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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2007

S.H. Pourtakdoust and H. Ghanbarpour Asl

This paper aims to develop an adaptive unscented Kalman filter (AUKF) formulation for orientation estimation of aircraft and UAV utilizing low‐cost attitude and heading…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop an adaptive unscented Kalman filter (AUKF) formulation for orientation estimation of aircraft and UAV utilizing low‐cost attitude and heading reference systems (AHRS).

Design/methodology/approach

A recursive least‐square algorithm with exponential age weighting in time is utilized for estimation of the unknown inputs. The proposed AUKF tunes its measurement covariance to yield optimal performance. Owing to nonlinear nature of the dynamic model as well as the measurement equations, an unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is chosen against the extended Kalman filter, due to its better performance characteristics. The unscented transformation of the UKF is shown to equivalently capture the effect of nonlinearities up to second order without the need for explicit calculations of the Jacobians.

Findings

In most conventional AHRS filters, severe problems can occur once the system suddenly experiences additional acceleration, resulting in erroneous orientation angles. On the contrary in the high dynamic accelerative mode of the new proposed filter the errors would not suddenly increase, since the additional to cruise accelerations are being continuously estimated resulting in substantially more accurate orientation estimation. This feature causes the associated filter errors to gradually increase, in the event of continuous vehicle acceleration, up to a point of zero additional acceleration that subsequently causes a subsidence of the error back to zero.

Practical implications

The proposed filtering methodology can be implemented for orientation estimation of aircraft and UAV that are equipped with low‐cost AHRSs.

Originality/value

Traditional AHRS algorithms utilize the accelerometers output for the computation of roll and pitch angles and magnetometer output for the heading angle. Moreover, these angles are also calculated from the gyroscopes output as well, but with errors that increase with time. Of course for some applications of AHRS system, orientation errors can be damped out with a proportional‐integral controller. In such a case, the filter cut‐off frequency is usually selected experimentally. But, for high accelerating vehicles utilizing AHRS, the system errors can become very large. A possible remedy to this problem could be to use more advanced nonlinear filter algorithms such as the one proposed.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 79 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Fiaz Ahmad, Kabir Muhammad Abdul Rashid, Akhtar Rasool, Esref Emre Ozsoy, Asif Sabanoviç and Meltem Elitas

To propose an improved algorithm for the state estimation of distribution networks based on the unscented Kalman filter (IUKF). The performance comparison of unscented

Abstract

Purpose

To propose an improved algorithm for the state estimation of distribution networks based on the unscented Kalman filter (IUKF). The performance comparison of unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and newly developed algorithm, termed Improved unscented Kalman Filter (IUKF) for IEEE-30, 33 and 69-bus radial distribution networks for load variations and bad data for two measurement noise scenarios, i.e. 30 and 50 per cent are shown.

Design/methodology/approach

State estimation (SE) plays an instrumental role in realizing smart grid features like distribution automation (DA), enhanced distribution generation (DG) penetration and demand response (DR). Implementation of DA requires robust, accurate and computationally efficient dynamic SE techniques that can capture the fast changing dynamics of distribution systems more effectively. In this paper, the UKF is improved by changing the way the state covariance matrix is calculated, to enhance its robustness and accuracy under noisy measurement conditions. UKF and proposed IUKF are compared under the cummulative effect of load variations and bad data based on various statistical metrics such as Maximum Absolute Deviation (MAD), Maximum Absolute Per cent Error (MAPE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Overall Performance Index (J) for three radial distribution networks. All the simulations are performed in MATLAB 2014b environment running on an hp core i5 laptop with 4GB memory and 2.6 GHz processor.

Findings

An Improved Unscented Kalman Filter Algorithm (IUKF) is developed for distribution network state estimation. The developed IUKF is used to predict network states (voltage magnitude and angle at all buses) and measurements (source voltage magnitude, line power flows and bus injections) in the presence of load variations and bad data. The statistical performance of the coventional UKF and the proposed IUKF is carried out for a variety of simulation scenarios for IEEE-30, 33 and 69 bus radial distribution systems. The IUKF demonstrated superiority in terms of: RMSE; MAD; MAPE; and overall performance index J for two measurement noise scenarios (30 and 50 per cent). Moreover, it is shown that for a measurement noise of 50 per cent and above, UKF fails while IUKF performs.

Originality/value

UKF shows degraded performance under high measurement noise and fails in some cases. The proposed IUKF is shown to outperform the UKF in all the simulated scenarios. Moreover, this work is novel and has justified improvement in the robustness of the conventional UKF algorithm.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2013

M. Majeed and Indra Narayan Kar

The purpose of this paper is to estimate aerodynamic parameters accurately from flight data in the presence of unknown noise characteristics.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate aerodynamic parameters accurately from flight data in the presence of unknown noise characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

The introduced adaptive filter scheme is composed of two parallel UKFs. At every time‐step, the master UKF estimates the states and parameters using the noise covariance obtained by the slave UKF, while the slave UKF estimates the noise covariance using the innovations generated by the master UKF. This real time innovation‐based adaptive unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is used to estimate aerodynamic parameters of aircraft in uncertain environment where noise characteristics are drastically changing.

Findings

The investigations are initially made on simulated flight data with moderate to high level of process noise and it is shown that all the aerodynamic parameter estimates are accurate. Results are analyzed based on Monte Carlo simulation with 4000 realizations. The efficacy of adaptive UKF in comparison with the other standard Kalman filters on the estimation of accurate flight stability and control derivatives from flight test data in the presence of noise, are also evaluated. It is found that adaptive UKF successfully attains better aerodynamic parameter estimation under the same condition of process noise intensity changes.

Research limitations/implications

The presence of process noise complicates parameter estimation severely. Since the non‐measurable process noise makes the system stochastic, consequently, it requires a suitable state estimator to propagate the states for online estimation of aircraft aerodynamic parameters from flight data.

Originality/value

This is the first paper highlighting the process noise intensity change on real time estimation of flight stability and control parameters using adaptive unscented Kalman filter.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 85 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Marouane Rayyam, Malika Zazi and Youssef Barradi

To improve sensorless control of induction motor using Kalman filtering family, this paper aims to introduce a new metaheuristic optimizer algorithm for online rotor speed…

Abstract

Purpose

To improve sensorless control of induction motor using Kalman filtering family, this paper aims to introduce a new metaheuristic optimizer algorithm for online rotor speed and flux estimation.

Design/methodology/approach

The main problem with unscented Kalman filter (UKF) observer is its sensibility to the initial values of Q and R. To solve the optimal solution of these matrices, a novel alternative called ant lion optimization (ALO)-UKF is introduced. It is based on the combination of the classical UKF observer and a nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithm, ALO.

Findings

Synthesized ALO-UKF has given good results over the famous extended Kalman filter and the classical UKF observer in terms of accuracy and dynamic performance. A comparison between ALO and particle swarm optimization (PSO) was established. Simulations illustrate that ALO recovers rapidly and accurately while PSO has a slower convergence.

Originality/value

Using the proposed approach, tuning the design matrices Q and R in Kalman filtering becomes an easy task with a high degree of accuracy and the constraints of time cost are surmounted. Also, ALO-UKF is an efficient tool to improve estimation performance of states and parameters’ uncertainties of the induction motor. Related optimization technique can be extended to faults monitoring by online identification of their corresponding signatures.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2018

Xin Wang and Chris Gordon

This chapter presents a novel human arm gesture tracking and recognition technique based on fuzzy logic and nonlinear Kalman filtering with applications in crane guidance…

Abstract

This chapter presents a novel human arm gesture tracking and recognition technique based on fuzzy logic and nonlinear Kalman filtering with applications in crane guidance. A Kinect visual sensor and a Myo armband sensor are jointly utilised to perform data fusion to provide more accurate and reliable information on Euler angles, angular velocity, linear acceleration and electromyography data in real time. Dynamic equations for arm gesture movement are formulated with Newton–Euler equations based on Denavit–Hartenberg parameters. Nonlinear Kalman filtering techniques, including the extended Kalman filter and the unscented Kalman filter, are applied in order to perform reliable sensor fusion, and their tracking accuracies are compared. A Sugeno-type fuzzy inference system is proposed for arm gesture recognition. Hardware experiments have shown the efficacy of the proposed method for crane guidance applications.

Details

Fuzzy Hybrid Computing in Construction Engineering and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-868-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Ramazan Havangi

Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is the problem of determining the pose (position and orientation) of an autonomous robot moving through an unknown…

Abstract

Purpose

Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is the problem of determining the pose (position and orientation) of an autonomous robot moving through an unknown environment. The classical FastSLAM is a well-known solution to SLAM. In FastSLAM, a particle filter is used for the robot pose estimation, and the Kalman filter (KF) is used for the feature location’s estimation. However, the performance of the conventional FastSLAM is inconsistent. To tackle this problem, this study aims to propose a mutated FastSLAM (MFastSLAM) using soft computing.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed method uses soft computing. In this approach, particle swarm optimization (PSO) estimator is used for the robot’s pose estimation and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy unscented Kalman filter (ANFUKF) is used for the feature location’s estimation. In ANFUKF, a neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) supervises the performance of the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) with the aim of reducing the mismatch between the theoretical and actual covariance of the residual sequences to get better consistency.

Findings

The simulation and experimental results indicate that the consistency and estimated accuracy of the proposed algorithm are superior FastSLAM.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this paper is the introduction of MFastSLAM to solve the problems of FastSLAM.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 August 2021

M. Kavitha Lakshmi, S. Koteswara Rao and Kodukula Subrahmanyam

Nowadays advancement in acoustic technology can be explored with marine assets. The purpose of the paper is pervasive computing underwater target tracking has aroused…

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Abstract

Purpose

Nowadays advancement in acoustic technology can be explored with marine assets. The purpose of the paper is pervasive computing underwater target tracking has aroused military and civilian interest as a key component of ocean exploration. While many pervasive techniques are currently found in the literature, there is little published research on the effectiveness of these paradigms in the target tracking context.

Design/methodology/approach

The unscented Kalman filter (UKF) provides good results for bearing and elevation angles only tracking. Detailed methodology and mathematical modeling are carried out and used to analyze the performance of the filter based on the Monte Carlo simulation.

Findings

Due to the intricacy of maritime surroundings, tracking underwater targets using acoustic signals, without knowing the range parameter is difficult. The intention is to find out the solution in terms of standard deviation in a three-dimensional (3D) space.

Originality/value

A new method is found for the acceptance criteria for range, course, speed and pitch based on the standard deviation for bearing and elevation 3D target tracking using the unscented Kalman filter covariance matrix. In the Monte Carlo simulation, several scenarios are used and the results are shown.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2015

Ping Zhang, Bei Li and Guanglong Du

This paper aims to develop a wearable-based human-manipulator interface which integrates the interval Kalman filter (IKF), unscented Kalman filter (UKF), over damping…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a wearable-based human-manipulator interface which integrates the interval Kalman filter (IKF), unscented Kalman filter (UKF), over damping method (ODM) and adaptive multispace transformation (AMT) to perform immersive human-manipulator interaction by interacting the natural and continuous motion of the human operator’s hand with the robot manipulator.

Design/methodology/approach

The interface requires that a wearable watch is tightly worn on the operator’s hand to track the continuous movements of the operator’s hand. Nevertheless, the measurement errors generated by the sensor error and tracking failure signicantly occur several times, which means that the measurement is not determined with sufficient accuracy. Due to this fact, IKF and UKF are used to compensate for the noisy and incomplete measurements, and ODM is established to eliminate the influence of the error signals like data jitter. Furthermore, to be subject to the inherent perceptive limitations of the human operator and the motor, AMT that focuses on a secondary treatment is also introduced.

Findings

Experimental studies on the GOOGOL GRB3016 robot show that such a wearable-based interface that incorporates the feedback mechanism and hybrid filters can operate the robot manipulator more flexibly and advantageously even if the operator is nonprofessional; the feedback mechanism introduced here can successfully assist in improving the performance of the interface.

Originality/value

The interface uses one wearable watch to simultaneously track the orientation and position of the operator’s hand; it is not only avoids problems of occlusion, identification and limited operating space, but also realizes a kind of two-way human-manipulator interaction, a feedback mechanism can be triggered in the watch to reflect the system states in real time. Furthermore, the interface gets rid of the synchronization question in posture estimation, as hybrid filters work independently to compensate the noisy measurements respectively.

Article
Publication date: 18 July 2018

Bing Hua, Zhiwen Zhang, Yunhua Wu and Zhiming Chen

The geomagnetic field vector is a function of the satellite’s position. The position and speed of the satellite can be determined by comparing the geomagnetic field vector…

Abstract

Purpose

The geomagnetic field vector is a function of the satellite’s position. The position and speed of the satellite can be determined by comparing the geomagnetic field vector measured by on board three-axis magnetometer with the standard value of the international geomagnetic field. The geomagnetic model has the disadvantages of uncertainty, low precision and long-term variability. Therefore, accuracy of autonomous navigation using the magnetometer is low. The purpose of this paper is to use the geomagnetic and sunlight information fusion algorithm to improve the orbit accuracy.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, an autonomous navigation method for low earth orbit satellite is studied by fusing geomagnetic and solar energy information. The algorithm selects the cosine value of the angle between the solar light vector and the geomagnetic vector, and the geomagnetic field intensity as observation. The Adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter (AUKF) filter is used to estimate the speed and position of the satellite, and the simulation research is carried out. This paper also made the same study using the UKF filter for comparison with the AUKF filter.

Findings

The algorithm of adding the sun direction vector information improves the positioning accuracy compared with the simple geomagnetic navigation, and the convergence and stability of the filter are better. The navigation error does not accumulate with time and has engineering application value. It also can be seen that AUKF filtering accuracy is better than UKF filtering accuracy.

Research limitations/implications

Geomagnetic navigation is greatly affected by the accuracy of magnetometer. This paper does not consider the spacecraft’s environmental interference with magnetic sensors.

Practical implications

Magnetometers and solar sensors are common sensors for micro-satellites. Near-Earth satellite orbit has abundant geomagnetic field resources. Therefore, the algorithm will have higher engineering significance in the practical application of low orbit micro-satellites orbit determination.

Originality/value

This paper introduces a satellite autonomous navigation algorithm. The AUKF geomagnetic filter algorithm using sunlight information can obviously improve the navigation accuracy and meet the basic requirements of low orbit small satellite orbit determination.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 March 2009

Aaron S. Brown and David F. Hardiman

The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis on using two non‐conventional nonlinear estimating filters compared to the traditional linearized extended Kalman filter

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis on using two non‐conventional nonlinear estimating filters compared to the traditional linearized extended Kalman filter (EKF). This analysis will look at two state‐of‐the‐art applications and will provide insight to the problems associated with these applications.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach taken was to simulate both applications with three different filter designs: EKF, unscented Kalman filter, and particle filter. After results and explanations are given for both applications, then there is a comparison of results between the two applications to compare and contrast their findings.

Findings

This research shows how critical it is when selecting a filter for different applications. Not only is tuning the filter properly a necessity, but choosing a filter that is optimum for the application also greatly affects the accuracy and precision of the results.

Research limitations/implications

As these filter methods are proven feasible for these applications, testing can move beyond simulation. Further research could compare other nonlinear filters to these results to determine if a better estimation technique exists.

Practical implications

This paper shows a lot of the issues one must face when choosing an estimation technique for their application as well as the impact the technique can have on the outcome.

Originality/value

This paper clearly describes the decision‐making criteria in regards to these two specific applications. These two applications are current technological problems that many are trying to solve. This paper shows where and why errors in calculations occur. It also offers insight into different ways to solve these problems when the specific application is taken into account.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

1 – 10 of 124