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In this chapter, we discuss how to use technology to enhance teacher education through the discussion of teacher education programs at two Maryland universities. University…
In this chapter, we discuss how to use technology to enhance teacher education through the discussion of teacher education programs at two Maryland universities. University of Maryland University College, a public university, was founded to address the needs of the military overseas following the end of World War II, as an offshoot of the University of Maryland College Park. It has become the largest primarily online public, not for profit, university in the United States. Its Master of Arts in teaching program was reinstituted in 2009, after a several year hiatus. The second university, Bowie State University (BSU), is a more traditional, historically black university (HBCU) founded as a teacher education institution in the 1800s and has been training teachers ever since. Both institutions of higher education are part of the University System of Maryland and the teacher education programs are certified by the Maryland State Department of Education (MSDE). These two universities were selected to highlight how different types of universities are implementing technology into their teacher education programs. The distinction illustrates a fully online teacher education program and a fully face-to-face teacher education program and the nuances between the two. These distinctions offer a broader view of how technology is used to enhance teacher education and to offer equal opportunity to students who want to become teachers. The chapter focuses on the uses of technology for the instruction of teacher candidates’ field experiences and internships. Technology enhancements provided in teacher preparation courses for student academic instruction and university faculty and school personnel training in the use of technology and Web 2.0 tools are discussed.
The Government of India’s National Policy of Education 2020 stipulates that in the following five years all stand-alone teacher education colleges will be required to…
The Government of India’s National Policy of Education 2020 stipulates that in the following five years all stand-alone teacher education colleges will be required to convert to multidisciplinary higher education institutions. This calls for a complete overhaul of the country’s vast, diverse, and age-old system of teacher preparation. Evidence-based policy implementation is thus the need of the hour. This chapter attempts to aid the process by presenting insights from a comparative education research on pre-service teacher education (PSTE) of secondary school teachers at stand-alone teacher education institutions (TEIs) in the Indian city of Mumbai and university-based teacher education in the Chinese city of Hong Kong. Documentary sources, field visits, and 57 interviews form the basis of the findings. The dimensions for comparison include academic freedom and autonomy; pathways to PSTE; linkages of teacher education providers; and role and working conditions of teacher educators. The chapter deduces the core differences in teacher education at stand-alone TEIs vis-à-vis that at a university and draws out implications of shutting down the former. It concludes by laying down a road map for the effective universitization of teacher education in India that will result in genuinely improving teacher quality.
The researchers developed a model of mentoring student teachers, known as Shared Mentoring in Learning Environments (SMILE), to provide opportunities for classroom teachers…
The researchers developed a model of mentoring student teachers, known as Shared Mentoring in Learning Environments (SMILE), to provide opportunities for classroom teachers to build shared understanding with university field supervisors. The purpose of this paper is to compare teaching efficacy of those student teachers who matriculated through the SMILE approach with mentoring student teachers who matriculated through a traditional approach to mentoring and identifying aspects of SMILE that may have contributed to the development of teacher efficacy.
A total of 29 student teachers participated in the SMILE model of supporting student teaching, and 29 student teachers (comparison group) were provided with a traditional support structure. At the start and end of their one-year post-baccalaureate credential program, all student teachers completed a teaching efficacy questionnaire. During the last month of the teacher-credential program, all student teachers were interviewed in focus groups regarding the quality of their student-teaching mentoring. In addition, the researchers asked classroom teachers in the SMILE cohort to complete a questionnaire, identifying specific strengths and weaknesses of the SMILE model of mentoring student teachers.
Student teachers in the SMILE cohort improved their teaching efficacy in comparison with student teachers in a traditional model of support. SMILE student teachers appreciated critical feedback, while the comparison group participants focused on whether feedback was positive or negative. In addition, SMILE student teachers attributed their development of instructional skills to the mentoring process from classroom teachers and university supervisors, while comparison group participants attributed their development as teachers mainly to their classroom teachers who modeled effective instructional strategies. SMILE classroom teachers made reference to how particular aspects of the model (e.g. sequencing and lesson study) contributed to both student- and mentor-teacher development.
The SMILE approach to mentoring student teachers facilitated collaboration between university field supervisors and classroom teachers in joint mentoring of future teachers into their profession, a rare occurrence in teacher education programs. Joint mentoring led to improved teaching efficacy among student teachers.
This chapter synthesizes Chapters 13–17. After distinguishing teacher leaders as individuals who enact various functions of teacher leadership in today’s schools, the…
This chapter synthesizes Chapters 13–17. After distinguishing teacher leaders as individuals who enact various functions of teacher leadership in today’s schools, the chapter describes three themes related to teacher leader preparation and development in professional development schools (PDSs): (1) teacher leaders are made not born, (2) school–university partnerships create the conditions for developing high-quality teacher leaders, and (3) PDSs have the potential to develop teacher leaders as teacher educators. The chapter concludes with recommendations on how teacher leadership in PDSs can be strengthened.
This chapter considers ways in which lesson study may be introduced and sustained within the school–university partnerships that already exist within an initial teacher…
This chapter considers ways in which lesson study may be introduced and sustained within the school–university partnerships that already exist within an initial teacher education (ITE) course. In particular, the authors describe the challenges and opportunities associated with ITE lesson study partnerships and ways in which lesson study can deepen and even transform the nature of the school–university partnership. The authors draw on third-generation Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (Engeström, 2001) to highlight pre-service teachers’ roles as ‘boundary crossers’ between the activity system of the university ITE course and the activity system of the school department in which they are placed. The authors argue that pre-service teachers, despite their inexperience as teachers, have an important opportunity to introduce the practices of lesson study that they are learning about into the schools in which they are placed. They are also able to promote approaches to lesson planning and observation that support the values of the course and thus, through mentor development, strengthen the school–university partnership more widely than the specific lesson studies carried out. The authors outline three models for productive ITE lesson study partnerships, and argue that even a relatively small number of lesson study events throughout the school year can establish the beginnings of a transformation in the school culture away from a performative focus on evaluating the teacher and towards a more productive focus on school students’ learning. This, in turn, deepens the partnership between university and school by aligning both parties more closely around a shared focus on studying learning.
Purpose – This chapter describes the Bologna process in teacher education in France. Since the beginning of the reform in 2005, university teacher training institutes…
Purpose – This chapter describes the Bologna process in teacher education in France. Since the beginning of the reform in 2005, university teacher training institutes (IUFMs) were integrated in the universities, and the possession of a master's degree became a requirement to teach in France. The main objective of our study is to point out ambiguities, tensions and difficulties that have accompanied implementation of this reform.Methodology – The study is based on the examination of official publications of French stakeholders during the reform's design and implementation. The content analyses of the collected data are carried out using the concept of “universitarisation” and its three dimensions: structures; knowledge and curriculum; and actors. Other data collected during the “Teacher Education Curriculum in the EU” research project complete this study.Findings – The impact of the reform on teacher candidates is described as a “disaster,” in French scientific literature. The policymakers did not grasp the opportunity the Bologna process presented to enhance the quality of teacher education and improve the status of the teaching profession. On the contrary, in the context of budgetary constraints in education, the government has used this reform to remove the posts of teacher trainees, thus reducing the internship period.Value – This chapter addresses practitioners and researchers interested in comparative educational studies and teacher education policy development in the context of the Bologna process.
This paper aims to take Chinese university teachers as the research objects to examine their self-evaluation of online teaching and analyze the main factors influencing…
This paper aims to take Chinese university teachers as the research objects to examine their self-evaluation of online teaching and analyze the main factors influencing their evaluation during COVID-19.
According to the theory of educational ecology, the factors influencing teachers' self-evaluation of online teaching in this paper include university background, courses background and teachers' personal background from the macro- to micro-levels. Through exploratory factor analysis, independent sample T-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), the self-evaluation of online teaching of 13,997 teachers from 334 universities and their relationship with teachers' background have been subject to data statistics and analysis.
Teachers' self-evaluation of online teaching mainly includes three dimensions: online teaching methods, online teacher–student interaction and online teaching techniques. There are significant differences in these three dimensions among teachers with different background characteristics, including regions, the types of universities, the nature of universities in macro background levels, the types and numbers of online courses in meso background levels, and the gender, years of teaching, professional titles and disciplines in micro background levels.
To improve teachers' self-evaluation of online teaching, it is suggested to build an online teaching self-evaluation system for teachers, strengthen university support and guarantee, strengthen online teaching training and improve the information accomplishments of teachers.
This large-scale empirical survey of online teaching evaluation of Chinese teachers can provide scholars with a deeper understanding of the implementation of online teaching in China and the self-evaluation of online teaching by teachers.
Considering the urgency of creativity development in the higher education system, this article justifies an effective model of creativity management for students and…
Considering the urgency of creativity development in the higher education system, this article justifies an effective model of creativity management for students and teachers at universities. The model is based on an empirical assessment of the difference between the creativity potential and its actual level. The data was taken from the managing factors playing an important role in the development of creative potential. The study was carried out in Kazakhstan.
The method of surveying 872 teachers and 944 students in Kazakhstan quantified the levels of actual creativity of students and their potential, as well as the gap between the two parameters. The authors identified the nature of the influence of the creativity development factors, contributing to the achievement of the creativity potential of teachers/students.
The gap between the levels of actual and potential creativity at universities for both teachers and students was found to be one of the main factors governing the creativity management in the education system. The main problems hindering the efficient management of actual and potential creativity at education institutions are personal and institutional factors.
The results are based on a limited sample of respondents, taking into account the higher education system in Kazakhstan.
Assessment and justification can be useful in determining the unused creative abilities of students and teachers in the process of developing creativity within the educational process.
The value of this study lies in an empirical assessment of the difference between actual creativity and creativity potential in the higher education system as an object of pedagogical management, as well as a deterministic hierarchy of causal factors of this gap. These results are valuable in the aspect that, when developing an effective management strategy, influencing these factors, in particular the institutional factor of the educational process, it is possible to increase the potential for the development of creativity of students and professors of higher educational establishments. Besides, a very useful scientific result in the framework of the development of this topic is the establishment of the primacy of ensuring the development of the creativity potential of teachers in the process of managing the development of students' creativity.