and indicates the various aspects of differences in the survey area, including the media use habits, media resources, media consumer demand, evaluation of media services, the role of media in public life, public knowledge level, and so on. On analyzing data comprehensively, one thing can be found that there is a positive correlation between the public media contact degree and the public knowledge level. The media plays an extremely important role in public life and regional public knowledge gap between urban and rural areas exists. Furthermore, this gap is positively correlated to the media resources and media exposure. The trend of media using on mobile phone and computer in urban areas increases significantly greater than in rural areas. Then, how to narrow the urbanrural and regional public knowledge gap and reduce the negative impact of the digital divide will be an important urgent task.

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Article
Publication date: 13 January 2012

Saadia Tayyaba

Recent educational research has demonstrated ruralurban gaps in achievement and schooling conditions. Evidence from developing countries is still sparse. This study seeks…

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Abstract

Purpose

Recent educational research has demonstrated ruralurban gaps in achievement and schooling conditions. Evidence from developing countries is still sparse. This study seeks to report ruralurban disparities in achievement, student, teacher, and school characteristics based on a nationally representative sample of grade four students from four provinces of Pakistan. The study aims to take into account the limitations of previous research, mainly the issues of non‐representative samples and inadequate sampling techniques, by using proportionally adequate sample to address the potential differences in achievement of rural and urban students and how schooling, students and teacher‐related factors account for gap in achievement.

Design/methodology/approach

The primary data source for the study was the 2006 national assessment survey of year four students in government school across four provinces in four core subjects. The sample design included a two‐stage stratified random sample, where the major strata of national interest were student and school gender, geographical location and region. First stage involved selecting schools and in the second stage students were selected from schools. The procedure of estimation involved computing the average of each group's achievement scores and attached standard errors, the gap of standard errors and statistical significance of standard errors at 0.05 level.

Findings

The results show that rural and urban students had comparable levels of achievement in some of the tested learning areas. In Balochistan province, rural students outperformed their urban counterparts in three out of the four tested subjects. In Punjab and Sindh, urban students performed significantly better in social studies and language tests; scores on social studies and language did not differ significantly across location in the North West. The differences appeared to be partly explained by variation in schooling conditions, students' home background, and teachers' characteristics. Teachers' training turned out to be decisive in determining students' achievement, whereas availability of resources and multi‐grade teaching was less important.

Originality/value

Recent educational research from around the world has demonstrated ruralurban gaps in achievement and schooling conditions. Evidence from developing countries is still sparse. This study is the first attempt to report ruralurban disparities in academic achievement, student, teacher, and school characteristics based on a nationally representative sample. The study has employed an appropriate sampling strategy and proportionally adequate sample to address the potential differences in achievement of rural and urban students in four provinces. The findings could therefore be used to guide policy interventions in areas of curriculum differences, schooling conditions, teachers' training and multi‐grade teaching across provinces.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Book part
Publication date: 2 August 2021

Ikechukwu D. Nwaka and Kalu E. Uma

Controversy in the literature exists over whether self-employment is driven by worker’s deliberate entrepreneurial choices (pull factors) or an indeliberate subsistence…

Abstract

Controversy in the literature exists over whether self-employment is driven by worker’s deliberate entrepreneurial choices (pull factors) or an indeliberate subsistence employment option (push factors) in developing countries. It is therefore very important to investigate whether the self-employed are the dynamic entrepreneurial group or the subsistence-oriented group. In this chapter, the authors examine the driving forces behind the plausible growth of self-employment in urban and rural Nigeria by analyzing the self-employment choices as a function of employment’s differences in predicted earnings, human capital, demographic and family characteristics. Using the 2010/2011 and 2012/2013 waves of the General Household Survey Panel data for Nigeria, this chapter utilizes the Random Effects Regression Models (OLS and Probit Models). This chapter finds that the predicted individual earning differences between self- and paid-employment has a negative significant effect on self-employment choices – contrary to developed countries’ evidence. In other words, overwhelmingly the poor are “entrepreneurs.” This therefore means that self-employment choice is driven by the necessity of survival – the subsistence self-employed groups rather than the dynamic entrepreneurial hypothesis. The implication of these finding is unique and interesting for an African country such as Nigeria where the self-employees are vulnerable to poverty and perhaps an involuntary employment option conditioned by economic failures.

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Book part
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Chengming Han and Jiehua Lu

Purpose. This chapter explored the effects of egalitarian gender attitudes and routine housework on subjective well-being among older adults in China.…

Abstract

Purpose. This chapter explored the effects of egalitarian gender attitudes and routine housework on subjective well-being among older adults in China.

Design/methodology/approach. Data were drawn from the Third Wave Survey on the Social Status of Women in China (2010). The sample included 1,260 older adults aged 63–95, consisted of 428 urban respondents and 832 rural respondents, among which included 638 men and 622 women. Stratified linear regression models were used to examine the effects of egalitarian gender attitudes and routine housework on subjective well-being among urbanrural and gender subsamples.

Findings. The results indicated that egalitarian gender attitudes were positively related to subjective well-being. Routine housework was still gendered work in both urban and rural places in China. Routine housework predicted better subjective well-being only among rural women. There were significant differences in egalitarian gender attitudes and the division of housework between urban and rural samples.

Originality/value. Gender egalitarian attitudes and the division of housework in China were patterned not only by genders but also by the urbanrural division. Different from previous studies, housework did not have influence on subjective well-beings, except a positive association among rural women in the sample.

Details

Chinese Families: Tradition, Modernisation, and Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-157-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

Kara Chan and James U. McNeal

The current study aims to examine how media ownership, media usage and attention to advertising vary among urban and rural children in Mainland China and also to collect…

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5304

Abstract

Purpose

The current study aims to examine how media ownership, media usage and attention to advertising vary among urban and rural children in Mainland China and also to collect information about the contexts of media usage and time spent on various activities including media usage.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 1,977 urban and rural children ages six to 13 in the four Chinese cities of Beijing, Guangzhou, Nanjing and Shanghai, and in the rural areas of the four provinces of Heilongjian, Hubei, Hunan, and Yunnan, was conducted in March 2003 to May 2004. Questionnaires were distributed through 16 elementary schools and local researchers were selected and trained to administer the data collection.

Findings

Media ownership and media exposure were high for television, children's books, cassette players, VCD players and radios among both urban and rural samples. In general, media ownership, exposure and usage were higher among urban children than among rural children. However, television ownership and television exposure were slightly higher among rural children than among urban children. The urbanrural gap between media ownership and media exposure was more prominent for new media such as DVD and computer/internet. Chinese children had low to medium attention to advertising. Rural children reported a higher attention to television commercial than urban children, while urban children reported a higher attention to other forms of advertising than rural children. Media usage by sex and by age group was also reported.

Research limitations/implications

Three of the four surveyed urban cities were highly advanced in terms of their economies and advertising development compared with all other Chinese cities.

Practical implications

The study should serve as an advertising media‐planning guideline for marketers and advertisers in China. It can help marketers select the right type of media to reach a specific age‐sex profile of urban and rural Chinese children. Television, the internet and children's print media can be good potential media for promotion to urban children. TV, children's books, cassette tapes, VCDs and radios can be good potential media for promotion to rural children.

Originality/value

This paper offers insights for designing media strategies to disseminate market information to urban as well as rural children in China.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2013

Tsui‐Chuan Hsieh, Keng‐Chieh Yang, Conna Yang and Chyan Yang

The purpose of this article is to investigate urban and rural differences for online activities and e‐payment behavior patterns.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to investigate urban and rural differences for online activities and e‐payment behavior patterns.

Design/methodology/approach

This study applied the MLCA model to investigate Internet usage patterns from 11 online applications among 10,909 Taiwan residents in 25 different regions.

Findings

The results showed that online behavior patterns exhibited regional differences, as the regional segments affected the individual segments of different use patterns. For instance, the urban area comprised a higher proportion of members who were accustomed to internet applications and skilled in online shopping by using a credit card. The rural area made up a higher proportion of members who only occasionally used online services. Moreover, rural region residents used other payment methods (excluding credit cards) more often than urban region residents. As expected, users’ personal characteristics also dictated the online behavior pattern. For instance, people with higher‐level income spent relatively more money for online shopping and often used various internet applications than others.

Practical implications

The findings herein should help Internet service providers form an applicable guideline for developing service strategies of higher service satisfaction regarding products and users’ needs.

Originality/value

This study implemented a multilevel latent class model to investigate online behavior patterns that exhibited urban and rural differences, with the goal of providing service providers an understanding and mastery of their target users.

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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2019

Guangzhen Wu and Ming Wen

The purpose of this paper is to examine the disparities in stress between rural and urban police officers in China.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the disparities in stress between rural and urban police officers in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for this study were collected from a national police university in China in 2017. In total, 608 Chinese police officers were surveyed representing those attending in-service training program in the university.

Findings

Results showed that rural police officers exhibited a higher level of somatization compared to their urban counterparts, whereas no ruralurban differences were detected for other stress dimensions – anxiety and depression. Additionally, this study suggests that perceived constraints in resources and training partially mediate the observed ruralurban disparities in somatization.

Research limitations/implications

This study is based on a convenient sample of Chinese police officers, which restricts the generalizability of the results.

Practical implications

To reduce stress among police officers, China needs to make more investments in resources and training programs in its rural policing.

Originality/value

A review of literature reveals that studies comparing police stress between rural and urban areas are rare. Additionally, China, as the largest developing nation in the world, remains under-studied with respect to stress among its police officers.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Dominic Thomas and Adam Finn

While governments have invested in broadband infrastructure to ensure universal access, researchers argue that infrastructure alone does not guarantee internet use. The…

Abstract

Purpose

While governments have invested in broadband infrastructure to ensure universal access, researchers argue that infrastructure alone does not guarantee internet use. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of one such government initiative on households’ internet adoption and use.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used data from 2002 to 2014, including two choice experiment surveys and broadband access and subscription data.

Findings

The results of Survey 1 show that urban households valued existing e-services more than rural households, indicating the importance of government investment in broadband access. The results of Survey 2 show that when a publicly funded new broadband network equalized access costs, rural households valued overall e-services more than urban households, highlighting the dual role of access to e-services and their perceived benefits. Importantly, these results suggest that rural households resist social change, which lowers their valuation of certain new publicly funded e-services.

Research limitations/implications

These findings extend the digital divide literature by providing empirical support for the applicability of the global village vs urban leadership framework in households’ valuations of e-services.

Practical implications

While the government has worked diligently to enhance access, it also needs to focus on the types of content and services and better communication with communities.

Originality/value

Recent research has focused on inequities in skills and usage, not internet access. Furthermore, the authors examined the inequality in benefits of access to meaningful e-services and better communication with beneficiaries.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2018

Felicia F. Tian and Lin Chen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the inequality in career constructions among freshmen in an elite university in Shanghai, China. The authors first investigated…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the inequality in career constructions among freshmen in an elite university in Shanghai, China. The authors first investigated whether rural students and those from municipalities (zhi xia shi) and provincial capitals differ in their career awareness when arriving at college. After finding the difference, the authors explored how this initial difference in career awareness evolves and influences the career construction process in the freshman year.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a complementary mixed-methods approach to monitor a cohort of students’ career construction process and the evolvement of their career awareness throughout the freshman year (n=210). Data collection included two surveys: students’ self-reflections and in-depth interviews to capture a holistic story.

Findings

The findings revealed that students differed in career awareness when arriving at college. This initial difference further evolved in the first year of college: students from municipalities and provincial capitals considered college a part of their career paths and began timely to construct their careers, whereas students from rural areas lagged behind. This study suggests that college maintains inequality, reinforcing the initial gap in career construction based on students’ family background.

Originality/value

College students differ in career prospects and associated skills when transitioning from school to work. Only a few studies have explored the role of college in shaping the career construction process during the college years. By exploring the process of career construction among freshmen, this study contributes to the growing literature on school-to-work transition and educational inequality in China.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 38 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Energy Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-780-1

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