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Article
Publication date: 17 September 2020

Vanessa Gaitree Gowreesunkar, Hugues Seraphin and Mohammad Nazimuddin

Begging is undoubtedly an ancient phenomenon but when explored from the tourism perspective, it is relatively new. Begging has existed across several historical periods…

Abstract

Purpose

Begging is undoubtedly an ancient phenomenon but when explored from the tourism perspective, it is relatively new. Begging has existed across several historical periods, but with sophistication and savviness, it has developed into a lucrative form of tourism business. While previous studies have reasonably explored the beggar–tourist interaction in several socio-economic contexts, the present one attempts to research an unusual aspect of these encounters which is termed as “black market tourism.” In the current study, black market is explained as a clandestine but visible market where tourism transactions take place within three important stakeholders, namely, the beggars, the tourists and shopkeepers. The transaction is found to have some aspects of illegality, but ultimately, serves the manifest function of yielding money and growing the underground network. This triangular interaction is therefore of relevance to understand the functioning of this black market involving those key stakeholders. With this notion as foundation, this study aims to empirically and conceptually explore the phenomenon of black market tourism which is derived from the beggar–tourist– shopkeeper encounter in an important city of India called Hyderabad. The specific location of the study was Chaar Minaar, a popular tourism city with ancient monument and shopping places in Hyderabad (India). Tourism in India is undeniably infused with the notions of color and culture, but how this colorful context gradually developed into a colorless black market tourism economy is worthy of study.

Design/methodology/approach

From a methodological point of view, this conceptual paper draws on unobtrusive research methods (written records, non-participant observations, informal interviews and occasional photography).

Findings

Findings show that begging is developing into a lucrative industry without costly investment and beggars operate in a cartel. The black tourism market is found to be an emerging underground tourism economy with established stakeholders, who are rapidly progressing and growing their network. The network is seen to be increasingly attracting educated and young professionals.

Research limitations/implications

The research is explorative and provides a consistent and empirically based starting point for research on black market tourism involving beggar–tourist and beggar–shopkeeper interactions in Indian cities. The sample being very limited, it is important to stress the limited possibilities to generalize the findings of this study to other destinations. Moreover, the assumption that the background of the local researcher might have influenced the interpretation of primary data need not be neglected, thus suggesting a further examination to confirm validity of the results.

Practical implications

The study provides information not only to destination managers interested to diversify the tourism product, but also to policymakers who are fighting against begging in the city of Hyderabad. The beggar experience can be used to attract more tourists seeking authenticity, provided that the process is improved by adding in some level of professionalism. For instance, beggars could be trained to perform decently in a town hall where tourists are invited to attend cultural shows. To some extent, this study may also help empowering beggars to become part of the tourism ecosystem. This is important, as modern society has disempowered economically disadvantaged members of the community (Hutton, 2016). Ultimately, the study attempted to show that disempowered members of the community are not always passive and powerless. They can create business out of another business (a re-invented form of beggarism that has potential to generate money from tourism).

Social implications

The study has a social aspect as it takes the involvement of three stakeholders, namely, the tourists, the beggars and the shopkeepers. The study shows how begging transactions affect the three stakeholders and it sheds light on its overall impact on Hyderabad, as a tourism destination.

Originality/value

To the best of authors’ knowledge, no tourism study (academic and non-academic) has so far considered the beggar–tourist encounter from a black market perspective. The findings offer new information on a reinvented form of beggarism and unveils that this black market is a well-entrenched system operated by an educated pool of people and professionals. Ultimately, the study attempts to show that disempowered members of the community (beggars) are not always passive and powerless. They can create business out of another business (a re-invented form of beggarism that has potential to generate money out of tourism).

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1997

Morris “The Cat” Holbrook

Rather than focusing on issues that pertain to the consumption of cats (as pets), deals with the nature of consumption by cats (as consumers). Explores these facets of…

Abstract

Rather than focusing on issues that pertain to the consumption of cats (as pets), deals with the nature of consumption by cats (as consumers). Explores these facets of consumer behaviour by means of three interrelated methods: ethography, felologies, and unobtrusive participation. This approach addresses the differences between human and feline consumption in general. A more detailed treatment then uses photographs to examine the consumption experiences of one cat in particular by documenting a day in the life of a cat.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 31 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2020

June-Hyuk Kwon, Seung-Hye Jung, Hyun-Ju Choi and Joonho Kim

This study aims to empirically analyze the effects of marketing communications, such as advertisement/promotion and social network service (SNS) content, on consumer…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to empirically analyze the effects of marketing communications, such as advertisement/promotion and social network service (SNS) content, on consumer engagement (CE), brand trust and brand loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

The study’s participants were 230 US and 376 Korean consumers who have used (i.e. contacted) a food service establishment (i.e. family restaurant) at least once before and who continue to use an SNS (e.g. Facebook and Instagram). This study conducted a hypothesis test using structural equation modeling analysis. In addition, hierarchical analysis was performed to further generalize and support the statistical analysis results.

Findings

Advertisement/promotion and SNS content have a statistically significant positive effect on CE. Advertisement/promotion has a statistically significant positive effect on brand trust, and SNS content has a statistically significant negative effect on brand trust. CE has a statistically significant positive effect on brand trust, and CE and brand trust have a statistically significant positive effect on brand loyalty. No statistically significant differences were shown between the US and Korean consumer groups (critical ratios for difference of path coefficient < ± 1.96). The hypothesis test results of the structural equation model analysis and hierarchical analysis were the same for the entire group.

Originality/value

The findings indicate that the overall mediating role of CE is important. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to investigate which marketing communication channels are most effective in the restaurant sector.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Book part
Publication date: 20 September 2018

Arwen H. DeCostanza, Katherine R. Gamble, Armando X. Estrada and Kara L. Orvis

Unobtrusive measurement methodologies are critical to implementing intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) for teams. Such methodologies allow for continuous measurement of…

Abstract

Unobtrusive measurement methodologies are critical to implementing intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) for teams. Such methodologies allow for continuous measurement of team states and processes while avoiding disruption of mission or training performance, and do not rely on post hoc feedback (including for the aggregation of data into measures or to develop insights from these real-time metrics). This chapter summarizes advances in unobtrusive measurement developed within Army research programs to illustrate the variety and potential that unobtrusive measurement approaches can provide for building ITS for teams. Challenges regarding the real-time aggregation of data and applications to current and future ITS for teams are also discussed.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1990

Kenneth Whittaker

A survey is presented of the use of unobtrusive testing techniquesto measure reference enquiry answering performance, emphasising researchcarried out in Britain. British…

Abstract

A survey is presented of the use of unobtrusive testing techniques to measure reference enquiry answering performance, emphasising research carried out in Britain. British studies reveal similar performance figures to those obtained by American studies; the average succes rate here also being only about 55 per cent. Possible developments in the use of the techniques to aid user service research and management are suggested, and the limitations of unobtrusive testing methods are considered. The improvement of enquiry answering performance would seem to lie in better training of library staff in communication skills.

Details

Library Review, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Understanding Reference Transactions: Transforming an Art into a Science
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12587-780-0

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2010

Elaine M. Lasda Bergman and Irina I. Holden

The paper aims to systematically review research that analyzes satisfaction with electronic reference services, paying particular attention to how user satisfaction is…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to systematically review research that analyzes satisfaction with electronic reference services, paying particular attention to how user satisfaction is measured. The application and value of evidence‐based methodologies for library and information science (LIS) research are explored.

Design/methodology/approach

Database searches identified research concerned with electronic reference. Articles with a variable of user satisfaction were extracted and subjected to a critical appraisal. The remaining research was analyzed for similarities, differences, and consistency.

Findings

A wide variety of methods are used to measure user satisfaction. There was almost no overlap in specific questions considered although there were some similarities in methodologies used. The results of this analysis show a lack of standardization in LIS research on this topic.

Research limitations/implications

There may be some bias in the selection of research in that the reviewers were only able to obtain published findings. The lack of consistency in reporting results further limited the articles eligible for review and precluded a meta‐analysis.

Practical implications

By synthesizing the research conducted on this topic, practicing librarians should be able to see patterns in user satisfaction with electronic reference, and become aware of common pitfalls in undertaking user satisfaction assessment. Those conducting or planning LIS research will be able to identify the characteristics of sound research and thorough reporting of results.

Originality/value

Systematic review is an underutilized methodology in LIS research. As evidence‐based librarianship gains traction, it will become a more important tool for LIS researchers. The synthesis and analysis of previous research bring together disparate findings and show patterns and/or differences in providing these services, and brings into focus the lack of consistency in LIS research on this topic.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Book part
Publication date: 10 April 2019

Aaron D. Hill, Oleg V. Petrenko, Jason W. Ridge and Federico Aime

This work describes and demonstrates a novel measurement system refered to as videometrics. Videometrics uses third-party ratings of video samples to assess individuals…

Abstract

This work describes and demonstrates a novel measurement system refered to as videometrics. Videometrics uses third-party ratings of video samples to assess individuals’ characteristics with psychometrically validated instruments of the measures of interest. Videometrics is argued to help ensure valid measurement in difficult to access subject pools, offering substantial promise for future research. This work explains the methodology and demonstrates the applicability and validity of videometrics in multiple studies in the context of a difficult to access subject pool – chief executive officers (CEOs). Finally, the applicability of the method to samples for which lack of access to individuals of interest has limited empirical investigation is discussed.

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2019

Tingting Jiang, Qian Guo, Shunchang Chen and Jiaqi Yang

The headlines of online news are created carefully to influence audience news selection today. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between news…

Abstract

Purpose

The headlines of online news are created carefully to influence audience news selection today. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between news headline presentation and users’ clicking behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Two types of unobtrusive data were collected and analyzed jointly for this purpose. A two-month server log file containing 39,990,200 clickstream records was obtained from an institutional news site. A clickstream data analysis was conducted at the footprint and movement levels, which extracted 98,016 clicks received by 7,120 headlines ever displayed on the homepage. Meanwhile, the presentation of these headlines was characterized from seven dimensions, i.e. position, format, text length, use of numbers, use of punctuation marks, recency and popularity, based on the layout and content crawled from the homepage.

Findings

This study identified a series of presentation characteristics that prompted users to click on the headlines, including placing them in the central T-shaped zones, using images, increasing text length properly for greater clarity, using visually distinctive punctuation marks, and providing recency and popularity indicators.

Originality/value

The findings have valuable implications for news providers in attracting clicks to their headlines. Also, the successful application of nonreactive methods has significant implications for future user studies in both information science and journalism.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 72 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Stephanie J. Graves and Christina M. Desai

The purpose of this research is to determine whether instruction would be welcomed by instant messaging (IM)/chat users, whether instruction is possible in this medium…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to determine whether instruction would be welcomed by instant messaging (IM)/chat users, whether instruction is possible in this medium, whether it can be effectively provided, and if the use of co‐browsing enhances learning.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies were conducted in which IM/chat reference transcripts were analyzed and patron surveys collected. This research paper compares results from these studies, the first based on use of text‐only IM software, the second using commercial chat software with a co‐browse feature.

Findings

Findings indicate that patrons welcome instruction, whether they ask for it or not, and are satisfied with chat/IM as an instructional medium. Librarians usually provide instruction, though they are more likely to do so if patrons ask for it, directly or indirectly. Co‐browsing was used little and did not increase the amount of instruction provided. Patron question format had an impact on the likelihood of co‐browsing. Despite a high rate of technical difficulties, co‐browsing was very well received by survey respondents.

Practical implications

Findings suggest more training on the importance of instruction in virtual reference is needed.

Originality/value

Providing instruction via reference is an established practice at the physical reference desk, yet few studies of instruction in virtual reference have been conducted and none on co‐browsing as an instructional tool. This study addresses the need for research on instruction in the virtual reference environment.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

Keywords

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