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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2010

A. Mavrogianni, M. Davies, P. Wilkinson and A. Pathan

Climate change presents potential increased threats to the comfort and health of urban populations as a result of higher summer temperatures. This paper reviews recent…

Abstract

Climate change presents potential increased threats to the comfort and health of urban populations as a result of higher summer temperatures. This paper reviews recent research on the climate change adaptation potential of urban environments and focuses on a major conurbation, London. Recent work relating to the impact of exposure to heat on population health is also noted. Data obtained from a pilot monitoring study carried out in a subset of 36 dwellings (from a total of 110 dwellings in the overall study) across London during the summer of 2009 is then discussed. Preliminary results illustrate the need to quantify the net impacts of individual building characteristics and the location of each dwelling within the London heat island. During a hot period, more than 40% of the monitored bedrooms failed the recommended overheating criteria during the night time. There was some indication of purpose built flats being more prone to overheating. The potential use of such data as the basis of a heat-related health risk epidemiological model for London is discussed. Such a tool would help health policy makers to target the most vulnerable building types and areas.

Details

Open House International, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2017

Huanchun Huang, Yingxia Yun, Jiangang Xu, Shizhen Wang, Xin Zheng, Jing Fu and Lintong Bao

Urban water bodies play an important role in reducing summertime urban heat island (UHI) effects. Previous studies focused mainly on the impact of water bodies of large…

Abstract

Urban water bodies play an important role in reducing summertime urban heat island (UHI) effects. Previous studies focused mainly on the impact of water bodies of large areas, and there is no analysis of the efficacy and scale effect of how small and medium-sized water bodies reduce the UHI effects. Hence, these studies could not provide theoretical support for the scientific planning and design of urban water bodies. This study aims to confirm, within different scale ranges, the efficacy of a water body in reducing the summertime UHI effects. We propose a scale sensitivity method to investigate the temporal and spatial relationship between urban water bodies and UHI. Based on the scale theory and geostatistical analysis method in landscape ecology, this study used the platforms of 3S, MATLAB, and SPSS to analyze the distance-decay law of water bodies in reducing summertime UHI effects, as well as the scale response at different water surface ratios. The results show that the influence of water surfaces on UHIs gradually decreases with increasing distance, and the temperature rises by 0.78 °C for every 100 m away from the water body. During daytime, there is a scaled sensitivity of how much water surfaces reduce the summertime UHI effects. The most sensitive radius from the water was found at the core water surface ratio of 200 m. A reduction of UHI intensity by 2.3 °C was observed for every 10% increase of the average core water surface ratio. This study provides a theoretical reference to the control of heat islands for the planning and design of urban water bodies.

Details

Open House International, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 December 2007

Sharon L. Harlan, Anthony J. Brazel, G. Darrel Jenerette, Nancy S. Jones, Larissa Larsen, Lela Prashad and William L. Stefanov

The urban heat island is an unintended consequence of humans building upon rural and native landscapes. We hypothesized that variations in vegetation and land use patterns…

Abstract

The urban heat island is an unintended consequence of humans building upon rural and native landscapes. We hypothesized that variations in vegetation and land use patterns across an urbanizing regional landscape would produce a temperature distribution that was spatially heterogeneous and correlated with the social characteristics of urban neighborhoods. Using biophysical and social data scaled to conform to US census geography, we found that affluent whites were more likely to live in vegetated and less climatically stressed neighborhoods than low-income Latinos in Phoenix, Arizona. Affluent neighborhoods had cooler summer temperatures that reduced exposure to outdoor heat-related health risks, especially during a heat wave period. In addition to being warmer, poorer neighborhoods lacked critical resources in their physical and social environments to help them cope with extreme heat. Increased average temperatures due to climate change are expected to exacerbate the impacts of urban heat islands.

Details

Equity and the Environment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1417-1

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2019

Shizhen Wang, Huanchun Huang, Cui Hao, Lei Cao and Ting Liu

Green space is one of the main measures to alleviate urban heat islands (UHI). The transformation mechanism of daytime and nighttime scale sensitivity of vegetation…

Abstract

Green space is one of the main measures to alleviate urban heat islands (UHI). The transformation mechanism of daytime and nighttime scale sensitivity of vegetation coverage to reduce the UHI effect in a daily cycle has been unclear. As a result, we propose a scale sensitivity measurement algorithm to study the spatial and temporal response relationship between UHI and green coverage. Based on the scale theory of landscape ecology and the method of geostatistical analysis, we adopted ArcGIS, MATLAB, SPSS, and other data processing software as well as a large amount of measured and high-resolution satellite imagery data of Beijing and Tianjin to quantitatively study their spatial scale sensitivity and daily variation features of urban green spaces to reduce summer UHI. The results show that first, the green coverage rate and the UHI intensity experience positive and negative correlations during the daytime, and negative correlations at night. When the correlation coefficient is significant, there is a linear relationship between the UHI intensity and the core green rate. Second, the reduction of the UHI by green spaces displays spatial and temporal change scale sensitivity characteristics. The radius scale of daytime sensitivity is 15m, and the radius scale of nighttime sensitivity is 60m. The study's conclusion enriches the theoretical parameters of landscape ecological scales and patterns, and provides spatial and temporal scales for systematic planning of green space to reduce UHI.

Details

Open House International, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2014

Abdul-Rahman, Chen Wang, Azli Mohd Rahim, Siaw Chuing Loo and Nadzmi Miswan

Numerous researchers proved Vertical Greenery System VGS beneficial to buildings and surroundings. However, it is still not widely applied in the tropics like Malaysia…

Abstract

Numerous researchers proved Vertical Greenery System VGS beneficial to buildings and surroundings. However, it is still not widely applied in the tropics like Malaysia. This paper aims to determine the perceptions of VGS among the end users before it can be improved. A survey was conducted among 40 respondents, the end users of VGS in selected buildings within Klang Valley area. The collected data was analysed using statistical tests. From the findings, the primary benefits of VGS perceived by end users are enhancing visual quality, bringing nature harmony, reducing stress and reducing the urban heat island effects. The perceptions contradict with the results of ANOVA test between reducing the urban heat island effects and other VGS benefits that proves the need and effort to work on VGS in Malaysia.

Details

Open House International, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 May 2015

L. Kleerekoper, A.A.J.F. van den Dobbelsteen, G.J. Hordijk, M.J. van Dorst and C.L. Martin

Due to the predicted global temperature rise and local expansion and densification of cities, Urban Heat Islands (UHI) are likely to increase in the Netherlands. As…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to the predicted global temperature rise and local expansion and densification of cities, Urban Heat Islands (UHI) are likely to increase in the Netherlands. As spatial characteristics of a city influence its climate, urban design could be deployed to mitigate the combined effects of climate change and UHIs. Although cities are already experiencing problems during warm-weather periods, no clear spatial means or strategies are available for urban designers to alleviate heat stress. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

There is a lack of knowledge on cooling effects that can be achieved through urban design in Dutch neighbourhoods. In this paper, the cooling effects of various design measures are compared on the level of urban blocks and neighbourhoods, with a focus on a 1960s neighbourhood in Amsterdam-West. The cooling effects are simulated by means of the microclimate model ENVI-met, here the effects on air temperature and physiological equivalent temperature will be evaluated.

Findings

The use of green, and a higher roof albedo in particular, seem to perform well as cooling measures. Combinations of cooling measures do not necessarily result in better performance and might even counteract other cooling effects. However, combinations of measures that lead to an increase in the environmental temperature show the largest heating.

Research limitations/implications

Effects of green roofs and facades are beyond the scope of this study, though future suggestions for this research will be included.

Originality/value

The results add to the body of knowledge in the area of climate design enabling policy makers and designers to estimate the effect of simulated measures in comparable neighbourhoods and thus improve thermal comfort in outdoor spaces.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 5 November 2021

Steffen Lehmann

How are our cities confronting the challenges posed by a warming climate, the loss of biodiversity, and the increasing urban heat island effect? ― This chapter discusses…

Abstract

How are our cities confronting the challenges posed by a warming climate, the loss of biodiversity, and the increasing urban heat island effect? ― This chapter discusses the opportunities and benefits of applying the concepts of renaturalization and rewilding of cities. It introduces nature-based solutions (NBS) in urban planning that are integrated with the aim to enhance urban resilience and to slow down the biodiversity decline, which can be applied in two areas: through the conception of new green neighborhoods and through the regeneration and regreening of existing but neglected parts of the city, such as postindustrial brownfields or economically weak districts.

Contact to nature is essential for human existence, urban well-being, and a good quality of life. Green spaces in cities – big or small – all contribute to health and well-being. However, many cities do not offer residents easy access to green space within the city. Improving better access and extending gardens and parks will deliver a large number of benefits, such as ecosystem services, better water management for enhanced urban flood control, and slowing down the biodiversity loss, with the potential to restore damaged ecosystems. Furthermore, additional green space and NBS help to keep cities cool during heat waves and improve the urban microclimate.

In this context, NBS and regreening can generate significant benefits for citizens, improve urban health and well-being, and offer an opportunity to effectively deploy nature to resolve major societal challenges ― such as social inclusion, food security, and disaster risk reduction. However, it is essential that the design of NBS is fully integrated with other complementary planning interventions and seeks synergies across all sectors.

Details

Nature-Based Solutions for More Sustainable Cities – A Framework Approach for Planning and Evaluation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-637-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 September 2020

Leslie Mabon

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to emergent understandings in research into urban climate change-related disasters (such as extreme heat), which recognise that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to emergent understandings in research into urban climate change-related disasters (such as extreme heat), which recognise that present-day actions or failures of cities to address climate risk are rooted in a historical context.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyses content of scientific journals produced by the not-for-profit Kyushu Environmental Evaluation Association in Fukuoka since the 1970s. The aim is to evaluate the shifting understanding and conception of a liveable urban environment within Fukuoka over time and assess how this narrative has informed capability to understand and manage extreme heat as an emergent disaster risk.

Findings

The strong technical competences enabling Fukuoka to undertake evidence-based management of risks from climate-related disasters today exist at least partially because of earlier environmental concerns within the city and an early emergence of techno-scientific competence within the city's research institutions working at the science–policy interface.

Originality/value

The findings suggest a need to avoid uncritically exporting “lessons” from apparent urban climate “success stories”, without full recognition of the historical context enabling production and utilisation of weather and climate knowledge in specific locations.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 February 2022

Ayman Aslam, Irfan Ahmad Rana and Saad Saleem Bhatti

Urban built-up has been increasing exponentially in the world. Urban population growth and migration are depleting the land resources and creating thermal discomfort…

97

Abstract

Purpose

Urban built-up has been increasing exponentially in the world. Urban population growth and migration are depleting the land resources and creating thermal discomfort. Cities all around the world are facing urban heat island effects and increased temperatures. This study aims to map land cover and formulate local climate zones for enhancing urban resilience against disaster and climate risks.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses exploratory research to identify local climate zones for Lahore, Pakistan. Landsat 8 imagery was used to develop a land use land cover map. For mapping local climate zones, the standard World Urban and Access Portal Tool procedure was used.

Findings

Results have revealed that Lahore has grown exponentially. Compact low rise and open low rise were the two most common local climate zones prevalent in the city. In contrast, the outer regions of the city consisted of LCZ D (low plants) and LCZ F (bare soil).

Practical implications

This study highlights the need to consider local climate zones in future development plans and policies for ensuring sustainable, resilient and climate-friendly cities.

Originality/value

Local climate zone studies are missing in Pakistan. This study has empirically analyzed the ground situation of local climate zones for Lahore metropolitan city. This study will provide baseline support for future studies on urban heat island and climate change adaptation planning.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Patrik Gustavo Wiesel, Elias Dresch, Eduardo Rodrigo Ramos de Santana and Eduardo Alcayaga Lobo

Urbanization is characterized mainly by changes in land use and conversion of natural areas into built environments, as well as by a series of impacts, such as loss of…

Abstract

Purpose

Urbanization is characterized mainly by changes in land use and conversion of natural areas into built environments, as well as by a series of impacts, such as loss of biodiversity, which interfere with the proper functioning of ecological networks.

Design/methodology/approach

Thus, the authors apply a bibliometric analysis using the term “Urban Trees” in the “Web of Science” database, between 2009 and 2019, as a keyword to include all urban green structures and identify the main aspects of urban ecological relationships. They found 8,367 published articles.

Findings

This review identified the main countries and research institutions that operate in urban afforestation. In general, developing countries seek to understand the environmental benefits that urban afforestation can provide, demonstrating the importance of maintaining existing green areas in urban centers to promote the balance of the ecosystem. It depends directly on the flow of ecosystem services provided by green infrastructures in the city, contributing significantly to carbon sequestration, retention of particulate matter, mitigation of heat islands and reduction of surface runoff, directly favoring the health and well-being of the population. The authors conclude that the actions currently implemented in urban afforestation, especially to increase the richness and abundance of species, will be decisive for the future of urban centers and the construction of more sustainable and egalitarian cities.

Originality/value

This work sought to develop a bibliographic research based on information obtained by bibliometric analysis that has the ability to identify trends and volumes of scientific production in a given area of knowledge.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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