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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Jan Pettersson

The purpose of this paper is to study the re-entry to the workforce of fully retired persons (unretirement) and whether the decision to resume work depends primarily on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the re-entry to the workforce of fully retired persons (unretirement) and whether the decision to resume work depends primarily on social or economic reasons.

Design/methodology/approach

Using Swedish register data for already retired individuals older than 55, the incidence of unretirement is studied. Determinant factors behind the decision to re-enter the labor force is analyzed in a binary response logit model.

Findings

Unretirement varies between 6 and 14 percent under two different definitions. We find support for higher pension income to decrease the probability to unretire. Other determinants, such as marital status, largely support an interpretation that unretirement is a life-style decision rather than a response to an experienced negative economic situation post retirement.

Research limitations/implications

Due to data limitations, the focus in this study is on the extensive margin (the event of returning to the labor force) and not on hours of work post re-entry.

Social implications

If older persons that are physically able to work also want to work and succeed in finding work when they demand so, unretirement is welfare enhancing. However, if unretirement is an effect of unexpected realizations post retirement, any increase in the number of persons facing such unexpected shocks implies an increase in the uncertainty of life as retired.

Originality/value

Research on unretirement is scarce and has previously been performed exclusively on US survey data. Knowing the determinants of unretirement is important to know if and how incentives to unretire should be designed.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 35 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2012

Francine Schlosser, Deborah Zinni and Marjorie Armstrong‐Stassen

The purpose of this study is to identify antecedents of intentions to unretire among a group of retirees that included both those who had not returned to the workforce…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify antecedents of intentions to unretire among a group of retirees that included both those who had not returned to the workforce since their retirement and those who had previously unretired.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross‐sectional survey collected data from 460 recent retirees between the ages of 50 and 70.

Findings

Results of hierarchical regression indicated that retirees are more likely to remain retired if they feel financially secure and have a positive retirement experience. Conversely, they are more likely to intend to return to the workforce if they experience financial worries, wish to upgrade their skills or miss aspects of their former jobs.

Practical implications

Aging boomers who anticipate early retirement have created a dwindling labor pool. Simultaneously, the global pension crisis has impacted on the financial decisions of retirees. A trend to abolish mandatory retirement and/or increase mandatory age in various countries provides individuals with more freedom in their retirement decisions. Accordingly, managers must be creative in their HR planning strategies to retain or recruit skilled retirees.

Originality/value

Previous research has addressed retirement as a final stage, however, given simultaneous global demographic changes and economic concerns, this study provides new knowledge regarding the factors that push and pull retirees to participate in the labor market.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2012

Marjorie Armstrong‐Stassen, Francine Schlosser and Deborah Zinni

This study aims to employ a resource‐oriented theoretical perspective to examine retirees' desire to return to their former organization.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to employ a resource‐oriented theoretical perspective to examine retirees' desire to return to their former organization.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a cross‐sectional field study design, data were collected from 243 retirees under 65 years of age who had been retired from a career job less than ten years.

Findings

Regression results indicate that retirees who had experienced financial and pervasive role loss as well as retirees who perceived a higher fit with their former organization and the availability of desired job role options expressed significantly greater interest in returning. Retirees who experienced gains in leaving work as well as gains in their life satisfaction following retirement reported significantly less interest in returning to their former organization.

Research limitations/implications

The cross‐sectional design and self‐report data create a potential for bias. Even though the findings are based on respondents' “interest” in returning to their former organization, it is not known if they actually did return.

Practical implications

Programs should focus on creating an environment that values older workers, and provides them with opportunities such as mentoring other workers.

Social implications

Policy changes are needed to ensure that returning to work following retirement results in resource gains and not resource losses.

Originality/value

This study uses resource theory with a diverse sample of retirees and considers their desire to return to their original employers, thus adding value to human resources and management who wish to retain or re‐engage their own knowledgeable retirees.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2018

Bishakha Mazumdar, Amy M. Warren and Kathryne E. Dupré

Few studies aim to uniquely conceptualize the experiences of bridge employees after they enter the workforce. Supported by the psychological contract theory and the…

Abstract

Purpose

Few studies aim to uniquely conceptualize the experiences of bridge employees after they enter the workforce. Supported by the psychological contract theory and the self-determination theory, the purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the bridge employment experience by examining how the expectations of bridge employees shape their experiences.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper first reviews the extant literature on bridge employment. It then discusses the psychological contract theory and the self-determination theory, and examines the expectations of bridge employees through the theoretical perspectives of these two theories, to examine experiences in bridge employment.

Findings

Discord in the bridge employment relationship may be attributed to a lack of understanding of the implicit expectations of bridge employees. More specifically, unmet expectations may be detrimental to the bridge employment experience, and ultimately jeopardize both employer and employee outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

This paper examines expectations and experiences of bridge employees from a theoretical perspective. Theoretical tenets are utilized to analyze how and why implicit expectations may influence bridge employees in ways that result in detrimental outcomes for both employers and employees.

Practical implications

This paper sheds light on why bridge employment arrangements may result in adverse outcomes. Specifically, when there is a lack of understanding between bridge employees’ expectations and experiences, both individual and organizational outcomes may be impaired. An improved understanding of the bridge employment experience will likely result in an enhanced working relationship between bridge employees and employers, and minimize misunderstandings about this cohort of the workforce.

Originality/value

Using the guidelines of the psychological contract theory and the self-determination theory, we develop a model to examine how expectation of bridge employees may affect the experiences and ultimately, the outcomes of bridge employment. The authors also identify factors uniquely applicable to bridge employees. This is the first paper that examines the experiences of bridge employees through such theoretical perspectives.

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2016

Betsy D. Gelb and Teri Elkins Longacre

Organizational leaders understandably seek to match their workforce to the organization’s strategic focus. However, they may find their ability to do so thwarted by…

Abstract

Purpose

Organizational leaders understandably seek to match their workforce to the organization’s strategic focus. However, they may find their ability to do so thwarted by reluctance to retire, even by those financially able to do so, based on the stigma that retirement means “old” and “out to pasture.” The purpose of this paper is to learn what can be done to overcome that possible barrier to implementing a strategic direction.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors interviewed 12 human resources executives across the USA concerning the challenge of reducing the stigma associated with retirement. The qualitative study involved conversations that focused on “what does your organization do?” rather than testing a specific hypothesis.

Findings

Respondents talked about actions ranging from the image-related to the substantive, practiced in both for-profit and non-profit settings. Organizations can position retirement as a transition to something else, and therefore a career stage rather than its end.

Practical implications

Organizational leaders can communicate that retirement is not a career end but a stage of work-life that can pay off in increasing flexibility for employees as well as for the organization itself.

Social implications

While strategic flexibility benefits organizations, a societal benefit can be more satisfied retirees if they transition to education, volunteer leadership or entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

The value of this research lies in prompting those at the highest level in organizations, those who design strategy, to consider how its implementation can be improved by actions to affect the retirement perspectives of employees.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2019

The authors wanted to analyze why bridge employees have such a poor experience of coming back to work from retirement. Morale and performance are often disappointing.

Abstract

Purpose

The authors wanted to analyze why bridge employees have such a poor experience of coming back to work from retirement. Morale and performance are often disappointing.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors studied the existing research using the framework of two theories – self-determination theory and psychological contract theory. Both theories suggest that unmet expectations have a detrimental effect on bridge employees' performance and mood. The authors analyze what the returning workers' motivations might be and why bosses might be so poor at satisfying them.

Findings

The previous research suggests that, apart from financial drivers, three factors are key. They are the need for personal fulfillment, the opportunity for mentoring the younger generation, and the need for meaningful social relationships. The research indicates that stereotypical views about older employees often hold organizations back from providing work that fulfills these needs.

Originality/value

Previous research has looked at the disappointing outcomes of bridge employment but has not analyzed why that might be the case. The authors of the present study use of the two theories to provide understanding of why bosses might be undermining the returning workers, who are often relegated to “non-standard” roles.

Details

Human Resource Management International Digest , vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-0734

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Article
Publication date: 26 January 2010

Rick Ferguson and Bill Brohaugh

The purpose of this paper is to remind loyalty marketers to harness the power of the often‐forgotten generation that truly values brand loyalty – the Baby boomers.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to remind loyalty marketers to harness the power of the often‐forgotten generation that truly values brand loyalty – the Baby boomers.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach take the form of exploring Boomers' demographics and influence on the marketing community and outlining some of the best practices to which marketers can look when building programs and offers for Boomers.

Findings

By 2010, one‐third of the US population will be over 50; by 2020, one in five Americans will be over 65. In the near future, the oldest segment of the US economy will control the largest share of the US economy and marketers will be wise to make 50+ consumers visible in their marketing strategies. Boomers will find the brands that resonate with them and continue to fuel revenue and growth for years to come.

Practical implications

If one has established a relationship with Boomer customers and one has maintained the integrity of those relationships, they will stay with one for years to come. The biggest mistake one can make is to change one's offers and messaging to them just because they hit retirement age.

Originality/value

The paper presents exclusive interviews with representatives from some of the largest marketing firms in the industry today. Tangible tips and tools to utilize in the real world marketing plans are offered.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 June 2020

Chris Gilleard

This study aims to explore whether trends in the pattern of income inequality over the past 40 years apply equally to working and retirement age households in the UK, and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore whether trends in the pattern of income inequality over the past 40 years apply equally to working and retirement age households in the UK, and if so, why this might be so.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on data from the Office of National Statistics, various indices of income inequality have been calculated among retired and working-age households for the period 1977–2017.

Findings

Despite a broadly similar trend towards increasing inequality during the 1980s and into the 1990s among both types of household, income inequality among UK retired households has always remained below than that of working-age households. For retired and working-age households alike, the fortunes of those in the upper half of the income distribution have seen themselves do better. Despite the temporal contiguity, different explanations for both sets of inequalities seem to be required, and likely different strategies needed to ameliorate their more negative effects.

Originality/value

Few studies have conducted comparisons of inequality between retirement and working-age households over four decades in any country. The present study's long view suggests that factors creating inequality in the upper half of the income distribution may differ in both their cause and impact, compared with inequalities in the lower half. Arguably, the greatest need is to improve access to benefits for those retired householders at the bottom of the income distribution.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2019

Kaberi Gayen, Robert Raeside and Ronald McQuaid

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of social networks, and the social capital embedded in them, to secure employment if someone had become…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of social networks, and the social capital embedded in them, to secure employment if someone had become unemployed after the age of 50 years and to reveal the process of accessing and mobilising that social capital.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study of a Scottish labour market was undertaken which involved an interview-based survey of those who became unemployed in their early 50’s and tried to regain employment. The interview had structured and unstructured parts which allowed both quantitative and qualitative analysis to compare those who were successful in regaining work with those who were not. The uniqueness of the paper is the use of social network components while controlling for other socio-economic and demographic variables in job search of older workers.

Findings

Those older people who were unemployed and, returned to employment (reemployed) had a higher proportion of contacts with higher prestige jobs, their job searching methods were mainly interpersonal and the rate of finding their last job via their social networks was higher than those who remained unemployed. Both groups mobilised social capital (MSC), but those reemployed accessed higher “quality” social capital. “Strong ties”, rather than “weak ties”, were found to be important in accessing and mobilising social capital for the older workers who returned to employment.

Research limitations/implications

This work is limited to a local labour market and is based on a small but informative sample. However, it does show that policy is required to allow older people to enhance their social networks by strengthening the social capital embedded in the networks. The results support the use of intermediaries as bridges to help compensate for older people who have weak social networks. Besides the policy implications, the paper also has two distinct research implications. First, the use of social network component to the existing literature of older workers’ job search. Second, exploring the type and relational strength with network members to explain older workers’ reemployment.

Practical implications

The paper illustrates that how accessed and MSC can be measured.

Social implications

As populations age, this work points to an approach to support older people to re-enter employment and to include them in society.

Originality/value

The paper extends social network and employment literature to fill gaps on how older people require to both access and mobilise social capital. The importance of “strong ties” in the reemployment of older workers contrasts with much of the literature on younger workers where the “strength of weak ties” so far has been regarded as essential for successful job search. Measures are forwarded to reveal the relevance of social capital. The policy value of the work is in suggesting ways to facilitate older people re-enter or remain in work and hence sustain their well-being.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 39 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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