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1 – 10 of over 2000
Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

He-yong Xu, Shi-long Xing and Zheng-yin Ye

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and improve a new method of unstructured rotational dynamic overset grids, which can be used to simulate the unsteady flows

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and improve a new method of unstructured rotational dynamic overset grids, which can be used to simulate the unsteady flows around rotational parts of aircraft.

Design/methodology/approach

The computational domain is decomposed into two sub-domains, namely, the rotational sub-domain which contains the rotational boundaries, and the stationary sub-domain which contains the remainder flow field including the stationary boundaries. The artificial boundaries and restriction boundaries are used as the restriction condition to generate the entire computational grid, and then the overset grids are established according to the radius parameters of artificial boundaries set previously. The deformation of rotational boundary is treated by using the linear spring analogy method which is suitable for the dynamic unstructured grid. The unsteady Navier-Stokes/Euler equations are solved separately in the rotational sub-domain and stationary sub-domain, and data coupling is accomplished through the overlapping area. The least squares method is used to interpolate the flow variables for the artificial boundary points with a higher calculating precision. Implicit lower-upper symmetric-Gauss-Seidel (LU-SGS) time stepping scheme is implemented to accelerate the inner iteration during the unsteady simulation.

Findings

The airfoil steady flow, airfoil pitching unsteady flow, three-dimensional (3-D) rotor flow field, rotor-fuselage interaction unsteady flow field and the flutter exciting system unsteady flow field are numerically simulated, and the results have good agreements with the experimental data. It is shown that the present method is valid and efficient for the prediction of complicated unsteady problems which contain rotational dynamic boundaries.

Research limitations/implications

The results are entirely based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and the 3D simulations are based on the Euler equations in which the viscous effect is ignored. The current work shows further applicable potential to simulate unsteady flow around rotational parts of aircraft.

Practical implications

The current study can be used to simulate the two-dimensional airfoil pitching, 3-D rotor flow field, rotor-fuselage interaction and the flutter exciting system unsteady flow. The work will help the aircraft designer to get the unsteady flow character around rotational parts of aircraft.

Originality/value

A new type of rotational dynamic overset grids is presented and validated, and the current work has a significant contribution to the development of unstructured rotational dynamic overset grids.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal, vol. 87 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 June 2022

Yu Bai, Qiaoli Tang and Yan Zhang

The purpose of this study is to investigate the two-dimensional unsteady inclined stagnation point flow and thermal transmission of Maxwell fluid on oscillating…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the two-dimensional unsteady inclined stagnation point flow and thermal transmission of Maxwell fluid on oscillating stretched/contracted plates. First, based on the momentum equation at infinity, pressure field is modified by solving first-order differential equation. Meanwhile, thermal relaxation characteristic of fluid is described by Cattaneo–Christov thermal diffusion model.

Design/methodology/approach

Highly coupled model equations are transformed into simpler partial differential equations (PDE) via appropriate dimensionless variables. The approximate analytical solutions of unsteady inclined stagnation point flow on oscillating stretched and contracted plates are acquired by homotopy analysis method for the first time, to the best of the authors’ knowledge.

Findings

Results indicate that because of tensile state of plate, streamline near stagnation point disperses to both sides with stagnation point as center, while in the case of shrinking plate, streamline near stagnation point is concentrated near stagnation point. The enhancement of velocity ratio parameter leads to increasing of pressure variation rate, which promotes flow of fluid. In tensile state, surface friction coefficient on both sides of stagnation point has opposite symbols; when the plate is in shrinkage state, there is reflux near the right side of the stagnation point. In addition, although the addition of unsteady parameters and thermal relaxation parameters reduce heat transfer efficiency of fluid, heat transfer of fluid near the plate can also be enhanced by considering thermal relaxation effect when plate shrinks.

Originality/value

First, approximate analytical solutions of unsteady inclined stagnation point flow on oscillating stretched and contracted plates are researched, respectively. Second, pressure field is further modified. Finally, based on this, thermal relaxation characteristic of fluid is described by Cattaneo–Christov thermal diffusion model.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 March 2011

J.M. Fernández Oro, K.M. Argüelles Diaz, C. Santolaria Morros and M. Galdo Vega

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the analysis of the dynamic and periodic interaction between both fixed and rotating blade rows in a single‐stage turbomachine.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the analysis of the dynamic and periodic interaction between both fixed and rotating blade rows in a single‐stage turbomachine.

Design/methodology/approach

A numerical three‐dimensional (3D) simulation of the complete stage is carried out, using a commercial code, FLUENT, that resolves the 3D, unsteady turbulent flow inside the passages of a low‐speed axial flow fan. For the closure of turbulence, both Reynolds‐averaged Navier‐Stokes modeling and large eddy simulation (LES) techniques are used and compared. LES schemes are shown to be more accurate due to their good description of the largest eddy structures of the flow, but require careful near‐wall treatment.

Findings

The main goal is placed on the characterization of the unsteady flow structures involved in an axial flow blower of high reaction degree, relating them to working point variations and axial gap modifications.

Research limitations/implications

Complementarily, an experimental facility was developed to obtain a physical description of the flow inside the machine. Both static and dynamic measurements were used in order to describe the interaction phenomena. A five‐hole probe was employed for the static characterization, and hot wire anemometry techniques were used for the instantaneous response of the interaction.

Originality/value

The paper describes development of a methodology to understand the flow mechanisms related to the blade‐passing frequency in a single rotor‐stator interaction.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 September 2019

Salwa Fezai, Nader Ben-Cheikh, Brahim Ben-Beya and Taieb Lili

Two-dimensional incompressible fluid flows around a rectangular shape placed over a larger rectangular shape at low Reynolds numbers (Re) have been numerically analyzed in…

Abstract

Purpose

Two-dimensional incompressible fluid flows around a rectangular shape placed over a larger rectangular shape at low Reynolds numbers (Re) have been numerically analyzed in the present work. The vortex shedding is investigated at different arrangements of the two shapes allowing the investigation of three possible configurations. The calculations are carried out for several values of Re ranging from 1 to 200. The effect of the obstacle geometry on the vortex shedding is analyzed for crawling, steady and unsteady regimes. The analysis of the flow evolution shows that with increasing Re beyond a certain critical value, the flow becomes unstable and undergoes a bifurcation. This paper aims to observe that the transition of the unsteady regime is performed by a Hopf bifurcation. The critical Re beyond which the flow becomes unsteady is determined for each configuration. A special attention is paid to compute the drag and lift forces acting on the rectangular shapes, which allowed determining; the best configuration in terms of both drag and lift. The unsteady periodic wake is characterized by the Strouhal number, which varies with the Re and the obstacle geometry. Hence, the values of vortex shedding frequencies are calculated in this work.

Design/methodology/approach

The dimensionless Navier–Stokes equations were numerically solved using the following numerical technique based on the finite volume method. The temporal discretization of the time derivative is performed by an Euler backward second-order implicit scheme. Non-linear terms are evaluated explicitly; while, viscous terms are treated implicitly. The strong velocity–pressure coupling present in the continuity and the momentum equations are handled by implementing the projection method.

Findings

The present paper aims to numerically study the effect of the obstacle geometry on the vortex shedding and on the drag and lift forces to analyze the flow structure around three configurations at crawling, steady and unsteady regimes.

Originality/value

A special attention is paid to compute the drag and lift forces acting on the rectangular shapes, which allowed determining; the best shapes configuration in terms of both drag and lift.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 July 2018

Rohana Abdul Hamid, Roslinda Nazar and Ioan Pop

This present aims to present the numerical study of the unsteady stretching/shrinking flow of a fluid-particle suspension in the presence of the constant suction and dust…

Abstract

Purpose

This present aims to present the numerical study of the unsteady stretching/shrinking flow of a fluid-particle suspension in the presence of the constant suction and dust particle slip on the surface.

Design/methodology/approach

The governing partial differential equations for the two phases flows of the fluid and the dust particles are reduced to the pertinent ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation. The numerical results are obtained using the bvp4c function in the Matlab software.

Findings

The results revealed that in the decelerating shrinking flow, the wall skin friction is higher in the dusty fluid when compared to the clean fluid. In addition, the effect of the fluid-particle interaction parameter to the fluid-phase can be seen more clearly in the shrinking flow. Other non-dimensional physical parameters such as the unsteadiness parameter, the mass suction parameter, the viscosity ratio parameter, the particle slip parameter and the particle loading parameter are also considered and presented in figures. Further, the second solution is discovered in this problem and the solution expanded with higher unsteadiness and suction values. Hence, the stability analysis is performed, and it is confirmed that the second solution is unstable.

Practical implications

In practice, the flow conditions are commonly varying with time; thus, the study of the unsteady flow is very crucial and useful. The problem of unsteady flow of a dusty fluid has a wide range of possible applications such as in the centrifugal separation of particles, sedimentation and underground disposable of radioactive waste materials.

Originality/value

Even though the problem of dusty fluid has been broadly investigated, limited discoveries can be found over an unsteady shrinking flow. Indeed, this paper managed to obtain the second (dual) solutions, and stability analysis is performed. Furthermore, the authors also considered the artificial particle-phase viscosity, which is an important term to study the particle-particle and particle-wall interactions. With the addition of this term, the effects of the particle slip and suction parameters can be investigated. Very few studies in the dusty fluid embedded this parameter in their problems.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 January 2020

Adrián Vazquez Gonzalez, Andrés Meana-Fernández and Jesús Manuel Fernández

The purpose of the paper is to quantify the impact of the non-uniform flow generated by the upstream stator on the generation and convection of the tip leakage flow (TLF…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to quantify the impact of the non-uniform flow generated by the upstream stator on the generation and convection of the tip leakage flow (TLF) structures in the passages of the rotor blades in a low-speed axial fan.

Design/methodology/approach

A full three dimensional (3D)-viscous unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-stokes (RANS) (URANS) simulation of the flow within a periodic domain of the axial stage has been performed at three different flow rate coefficients (φ = 0.38, 0.32, 0.27) using ReNormalization Group k-ε turbulence modelling. A typical tip clearance of 2.3 per cent of the blade span has been modelled on a reduced domain comprising a three-vaned stator and a two-bladed rotor with circumferential periodicity. A non-conformal grid with hybrid meshing, locally refined O-meshes on both blades and vanes walls with (100 × 25 × 80) elements, a 15-node meshed tip gap and circumferential interfaces for sliding mesh computations were also implemented. The unsteady motion of the rotor has been covered with 60 time steps per blade event. The simulations were validated with experimental measurements of the static pressure in the shroud of the blade tip region.

Findings

It has been observed that both TLF and intensities of the tip leakage vortex (TLV) are significantly influenced by upstream stator wakes, especially at nominal and partial load conditions. In particular, the leakage flow, which represents 12.4 per cent and 11.3 per cent of the working flow rate, respectively, has shown a clear periodic fluctuation clocked with the vane passing period in the relative domain. The periodic fluctuation of the TLF is in the range of 2.8-3.4 per cent of the mean value. In addition, the trajectory of the tip vortex is also notably perturbed, with root-mean squared fluctuations reaching up to 18 per cent and 6 per cent in the regions of maximum interaction at 50 per cent and 25 per cent of the blade chord for nominal and partial load conditions, respectively. On the contrary, the massive flow separation observed in the tip region of the blades for near-stall conditions prevents the formation of TLV structures and neglects any further interaction with the upstream vanes.

Research limitations/implications

Despite the increasing use of large eddy simulation modelling in turbomachinery environments, which requires extremely high computational costs, URANS modelling is still revealed as a useful technique to describe highly complex viscous mechanisms in 3D swirl flows, such as unsteady tip flow structures, with reasonable accuracy.

Originality/value

The paper presents a validated numerical model that simulates the unsteady response of the TLF to upstream perturbations in an axial fan stage. It also provides levels of instabilities in the TLV derived from the deterministic non-uniformities associated to the vane wakes.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 April 2022

Mavuri Rajesh and Sivakumar R.

For higher swirling flows (swirl > 0.5), flow confinement significantly impacts fluid flow, flame stability, flame length and heat transfer, especially when the…

Abstract

Purpose

For higher swirling flows (swirl > 0.5), flow confinement significantly impacts fluid flow, flame stability, flame length and heat transfer, especially when the confinement ratio is less than 9. Past numerical studies on helical axial swirler type systems are limited to non-reacting or reacting flows type Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes closure models, mostly are non-parametric studies. Effects of parametric studies like swirl angle and confinement on the unsteady flow field, either numerical or experimental, are very minimal. The purpose of this paper is to document modeling practices for a large eddy simulation (LES) type grid, predict the confinement effects of a single swirler lean direct injection (LDI) system and validate with literature data.

Design/methodology/approach

The first part of the paper discusses the approach followed for numerical modelling of LES with the minimum number of cells required across critical sections to capture the spectrum of turbulent energy with good accuracy. The numerical model includes all flow developing sections of the LDI swirler, right from the axial setting chamber to the exit of the flame tube, and its length is effectively modelled to match the experimental data. The computational model predicts unsteady features like vortex breakdown bubble, represented by a strong recirculation zone anchored downstream of the fuel nozzle. It is interesting to note that the LES is effective in predicting the secondary recirculation zones in the divergent section as well as at the corners of the tube wall.

Findings

The predictions of a single helical axial swirler with a vane tip angle of 60°, with a duct size of 2 × 2 square inches, are compared with the experimental data at several axial locations as well as with centerline data. Both mean and unsteady turbulent quantities obtained through the numerical simulations are validated with the experimental data (Cai et al., 2005). The methodology is extended to the confinements effect on mean flow characteristics. The time scale and length scale are useful parameters to get the desired results. The results show that with an increase in the confinement ratio, the recirculation length increases proportionally. A sample of three cases has been documented in this paper.

Originality/value

The novelty of the paper is the modelling practices (grid/unsteady models) for a parametric study of LDI are established, and the mean confinement effects are validated with experimental data. The spectrum of turbulent energies is well captured by LES, and trends are aligned with experimental data. The methodology can be extended to reacting flows also to study the effect of swirl angle, fuel injection on aerodynamics, droplet characteristics and emissions.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 August 2018

Arpan Das and Shaligram Tiwari

Growing application of micro aerial vehicle (MAV) sets in demand for accurate computations of low Reynolds number flows past their wings. The purpose of this study is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Growing application of micro aerial vehicle (MAV) sets in demand for accurate computations of low Reynolds number flows past their wings. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of unsteady freestream velocity or wind gust on a harmonically plunging symmetric NACA0012 airfoil at Re = 1,000. The influence of unsteady parameters, such as reduced frequency of plunging motion (0.25 < k < 1.5), non-dimensional plunging amplitude (ho = 0.2) and non-dimensional amplitude of wind gust (0.1 = λ = 0.4) has been studied.

Design/methodology/approach

Computations have been carried out using commercial software ANSYS Fluent 16.0. To incorporate the plunging motion, the entire reference frame is oscillating, and thereby, a source term is added in the Navier–Stokes equation.

Findings

The results have been presented in the form of streamlines, vorticity contours, lift and drag signals and their spectra. It is observed that the ratio of plunging frequency to gust frequency (f/fg) has strong influence on periodic characteristics of unsteady wake. It has also been observed that for a fixed plunging amplitude, an increase in value of k results into a change from positive drag to thrust.

Practical implications

The research has implications in the development of MAV.

Originality/value

This study is intended to get a better understanding of unsteady parameters associated with gusty flow in flapping wing applications and possible ways to alleviate its adverse effect on it.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 90 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Baoling Cui, Xiaodi Li, Kun Rao, Xiaoqi Jia and Xiaolin Nie

Radial vibration of horizontal centrifugal pump has a close association with radial exciting forces. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the unsteady radial force in…

Abstract

Purpose

Radial vibration of horizontal centrifugal pump has a close association with radial exciting forces. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the unsteady radial force in multistage centrifugal pump with double volute in detail and investigate the relevance of static pressure, radial force and radial vibration.

Design/methodology/approach

The unsteady numerical simulation with realizable k-ε turbulence model was carried out for a multistage centrifugal pump with double volute using computational fluid dynamics codes Fluent. The performance tests were conducted by use of a closed loop system and performance curves from numerical simulation agree with that of experiment. Vibration tests were carried out by vibration probes instrumented on the bearing cover of pump near no-driven end. Fast Fourier transform was used to obtain the frequency components of radial forces on the impellers from numerical simulation, which are compared with ones of radial vibration from experiment in Y and Z direction. And the static pressure distributions in the impeller were analyzed under different flow rates.

Findings

The symmetrical double volute can effectively balance radial forces. The maximum radial force and vibration velocity appear at 0.6 Q among the three flow rates 0.6 Q, Q and 1.2 Q. The frequencies corresponding to relatively large amplitude of vibration velocities and radial forces on the impellers in Y direction are blade passing frequency of the impellers. Blade passing frequency of first-stage impeller and shaft frequency are predominating in Z direction. It indicates that the radial vibration of centrifugal pump is closely related to the unsteady radial force.

Originality/value

The unsteady radial forces of the impeller in multistage centrifugal pump with double volute were comprehensively analyzed. The radial forces should be considered to balance during the design of multistage centrifugal pump.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 June 2019

Yingchun Zhang, Nesrin Ozalp and Gongnan Xie

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the unsteady flow past through a permeable diamond-shaped cylinder and to study the effects of the aspect ratios and Darcy…

158

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the unsteady flow past through a permeable diamond-shaped cylinder and to study the effects of the aspect ratios and Darcy numbers of the cylinder.

Design/methodology/approach

The lattice Boltzmann method with D2Q9 lattice model was used to simulate the unsteady flow through permeable diamond-shaped cylinders. The present numerical method is validated against the available data.

Findings

The key findings are that increasing the permeability enhances the suppression of vortex shedding, and that the Strouhal number is directly proportion to the Darcy number, Reynolds number and the aspect ratio of the porous cylinder.

Originality/value

The present study considers unsteady laminar flow past through single permeable diamond-shaped cylinder. According to the authors’ knowledge, very few studies have been found in this field. The present findings are novel and original, which in turn can attract wide attention and citations.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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