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Article

Hsin-Hsien Liu and Hsuan-Yi Chou

Taking a mental accounting theory perspective, this study explores how pricing strategy (all-inclusive vs partitioned) influences consumers' perceived residual value of a…

Abstract

Purpose

Taking a mental accounting theory perspective, this study explores how pricing strategy (all-inclusive vs partitioned) influences consumers' perceived residual value of a product and their subsequent intentions to upgrade to a newer model.

Design/methodology/approach

A pilot study and two formal experiments were conducted to test the hypotheses.

Findings

A partitioned (vs all-inclusive) price causes consumers to later recall a lower total cost and perceive lower residual value for the existing product, thereby increasing upgrade intentions. This finding holds for both utilitarian and hedonic products. Perceived residual value mediates the impact of the pricing strategy on upgrade intentions. The pricing strategy effect is stronger for state-oriented individuals than for action-oriented individuals.

Originality/value

This study extends understanding of the impact of pricing strategies from consumers' short-term immediate demand to long-term upgrade intentions. It also identifies a previously uninvestigated moderator (action-state orientation), clarifying the boundary conditions of pricing strategy effects. The study's conceptual framework links pricing strategy, sunk costs, perceived residual value and upgrade intentions, providing rich insights and potential research paths. These findings further enhance understanding of upgrade intentions.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Book part

Murali D. R. Chari

One of the more important and interesting phenomena in international business in recent times is the upgrading and catchup of firms from emerging economies. How do these…

Abstract

One of the more important and interesting phenomena in international business in recent times is the upgrading and catchup of firms from emerging economies. How do these firms upgrade and catchup? This paper reviews and synthesizes the literature on upgrading and catchup by emerging economy firms and develops a model and testable propositions to advance research on the topic.

Details

Emerging Economies and Multinational Enterprises
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-740-6

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Article

Fenfang Lin, Jake Ansell and Wai-sum Siu

Drawing from industrial upgrading theories, this study aims to explore the issues of industrial upgrading and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) development in an…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing from industrial upgrading theories, this study aims to explore the issues of industrial upgrading and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) development in an emerging market – China.

Design/methodology/approach

A contextual stepwise approach is undertaken by applying netnography and interviews to investigate manufacturing SMEs' perceptions on upgrading.

Findings

The study outlines three economic actors – government, industry and manufacturer; two upgrading factors – internal and external; a vicious circle that consists of thin profit, quality and imitation issues; and a benign circle that incorporates a list of upgrading capabilities – research and development (R&D), creativity, design and branding – in the context of upgrading to the value-added supply chain.

Research limitations/implications

By integrating the findings with relevant literature, the authors propose a framework to best illustrate manufacturing SME upgrading. The findings reveal that Chinese manufacturing SMEs acquire upgrading capabilities through organizational learning during the upgrading process, which is affected by both external and internal factors in the constraints imposed by the interplay of relevant actors.

Originality/value

Through the innovative methodological approach, this study affords great insights into industrial upgrading from the perspective of manufacturing SMEs in an emerging economy – China.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article

Jingqin Su, Huanhuan Ma and Shuai Zhang

In the face of fierce international competition for those participating in global value chains (GVCs), upgrading has been a central concern of emerging market firms (EMFs…

Abstract

Purpose

In the face of fierce international competition for those participating in global value chains (GVCs), upgrading has been a central concern of emerging market firms (EMFs) that are trying to occupy higher value-added positions. However, although the innovation capabilities (ICs) have been generally considered critical to upgrading in GVCs, few studies have examined how IC is built up and then applied to the EMF upgrading process over time. To this end, the purpose of this paper is to investigate why and how EMFs can upgrade in GVCs through the development of their IC.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a multiple-case study of three supplier firms in China and their IC development processes, with a special focus on the nature of the firm-level upgrading in GVCs.

Findings

The results generate a process model of EMFs upgrading with respect to the development of IC. The model reveals how IC is built up through the firms' underlying systematic innovation activities, which enable firms to successfully upgrade within GVCs. In particular, the role played by contextual vulnerability in guiding firms to develop the appropriate IC, and the corresponding upgrading, is highlighted.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to the micro-foundation in GVCs literature, especially the traditional static upgrading research of EMFs. The authors also contribute to existing IC development research. Meanwhile, the study focuses on the upgrading of three Chinese firms in the phone and LED industries. The generalizability to other emerging markets and industries may therefore be limited.

Practical implications

The study results show that EMFs could initially develop endogenous IC that focuses on process innovation as a means to establish a foundation for further upgrading. In addition, firms need to improve their ability to accurately sense contextual changes. As such, it would be valuable to understand their positions and characteristics within GVCs.

Originality/value

This paper investigates a process model of upgrading in GVCs through IC development in EMFs. This study also adds a dynamic micro-foundation to existing, rather macro and static GVCs studies.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article

Xuejun Wang, Dinghui Huai and Ze Lu

The purpose of this paper is to identify the impacts of financing constraints on the quality upgrading of China's agri-food sector.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the impacts of financing constraints on the quality upgrading of China's agri-food sector.

Design/methodology/approach

Our empirical study is performed using the “distance to the frontier” framework. We employ a merged sample of Chinese agri-food trading firms based on Chinese firm-level data from the National Bureau of Statistics of China and Chinese customs data. To verify robustness, we test whether the results hold when using different definitions of quality upgrading and alternative proxy variables for product quality and financing constraints. To examine the heterogeneous effects, we generate subsamples by firm location, export destination and the product sophistication of exports.

Findings

The results suggest that financing constraints have a significant negative impact on the product quality upgrading of Chinese agri-food export firms. In addition, the negative impacts of financing constraints are more severe for firms close to the quality frontier than for those far from the frontier. These results are robust to various checks. Moreover, the heterogeneous effects of financing constraints on quality upgrading are identified when the sample is split according to firm location, export destination and the sophistication of export products.

Originality/value

This paper reviews and applies some recent studies in the literature to investigate the relationship between financing constraints and the product quality upgrading of agri-food export firms in China. Overall, the results of this paper could be considered of importance for promoting the quality upgrading of export products in the China's agri-food sector.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

Gerard Bikorimana and Sun Shengmin

Upgraded water and better sanitation are essential for human health, but it is still a challenge to get admittance to these facilities and the concerns of public health…

Abstract

Purpose

Upgraded water and better sanitation are essential for human health, but it is still a challenge to get admittance to these facilities and the concerns of public health becomes most victims. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the socioeconomic and demographic forecaster linked with admittance to safer water and upgraded sanitation facilities in Rwanda. The study uses the cross-sectional data from the 2014 to 2015 Rwanda Demographic Health Survey and uses linear generalized models for the analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The logit and probit regressions were used to analyze whether or not any forecaster variables influenced the predicted variable.

Findings

The findings showed that the households with the highest education background were 11.55 times more probable to have admittance to upgraded water sources compared to those who had none level of education. Likewise, the respondents with secondary and higher education were, respectively, 9.55 times and 4.09 times more probable to have admittance to upgraded latrine facilities. The authors found the increase of household size as significantly associated with admittance to the upgraded water source and latrine facilities compared to those families with fewer household members. The results also found that wealthier households had a larger odds ratio significance in getting admittance to upgraded water sources and sanitation facilities compared to poorer households. The study results found the greatest gap in access to upgraded water sources and sanitation facilities in rural areas compared to urban areas.

Research limitations/implications

The implications of the study results call for water policy formulation and implementation in Rwanda, as well as generally for other developing countries.

Originality/value

In Rwanda, this is the first study that empirically inspected the relationship between socioeconomic and demographic forecasters on admittance to upgraded water and sanitation facilities.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-07-2019-0452

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

Birgit Risholt, Elisabeth Waernes, Berit Time and Anne Grete Hestnes

The purpose of this paper is to gain knowledge on the renovation status for Norwegian dwellings that can be used to design attractive energy efficiency measures. Norwegian…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to gain knowledge on the renovation status for Norwegian dwellings that can be used to design attractive energy efficiency measures. Norwegian dwellings are exposed to a windy, cold and moist climate and the technical condition of existing dwellings depend on the owners priorities regarding maintenance and renovation. The paper focuses on the renovation status and technical condition of privately owned detached houses built in Norway in the 1980s constituting 10 per cent of the total Norwegian dwelling stock. These houses are high-energy spenders and are at a stage in their lifetime where major renovation such as new windows and ventilation system is expected.

Design/methodology/approach

The status for redecoration, maintenance and renovation as well as the technical condition of 91 dwellings are mapped and analysed.

Findings

An analysis of the empirical data identified four categories of houses when considering home upgrades and technical condition: the as built, the aesthetic, the well kept and the do it yourselves houses. There is no correlation between the observed technical condition and the home upgrade level for the houses in the study. Significant resources may have been used for redecoration and unskilled renovation while not dealing with the need for maintenance and repair.

Research limitations/implications

The knowledge on homeowner categories can be used to tailor policy instruments to accelerate energy efficiency rates for privately owned dwellings.

Originality/value

There are no previous studies on Norwegian private homeowners and the technical condition of their homes.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article

Xiang Dai

– The purpose of this paper is to econometrically examine whether indigenous enterprises can upgrade under open economy by using micro-firm data.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to econometrically examine whether indigenous enterprises can upgrade under open economy by using micro-firm data.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to make clear the impact of outward development on the indigenous manufacturing export enterprises' productivity from micro level and to propose policy recommendation, the research group selected indigenous manufacturing export enterprises in Kunshan China as research objects and made a large-scale survey. Based on micro-firm data from survey, the paper carries out empirical analysis.

Findings

After controlling some other variables including innovation activity, human capital and enterprises scale, empirical result shows that export activity, establishing connections with FDI enterprises, industry clusters formed under open economy all have significant and positive effect on upgrading of indigenous enterprises.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to use micro-firm data obtained from survey to examine factors affecting indigenous enterprises' upgrading capability of China.

Details

Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-4408

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Article

Billie Ann Brotman

The purpose of this paper is to exam the financial impact on the owner/lessor who is considering a partial energy upgrade to an existing medical office building. The owner…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to exam the financial impact on the owner/lessor who is considering a partial energy upgrade to an existing medical office building. The owner who leases the building using a triple net lease does the upgrade prior to leasing the building, with the expectation of earning higher rents. How much should the owner who leases the property spend for a given rent per square foot increase?

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical study highlights the impact of key financial variables on the dependent variable medical office construction spending put in place in the USA. The independent variables prime interest rate, cost of natural gas per therm and electricity cost per KWH, resale building prices are significant variables when predicting medical office construction spending. A case study using a cost-benefit model is developed. It inputs corporate income tax rates, incorporates a debt service coverage ratio, prime interest rate, analyzes investment tax credit (ITC) and rebate scenarios and varies the level of rental income and energy savings. The case study results provide insight into which factors are enabling higher net construction spending when considering a green energy retrofit project. Both the regression model and the case study model focussed on the owner of a building who rents medical office space to tenants using a triple net lease. The owner/lessor paradigm analyzes revenue enhancements, the tax implications of having these savings and benefits associated with borrowing when financing the green retrofit. The availability of low cost borrowing, increases in the ITC percent and rebates and increases in rent per square foot have an impact on potential energy upgrade spending.

Findings

The empirical model finds the independent variables to be significant. Utility cost, resale value of office buildings, the prime interest rate, business bankruptcy court filings and unemployment rate fluctuations adequately explain movements in medical office building spending for the years 2000 through 2015 yielding a R2 of 73.8 percent. The feasibility case study indicates that the energy saving levels and ITCs not income tax rates are the primary drivers for a partial energy retrofit.

Research limitations/implications

Market incentives are a function of the cost of energy. If the cost of energy drops, then the profit incentive to conserve energy becomes less important. The role of tax credits, rebates, property tax reductions and government directives, then become primary incentives for installing energy upgrades. The owner of an empty building assumes all of the operating costs normally paid by a tenant under a triple net lease. This possibility was not included in the replacement cost-benefit model used in this paper.

Practical implications

The feasibility of doing an energy upgrade to an existing building requires that a cost-benefit analysis be undertaken. The independent variables that are significant when doing a regression model or proxies for these variables are incorporated into a present value model. The results in Table V can be used as an initial template for determining how much to spend per square foot when doing an energy upgrade. The square foot amounts can be applied to different size office buildings. The corporate income tax rate or a personal income tax rate has minimal impact on energy construction upgrade spending.

Social implications

More energy efficient office buildings reduce the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere. Energy efficient buildings also conserve on scarce fuel reserves. ITCs and rebates limit the role of government in directing decisions to do energy upgrades. The market mechanism to some degree can help encourage energy conservation through asset upgrades.

Originality/value

The paper incorporates an empirical model which is a form of technical analysis to examine independent variables that explain medical office building spending with a case study structured on expected revenues and costs which takes a fundamental approach to understanding the relationship between the dependent variable and its independent variables. The regression model combines factors that impact the demand for energy efficient medical buildings from an owner/lessor perspective which includes resale values of existing buildings, business bankruptcy filings and unemployment rates. Supply independent variables include the prime interest rate and electricity per KWH and natural gas per therm. The regression model found these variables to be significant. The case study uses the same independent variables or close proxy variables to determine the maximum financially feasible per square foot spending that can be invested in energy upgrades.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article

Xin‐min Peng and Dong Wu

Global production networks (GPN) propel process and product upgrading of the latecomer firm (LCF), promoting its present operating efficiency on one hand, but, on the…

Abstract

Purpose

Global production networks (GPN) propel process and product upgrading of the latecomer firm (LCF), promoting its present operating efficiency on one hand, but, on the other hand, probably hindering the LCF's function and chain upgrading, resulting in the undermining of its future adaptive capability. Previous studies have suggested that ambidexterity is influential to the upgrading of the LCF. However, little is known about how the LCF builds ambidexterity to upgrade in GPN. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the LCF constructs ambidexterity resulting from tie diversity to break through the upgrading dilemma.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper intends to fill relevant gaps in the literatures on the LCF and explore the emerging fields of ambidexterity. The authors employ a longitudinal case study by examining how a manufacturer – Haitian Group – originating from China's plastic equipment industry has managed its diverse ties to build ambidexterity over the past 20 years.

Findings

The research reveals that: the key to successfully transferring from process and product upgrading to function or chain upgrading in GPN for the LCF is to establish its ambidexterity over time; LCF could achieve ambidexterity through creating diverse ties in GPN, namely develop diverse cooperative partners and patterns in different value functions over time; and the process of the LCF building ambidexterity in GPN is incremental, which needs the previous exploitation as a basis.

Originality/value

Previous studies have paid little attention to how the LCF makes use of tie diversity to build ambidexterity to sustainable upgrading in GPN. This paper fills the gaps and contributes to the theory of upgrading in GPN.

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