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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2021

Muhammad Taimoor, Xiao Lu, Hamid Maqsood and Chunyang Sheng

The objective of this research is to investigate various neural network (NN) observer techniques for sensors fault identification and diagnosis of nonlinear system in…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this research is to investigate various neural network (NN) observer techniques for sensors fault identification and diagnosis of nonlinear system in consideration of numerous faults, failures, uncertainties and disturbances. For the importunity of increasing the faults diagnosis and reconstruction preciseness, a new technique is used for modifying the weight parameters of NNs without enhancement of computational complexities.

Design/methodology/approach

Various techniques such as adaptive radial basis functions (ARBF), conventional radial basis functions, adaptive multi-layer perceptron, conventional multi-layer perceptron and extended state observer are presented. For increasing the fault detection preciseness, a new technique is used for updating the weight parameters of radial basis functions and multi-layer perceptron (MLP) without enhancement of computational complexities. Lyapunov stability theory and sliding-mode surface concepts are used for the weight-updating parameters. Based on the combination of these two concepts, the weight parameters of NNs are updated adaptively. The key purpose of utilization of adaptive weight is to enhance the detection of faults with high accuracy. Because of the online adaptation, the ARBF can detect various kinds of faults and failures such as simultaneous, incipient, intermittent and abrupt faults effectively. Results depict that the suggested algorithm (ARBF) demonstrates more confrontation to unknown disturbances, faults and system dynamics compared with other investigated techniques and techniques used in the literature. The proposed algorithms are investigated by the utilization of quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle dynamics, which authenticate the efficiency of the suggested algorithm.

Findings

The proposed Lyapunov function theory and sliding-mode surface-based strategy are studied, which shows more efficiency to unknown faults, failures, uncertainties and disturbances compared with conventional approaches as well as techniques used in the literature.

Practical implications

For improvement of the system safety and for avoiding failure and damage, the rapid fault detection and isolation has a great significance; the proposed approaches in this research work guarantee the detection and reconstruction of unknown faults, which has a great significance for practical life.

Originality/value

In this research, two strategies such Lyapunov function theory and sliding-mode surface concept are used in combination for tuning the weight parameters of NNs adaptively. The main purpose of these strategies is the fault diagnosis and reconstruction with high accuracy in terms of shape as well as the magnitude of unknown faults. Results depict that the proposed strategy is more effective compared with techniques used in the literature.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 93 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2018

Shi Zhou and Masoud Gheisari

Over the past decade, researchers have used unmanned aerial systems (UASs) in construction industry for various applications from site inspection to safety monitoring or…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the past decade, researchers have used unmanned aerial systems (UASs) in construction industry for various applications from site inspection to safety monitoring or building maintenance. This paper aims to assort academic studies on construction UAS applications, summarize logics behind using UAS in each application and extend understanding of current state of UAS research in the construction setting.

Design/methodology/approach

This research follows a systematic literature assessment methodology to summarize the results of 54 research papers over the past ten years and outlines the research trends for applying UASs in construction.

Findings

UASs are used in building inspection, damage assessment, site surveying, safety inspection, progress monitoring, building maintenance and other construction applications. Cost saving, time efficiency and improved accessibility are the primary reasons for choosing UAS in construction applications. Rotary-wing UASs are the most common types of UASs being used in construction. Cameras, LiDAR and Kinect are the most common onboard sensors integrated in construction UAS applications. The control styles used are manual, semi-autonomous and autonomous.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to classification of UAS applications in construction research and identification of UAS hardware and sensor types as well as their flying control systems in construction literature.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2020

Paweł Rzucidło, Tomasz Rogalski, Grzegorz Jaromi, Damian Kordos, Piotr Szczerba and Andrzej Paw

The purpose of this paper is to describe simulation research carried out for the needs of multi-sensor anti-collision system for light aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe simulation research carried out for the needs of multi-sensor anti-collision system for light aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents an analysis related to the practical possibilities of detecting intruders in the air space with the use of optoelectronic sensors. The theoretical part determines the influence of the angle of view, distance from the intruder and the resolution of the camera on the ability to detect objects with different linear dimensions. It has been assumed that the detection will be effective for objects represented by at least four pixels (arranged in a line) on the sensor matrix. In the main part devoted to simulation studies, the theoretical data was compared to the obtained intruders’ images. The verified simulation environment was then applied to the image processing algorithms developed for the anti-collision system.

Findings

A simulation environment was obtained enabling reliable tests of the anti-collision system using optoelectronic sensors.

Practical implications

The integration of unmanned aircraft operations in civil airspace is a serious problem on a global scale. Equipping aircraft with autonomous anti-collision systems can help solve key problems. The use of simulation techniques in the process of testing anti-collision systems allows the implementation of test scenarios that may be burdened with too much risk in real flights.

Social implications

This paper aims for possible improvement of safety in light-sport aviation.

Originality/value

This paper conducts verification of classic flight simulator software suitability for carrying out anti-collision systems tests and development of a flight simulator platform dedicated to such tests.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Drones and the Law
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-249-9

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Article
Publication date: 2 April 2019

Kashish Gupta, Bara Jamal Emran and Homayoun Najjaran

The purpose of this paper is to facilitate autonomous landing of a multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) on a moving/tilting platform using a robust vision-based approach.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to facilitate autonomous landing of a multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) on a moving/tilting platform using a robust vision-based approach.

Design/methodology/approach

Autonomous landing of a multi-rotor UAV on a moving or tilting platform of unknown orientation in a GPS-denied and vision-compromised environment presents a challenge to common autopilot systems. The paper proposes a robust visual data processing system based on targets’ Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF features to estimate the UAV’s three-dimensional pose in real time.

Findings

The system is able to visually locate and identify the unique landing platform based on a cooperative marker with an error rate of 1° or less for all roll, pitch and yaw angles.

Practical implications

The proposed vision-based system aims at on-board use and increased reliability without a significant change to the computational load of the UAV.

Originality/value

The simplicity of the training procedure gives the process the flexibility needed to use a marker of any unknown/irregular shape or dimension. The process can be easily tweaked to respond to different cooperative markers. The on-board computationally inexpensive process can be added to off-the-shelf autopilots.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2018

Marcin Chodnicki, Katarzyna Bartnik, Miroslaw Nowakowski and Grzegorz Kowaleczko

The motivation to perform research on feedback control system for unmanned aerial vehicles, a fact that each quadrocopter is unstable.

Abstract

Purpose

The motivation to perform research on feedback control system for unmanned aerial vehicles, a fact that each quadrocopter is unstable.

Design/methodology/approach

For this reason, it is necessary to design a control system which is capable of making unmanned aerial vehicle vertical take-off and landing (UAV VTOL) stable and controllable. For this purpose, it was decided to use a feedback control system with cascaded PID controller. The main reason for using it was that PID controllers are simple to implement and do not use much hardware resources. Moreover, cascaded control systems allow to control object response using more parameters than in a standard PID control. STM32 microcontrollers were used to make a real control system. The rapid prototyping using Embedded Coder Toolbox, FreeRTOS and STM32 CubeMX was conducted to design the algorithm of the feedback control system with cascaded PID controller for unmanned aerial vehicle vertical take-off and landings (UAV VTOLs).

Findings

During research, an algorithm of UAV VTOL control using the feedback control system with cascaded PID controller was designed. Tests were performed for the designed algorithm in the model simulation in Matlab/Simulink and in the real conditions.

Originality/value

It has been proved that an additional control loop must have a full PID controller. Moreover, a new library is presented for STM32 microcontrollers made using the Embedded Coder Toolbox just for the research. This library enabled to use rapid prototyping while developing the control algorithms.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Lie Yu, Jia Chen, Yukang Tian, Yunzhou Sun and Lei Ding

The purpose of this paper is to present a control strategy which uses two independent PID controllers to realize the hovering control for unmanned aerial systems (UASs)…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a control strategy which uses two independent PID controllers to realize the hovering control for unmanned aerial systems (UASs). In addition, the aim of using two PID controller is to achieve the position control and velocity control simultaneously.

Design/methodology/approach

The dynamic of the UASs is mathematically modeled. One PID controller is used for position tracking control, while the other is selected for the vertical component of velocity tracking control. Meanwhile, fuzzy logic algorithm is presented to use the actual horizontal component of velocity to compute the desired position.

Findings

Based on this fuzzy logic algorithm, the control error of the horizontal component of velocity tracking control is narrowed gradually to be zero. The results show that the fuzzy logic algorithm can make the UASs hover still in the air and vertical to the ground.

Social implications

The acquired results are based on simulation not experiment.

Originality/value

This is the first study to use two independent PID controllers to realize stable hovering control for UAS. It is also the first to use the velocity of the UAS to calculate the desired position.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Laura Novaro Mascarello and Fulvia Quagliotti

In the past decades, both civil and military applications of small unmanned aerial systems (sUASs) have been on the rise. The sUASs guarantee the performance of dangerous…

Abstract

Purpose

In the past decades, both civil and military applications of small unmanned aerial systems (sUASs) have been on the rise. The sUASs guarantee the performance of dangerous, dull, duly and dirty missions, according to the 4D rule. The purpose of this study is to describe, some ethical, operational and safety challenges occur owing to the use of sUASs at over-crowded areas or in emergency scenarios. After an overview of the current sUAS regulations, some strategic configuration elements will be analysed to improve these systems and to define safe and inoffensive sUASs. Nevertheless, some problems have not been completely overcome.

Design/methodology/approach

The unmanned vehicles are nowadays applied for different kinds of applications. Search and rescue (S&R) missions; terrain surveillance and monitoring after natural disasters, such as earthquakes and landslides; and transportation of medical equipment and cartography are some examples of the most renowned and important civil missions of sUAS. In all these scenarios, some challenges could be encountered. First, the use of sUASs could compromise the privacy of unaware citizens who are in the area of application. Moreover, even if the unmanned vehicle works according to national and international regulations, there are some hazards both for the ground operators and for the population, because these sUASs could impact the human body after a flight failure.

Findings

In this paper, current principal regulations will be analysed, identifying some differences and discrepancies among them. Moreover, some considerations about the configuration elements are introduced to define the safe use of sUASs. Nevertheless, the privacy challenge is quite complicated to be overcome definitely.

Originality/value

Considering some challenges related to the civil applications of sUASs, new unmanned configurations could be developed to guarantee safety and data protection of unaware people.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 89 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2019

Anna Maria Mazur and Roman Domanski

The presented research is carried out in reaction to the soaring costs of fuel and tight control over environmental issues such as carbon dioxide emissions and noise. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The presented research is carried out in reaction to the soaring costs of fuel and tight control over environmental issues such as carbon dioxide emissions and noise. The purpose of this paper is to study the feasibility of applying the environmental-friendly energy source in an unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) propulsion system.

Design/methodology/approach

Currently, the majority of UAVs are still powered by conventional combustion engines. An electric propulsion system is most commonly found in civilian micro and mini UAVs. The UAV classification is reviewed in this study. This paper focuses mainly on application of electric propulsion systems in UAVs. Investigated hybrid energy systems consist of fuel cells, Li-ion batteries, super-capacitors and photovoltaic (PV) modules. Current applications of fuel cell systems in UAVs are also presented.

Findings

The conducted research shows that hybridization allows for better energy management and operation of every energy source onboard the UAV within its limits. The hybrid energy system design should be created to maximize system efficiency without compromising the performance of the aircraft.

Practical implications

The presented study highlights the reduction of the energy consumption, necessary to perform the mission and maximizing of the endurance with simultaneous decrease in emissions and noise level.

Originality/value

The conducted research studies the feasibility of implementing the environmental-friendly hybrid electric propulsion systems in UAVs that offers high efficiency, reliability, controllability, lack of thermal and noise signature, thus, providing quiet and clean drive with low vibration levels. This paper highlights the main challenges and current research on fuel cell in aviation and draws attention to fuel cell – electric system modeling, hybridization and energy management.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2019

Tao Han, Bo Xiao, Xi-Sheng Zhan, Jie Wu and Hongling Gao

The purpose of this paper is to investigate time-optimal control problems for multiple unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems to achieve predefined flying shape.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate time-optimal control problems for multiple unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems to achieve predefined flying shape.

Design/methodology/approach

Two time-optimal protocols are proposed for the situations with or without human control input, respectively. Then, Pontryagin’s minimum principle approach is applied to deal with the time-optimal control problems for UAV systems, where the cost function, the initial and terminal conditions are given in advance. Moreover, necessary conditions are derived to ensure that the given performance index is optimal.

Findings

The effectiveness of the obtained time-optimal control protocols is verified by two contrastive numerical simulation examples. Consequently, the proposed protocols can successfully achieve the prescribed flying shape.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a solution to solve the time-optimal control problems for multiple UAV systems to achieve predefined flying shape.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

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