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Article

Holly Blake, Basharat Hussain, Jenny Hand, David Rowlands, Amdani Juma and Catrin Evans

There is a need to increase access to HIV testing in the UK in male migrant communities. The purpose of this paper is to assess the uptake and acceptability of a workplace…

Abstract

Purpose

There is a need to increase access to HIV testing in the UK in male migrant communities. The purpose of this paper is to assess the uptake and acceptability of a workplace HIV testing intervention aimed at increasing access to testing in non-clinical settings.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 20 health check events were delivered at 11 UK organisations employing male migrant workers. Intervention included HIV testing, cholesterol, BMI, blood glucose, blood pressure; tailored health advice; take-away resources; optional post-event text reminders about HIV and general health. Mixed-methods evaluation included exit questionnaires (n=771), follow-up text messages (n=465) and qualitative interviews (n=35) to assess event acceptability. Qualitative data were analysed thematically.

Findings

Attendees were 776 employees from 50 countries (51 per cent male; 30 per cent migrant workers). A total of 52 per cent of attendees undertook an HIV test (75 per cent were first-time testers). In total, 96 per cent considered HIV testing to be an acceptable element of workplace health checks; 79 per cent reported new health-related knowledge; 60 per cent of attendees opted for follow-up text messaging; 26 per cent of text respondents reported independently taking HIV test post-event. High acceptability and uptake of HIV testing was associated with convenience, opportunity taking (through removal of deliberation and intentional test-seeking), and normalisation of HIV testing within a general health check.

Originality/value

This study is the first to demonstrate that opt-in HIV testing can be successfully delivered in the workplace within a multi-component health check. The workplace is an effective means of increasing access to HIV testing in groups at risk for HIV, including male migrant workers.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

Keywords

Content available
Article

Jaelan Sumo Sulat, Yayi Suryo Prabandari, Rossi Sanusi, Elsi Dwi Hapsari and Budiono Santoso

Community-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC) has been recommended for improving access to prevention, care, and treatment services in at-risk populations. Earlier…

Abstract

Purpose

Community-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC) has been recommended for improving access to prevention, care, and treatment services in at-risk populations. Earlier systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been undertaken, but due to some methodological limitations, their findings do not yet provide a practical significance. The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the recent evidence of the efficacy of community-based HTC approaches on the uptake of HTC in at-risk populations.

Design/methodology/approach

The database of PubMed online, Science Direct, the Lancet Global Health, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar were systematically searched using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to obtain empirical papers published between March 2013 and December 2015.

Findings

Of 600 collected papers, there were 6 cluster randomized trials papers which met the inclusion criteria. Compared to the health facilities-based HTC, community-based HTC approaches have been shown to improve the uptake of HIV testing from 5.8 to 37 per cent, and improve HIV testing in men and their partners together from 6.8 to 34 per cent. The community approaches also detected lower HIV-positive cases (0.29 per cent as compared to 4 per cent), improved access to treatment services from 0.3 to 25 per cent, demonstrated higher cluster differentiation 4 count in newly diagnosed patients (median of 400-438 cells/µl), and increased the rate of first-time HIV testing from 9 to 11.8 per cent. With respect to social and behavioural outcomes, community-based HTC increased social norms for HIV testing by 6 per cent (95 per cent CI 3-9), decreased multiple sex partners by 55 per cent (95 per cent CI 42-73), lowered casual sex by 45 per cent (95 per cent CI 33-62), increased knowledge about HIV (83.2 vs 28.9 per cent), improved positive attitudes towards HIV patients (73.0 vs 34.3 per cent), and increased the use of condoms (28.0 vs 12.3 per cent).

Originality/value

Community-based HTC combined with behavioural interventions have been found to be more effective in increasing the uptake of HIV testing as well as other outcomes as compared to the conventional health facilities-based testing and counselling approaches.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

Keywords

Content available
Article

Zoe Edelstein, Michael Kharfen, Michelle Kim, Benjamin Tsoi, Paul M. Salcuni, Theresa Gamble, Blayne Cutler, Bernard Branson and Wafaa M. El-Sadr

Awareness raising campaigns have been used to promote HIV prevention messages, including the expansion of HIV testing, but initiating such campaigns de novo can be costly…

Abstract

Purpose

Awareness raising campaigns have been used to promote HIV prevention messages, including the expansion of HIV testing, but initiating such campaigns de novo can be costly. Both the Bronx, New York and Washington, DC have significant local HIV epidemics and a history of efforts to scale-up HIV testing. To build on prior HIV testing campaigns and create new messages based on consultation with diverse stakeholders, a partnership with a community-based clinical trial to enhance HIV testing and treatment was established. The purpose of this paper is to describe the history of HIV testing campaigns in the two jurisdictions, the awareness raising conducted in collaboration with the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) study (HPTN 065) and provide evidence of its effect in these two communities.

Design/methodology/approach

The foundation of prior campaigns allowed for expansion of social mobilization efforts to specific priority populations (gay men and other men who have sex with men), the most severely affected groups in both communities, and to expand the efforts to include clinical settings. New compelling and acceptable messages were shaped through engagement with community members and based on input from focus groups with target populations in each city.

Findings

By engaging the target population in the development of new messaging, HPTN 065 study successfully built on campaigns that were already underway in both jurisdictions and was able to use those messages and platforms to further normalize HIV testing.

Practical implications

Modifying and adapting existing messages saved time and resources, which can be important factors to consider in settings with limited resources or high media purchasing costs.

Originality/value

Efforts of this kind may ultimately help to decrease HIV transmission in large urban settings.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

Keywords

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Article

Sofie Stulens, Kim De Boeck and Nico Vandaele

Despite HIV being reported as one of the major global health issues, availability and accessibility of HIV services and supplies remain limited, especially in low- and…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite HIV being reported as one of the major global health issues, availability and accessibility of HIV services and supplies remain limited, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The effective and efficient operation of HIV supply chains is critical to tackle this problem. The purpose of this paper is to give an introduction to HIV supply chains in low- and middle-income countries and identify research opportunities for the operations research/operations management (OR/OM) community.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the authors review a combination of the scientific and grey literature, including both qualitative and quantitative papers, to give an overview of HIV supply chain operations in low- and middle-income countries and the challenges that are faced by organizing such supply chains. The authors then classify and discuss the relevant OR/OM literature based on seven classification criteria: decision level, methodology, type of HIV service modeled, challenges, performance measures, real-life applicability and countries covered. Because research on HIV supply chains in low- and middle-income countries is limited in the OR/OM field, this part also includes papers focusing on HIV supply chain modeling in high-income countries.

Findings

The authors conclude this study by identifying several tendencies and gaps and by proposing future research directions for OR/OM research.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first literature review addressing this specific topic from an OR/OM perspective.

Details

Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6747

Keywords

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Article

Elise Catherine Davis, Terri Menser, Alondra Cerda Juarez, Lesley E. Tomaszewski and Bita A. Kash

This paper aims to present a literature review of the health workforce, hospital and clinic systems, infrastructure, primary care, regulatory climate, the pharmaceutical…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a literature review of the health workforce, hospital and clinic systems, infrastructure, primary care, regulatory climate, the pharmaceutical industry and community health behavior of the Kenyan health-care system with the purpose of providing a thorough background on the health-care environment in Kenya.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review was conducted using Pub Med, searching for “Kenya” in the title of articles published from January 1, 2015 to February 24, 2016; this provided a broad overview of the type of research being conducted in Kenya. Other data provided by governmental agencies and non-governmental agencies was also reviewed to describe the current state of population health in Kenya.

Findings

An initial review of 615 Pubmed articles included 455 relevant articles. A complete review of these studies was conducted, resulting in a final sample of 389 articles. These articles were categorized into three main subject areas with 14 secondary subject areas (Figure 1).

Research limitations/implications

The narrow scope of the search parameters set for the systematic review was a necessary limitation to focus on the most relevant literature. The findings of this study provide a thorough background on health care in Kenya to researchers and practitioners.

Originality/value

This compilation of data specific to Kenya provides a detailed summary of both the country’s health-care services and health status, focusing on potential means of realizing increased quality and length of life.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 43 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

Keywords

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Article

James Woodall, Jane South, Rachael Dixey, Nick de Viggiani and William Penson

Formalised support services for prisoners that rely on peer methods of delivery show promising health and social outcomes but there is also conjecture that negative…

Abstract

Purpose

Formalised support services for prisoners that rely on peer methods of delivery show promising health and social outcomes but there is also conjecture that negative effects, both at an individual and organisational level, can occur. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Individuals with recognised professional expertise from various sectors (including ex-prisoners) were invited to contribute to an expert symposium to share their perceptions of the positive and negative effects of peer interventions in prison. Discussions and debate were audio recorded with the consent of all delegates and verbatim transcripts were analysed using framework analysis.

Findings

According to the participants, peer interventions in the prison setting created both positive and negative impacts. It was clear from the evidence gathered that peer interventions in prisons can impact positively on health outcomes, but these effects were perceived to be more well-defined for peer deliverers. The notion that peer deliverers can be subjected to “burnout” suggests that supervisory processes for peer workers need to be considered carefully in order to avoid the intervention from being counter-productive. Organisationally, one of the salient issues was the adverse effects that peer interventions cause to the security of the prison.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time an expert symposium has been conducted to specifically examine peer interventions in prison and to consider the effects, both positive and negative, of such schemes.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

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Article

Elise Catherine Davis, Elizabeth T. Arana, John S. Creel, Stephanie C. Ibarra, Jesus Lechuga, Rachel A. Norman, Hannah R. Parks, Ali Qasim, David Y. Watkins and Bita A. Kash

The purpose of this article is to provide a general review of the health-care needs in Kenya which focuses on the role of community engagement in facilitating access and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to provide a general review of the health-care needs in Kenya which focuses on the role of community engagement in facilitating access and diminishing barriers to quality care services. Health-care concerns throughout Kenya and the culture of Kenyan’s health-care practices care are considered.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive review covered studies of community engagement from 2000 till present. Studies are collected using Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCOhost and JSTOR and from government and nongovernment agency websites. The approach focuses on why various populations seek health care and how they seek health care, and on some current health-care delivery models.

Findings

Suggestions for community engagement, including defining the community, are proposed. A model for improved health-care delivery introduces community health workers (CHWs), mHealth technologies and the use of mobile clinics to engage the community and improve health and quality of care in low-income settings.

Practical implications

The results emphasize the importance of community engagement in building a sustainable health-care delivery model. This model highlights the importance of defining the community, setting goals for the community and integrating CHWs and mobile clinics to improve health status and decrease long-term health-care costs. The implementation of these strategies contributes to an environment that promotes health and wellness for all.

Originality/value

This paper evaluates health-care quality and access issues in Kenya and provides sustainable solutions that are linked to effective community engagement. In addition, this paper adds to the limited number of studies that explore health-care quality and access alongside community engagement in low-income settings.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 42 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

Keywords

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Article

Kerry Scott, Catherine Campbell, Morten Skovdal, Claudius Madanhire, Constance Nyamukapa and Simon Gregson

The purpose of the paper is to provide recommendations for medium- and large-sized workplaces on how to support HIV-positive employees. Supporting HIV-positive workers is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to provide recommendations for medium- and large-sized workplaces on how to support HIV-positive employees. Supporting HIV-positive workers is an issue of social responsibility and an economic necessity for employers. HIV-positive workers can remain productive and healthy for many years if able to access appropriate HIV management support.

Design/methodology/approach

Recent (2000-2010) academic and grey literature on HIV workplace management was reviewed and a qualitative study of nine workers receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Zimbabwe was conducted by the authors. Results from both the literature review and qualitative study were used to develop recommendations.

Findings

Carefully considered organizational support is of primary importance in the following areas: workplace HIV policy, voluntary testing and counselling, HIV management, HIV treatment uptake and adherence, day-to-day assistance, peer education, nutrition support, opportunistic infection (OI) monitoring and support to temporary/contract workers. Confidentiality is a key element in achieving positive outcomes in all areas of organizational support for HIV-positive workers.

Practical implications

The paper provides a source of information and concrete advice for workplaces seeking to implement or augment HIV management and support services for their employees. The paper offers vital insight into workplace intervention strategies shown work best for workplaces and employees.

Originality/value

The paper fills a need for comprehensive documentation of strategies for effective HIV management at medium- and large-sized workplaces.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

Keywords

Content available
Article

Rapeepun Jommaroeng, Kerry Anne Richter, Aphichat Chamratrithirong and Amara Soonthorndhada

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of the national HIV prevention outreach program for men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of the national HIV prevention outreach program for men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW).

Design/methodology/approach

It examined changes in condom use, lubricant use, HIV testing and counseling (HTC) uptake and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening uptake, as well as how and why changes did or did not occur. The study applied mixed methods of both quantitative and qualitative approaches.

Findings

There were 16,539 MSM, and TGW reached at least three times in the program during October 2011‒September 2012. The program was found to affect changes in condom use with steady partners (p<0.000), condom use with casual partners (p<0.000), water-based lubricant use (p<0.000), HTC uptake (p<0.000) and STIs screening uptake (p<0.000). Age and province of outreach are associated with HTC uptake and STI screening (p<0.000), slightly as well as gender identity (p<0.1). Gender identity and province of outreach are associated with condom use with steady partners (p<0.000). Gender identity (p<0.000) and sex work (p<0.05) are associated with the use of lubricant. The qualitative results showed that the program had an immediate effect on HTC and STIs screening due to successful bond between the outreach workers and their clients, leading to trust and influencing behavior change.

Originality/value

HIV prevention by peer educators continues to be proved the most effective method, assuming its program consistency. TGW are more vulnerable to MSM to protect themselves, and they have steady partners. Future program for MSM can be replicated and scaled up, but more empowerment component and self-esteem building should be integrated to target TGW.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2586-940X

Keywords

Content available
Article

Naruemon Auemaneekul, Sirirat Lertpruek, Pratana Satitvipawee and Nik AA Tuah

The purpose of this study aimed to assess factors associated with the intention to take pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among Thai young men who have sex with men (YMSM…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study aimed to assess factors associated with the intention to take pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among Thai young men who have sex with men (YMSM) and transgender women (TGW) in Bangkok.

Design/methodology/approach

The study surveyed 350 sexually active Thai YMSM and TGW aged between 18 and 24 years registered with a nongovernmental organization (NGO) working with the MSM community. Data were collected using snowball sampling from four venues. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with the intention to take PrEP daily.

Findings

The results showed that of all those surveyed, n = 310 (88%) participated. The median age was 21 years. In all, 18% of participants had heard about PrEP, and 36% correctly identified that PrEP is used for prevention. After receiving information, 31% intended to take daily PrEP and the Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) rate was 35.5%. Factors significantly associated with intention to take daily PrEP were history of HIV testing (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.3, 95% CI, 1.3–4.1), and high perceived behavioral control of PrEP adherence scores (AOR 3.0, 95% CI, 1.8–5.2).

Originality/value

This study showed that intention to take and knowledge of daily PrEP among YMSM and TGW was low. Promoting health education to YMSM and TGW about PrEP and MSM-friendly VCT services are needed to effectively implement PrEP in HIV prevention programs.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

Keywords

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