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This chapter discusses a bottom-up design strategy to support the principles of Universal Design and Universal Design for Learning adapted for online course development. The concept of Universal Design demands a holistic, bottom-up instructional design model for online course development that integrates technology, accessibility, recent instructional and learning theories, and a participatory postmodern worldview. This study is intended for faculty, instructional designers, administrators, assistive technology staff, and Web multimedia software vendors associated with higher education. The research assists these target audiences to design and develop online courses that are accessible without special adaptation or modification. The components of Universal Design for online learning support newer emergent approaches to instructional design, various programming solutions used in the software engineering field for efficiency, Universal Design for Learning, and legal guidelines associated with accessibility.
The purpose of the paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the refurbishment of heritage buildings with special emphasis on sustainability and universal design…
The purpose of the paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the refurbishment of heritage buildings with special emphasis on sustainability and universal design. Findings of the study are the basis for further research and development of enhanced strategies for retrofitting and adaptive reuse of heritage buildings in the framework of sustainability and universal design.
The present research focusses on literature review analysis of specific elements of the refurbishment of heritage buildings with the aim to discover the characteristics/indicators of sustainability and universal design, which are usually used in refurbishment project and the gaps. In this paper, the latest state-of-art in the mentioned fields has been assessed, and the developments along with research gaps and potential future research focusses have been identified. The literature was collected mainly through Science Direct, World Wide Science and Emerald, especially focussed on publications from 2000 to 2019 written in English and the Web for regulatory and recommendation publications. Other sources, such as actual projects, might shed additional light on the specific issues of the studied topics.
This review shows that the current research related to heritage building renovation and reuse does not address sustainability and universal design issues comprehensively. Typically, in research, the topics of heritage, sustainability and inclusiveness are considered separately. In real situations, however, they are interconnected and influence each other, forming an indivisible whole. The needs of persons with disabilities (PWD) in correlation to the built heritage are not well studied. This is why it is important to consider these topics not only separately but also in an interrelated way.
The need for cross-disciplinary problem-solving method, based on a holistic approach, to form the base for implementation of universal design principles into refurbishing of heritage buildings is seen.
This paper demonstrates the need for usable procedures for various stakeholders in their everyday practice.
The combined subjects of sustainability, heritage buildings and universal design are not well covered by research. Lack of appropriate literature for this specific area is forming a significant gap that hinders the development of relevant information and methods that could be applied in actual projects. This paper, albeit in a partial way, intends to fill this gap and opts to provide a comprehensive summary of the sustainability factors affecting adaptive reuse of heritage buildings with special emphasis on users, specifically PWD.
On a world basis, 15% of the population has a disability. Having a disability can result in a higher frequency of health-related information needs than other users might…
On a world basis, 15% of the population has a disability. Having a disability can result in a higher frequency of health-related information needs than other users might experience. The Web represents a widely used source for health information. People with disabilities, however, often encounter barriers during online searching, such as inaccessible information, poorly designed search user interfaces and lack of compatibility with assistive technology. Consequently, many users are potentially excluded from a range of information sources. Measures are therefore needed to remove these barriers to avoid health disparities that can result from unequal access to information. Public libraries have a social responsibility to include all user groups, and should aspire to make fully accessible services. A good tool in this context is the implementation of the universal design mind-set, where the purpose is to develop services that are available to all people. This chapter discusses how universal design can be a premise for equal access to health information and potentially reduce health disparities in the context of users with disabilities. Both library services and education of librarians will be addressed.
Larger numbers of students are entering higher education with more diverse learning needs. While laws are in place to create equal access to education for all…
Larger numbers of students are entering higher education with more diverse learning needs. While laws are in place to create equal access to education for all, government-mandated learning supports for students with documented disabilities vary significantly from K-12 education to higher education. Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a course design framework based on Universal Design in architecture, neuroscience research, and the latest technology, to design learning environments and curriculums that are accessible to all students in every learning environment. This chapter reviews literature on the history of Universal Design concepts, starting with Universal Design in architecture and moving into UDL. A review of the learning preferences of Millennial students, along with the neuroscience of learning and its connection to the principles of UDL, is also included in the literature review. This chapter also includes a section on Dr. Buckland Parker's study which documents four faculty members who chose to work with a small team of faculty development specialists to redesign their large enrollment courses using the principles of Universal Design for Learning.
Written in dialogue form, the benefits and equality of Universal Design vs. Differentiated Design taking into account individual student needs will be explored while…
Written in dialogue form, the benefits and equality of Universal Design vs. Differentiated Design taking into account individual student needs will be explored while integrating literature, research, and both K-12 and higher education experiences. The danger of a singular lens is highlighted as well as the need for educators to be lifelong learners. Both Universal Design and differentiation theories will be tested against and/or aligned with disability studies, multicultural education, critical pedagogy, democratic education, LGBTQ voices, and educational leadership.
The purpose of this paper is to assess the degree to which auctioning the right to provide universal service is a viable option in developed countries with high…
The purpose of this paper is to assess the degree to which auctioning the right to provide universal service is a viable option in developed countries with high teledensity and near ubiquitous fixed line and mobile networks. The paper also aims to provide signposts on the types of issues regulators need to consider and resolve when designing auctioning mechanisms for the competitive provision of universal service.
The paper examines the nature and scope of universal service, the approaches that have been used to identify the costs of universal service provision and the difficulties in using an auction process to allocate the right to provide universal service in countries with near ubiquitous network infrastructure. Australia is used as a case study on the difficulties of using auctions to encourage new entry in universal service areas served by a powerful incumbent. The paper also examines the types of issues regulators need to resolve when designing auction mechanisms for universal service provision.
The paper concludes that for developed countries, it is unclear whether the use of auctions for the provision of universal service will have the desired effect of ensuring a market‐based approach to service provision. This is because the risks associated with becoming an alternative universal service provider are likely to outweigh the benefits of doing so. Further, the risks faced by an alternative universal service provider are not borne by the incumbent operator thus further increasing the disincentive to bid for the right to provide universal service. The paper also concludes that the practical design of the universal service rights and obligations which will be attached to a winning bidder's license conditions is an extremely important mechanism by which some of the risks to potential universal service providers can be overcome.
The paper stimulates thinking about whether universal service auctions are a viable means of providing universal service in developed countries. In presenting empirical evidence of the difficulties in using auctions to introduce competition in universal service provision, the paper may provide valuable input to the regulatory proceedings associated with introducing universal service contestability arrangements that are currently being conducted in various countries.
Barriers exist on large scale assessment when students are not able to perform at potential for a variety of reasons. Accommodations are mostly available for students who…
Barriers exist on large scale assessment when students are not able to perform at potential for a variety of reasons. Accommodations are mostly available for students who meet criteria for diagnosed disability or criteria for the identification of students who have English as a second language. However, knowing that students have diverse needs, accommodations for a few may not be providing appropriate access for all. Options for designing broader universal design for learning (UDL) on large scale assessment, through strategies that are typically restricted to special accommodations, increase access.
The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrated fuzzy approach to determine important universal usability problems (UUPs) by providing experts who behave like real…
The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrated fuzzy approach to determine important universal usability problems (UUPs) by providing experts who behave like real users and to establish a work plan to correct the most important ones.
In this study, a fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making approach with three stages is proposed for the evaluation of universal usability. At the first stage, UUPs are identified by performing modified heuristic evaluation, and severity rating of each problem is determined by experts. At the second stage, critical problems are specified by applying the fuzzy Delphi considering these severity ratings. At the third stage, Fuzzy Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory approach is applied to prioritize critical problems as sub and main criteria. An illustrative example related to emergency service is performed to apply the proposed approach.
Results showed that the elevator button design, the elevator emergency button design and the position of the floor signboard are the first three problems that should be primarily improved as sub-criteria. In terms of main criteria, equitable use, simple and intuitive use, and perceptible information are the first three main criteria that should be improve in emergency service.
This study is original in terms of methodology and providing a new perspective for building design evaluation. The results can help the designers to see the UUPs in buildings, to focus the most important UUPs and to establish improvement ranking. These advantages provide time and cost-effective design improvement actions.
Accessibility design over the past several years has focused much of its attention on the development of a universal standard or a set of guidelines for delivering a…
Accessibility design over the past several years has focused much of its attention on the development of a universal standard or a set of guidelines for delivering a diverse array of both content and instructional processes. Universal design for learning (UDL), for example, promotes providing multiple means of (a) representation, (b) action and expression, and (c) engagement for learners who have a wide range of disabilities as well as their typical peers. And while each instructional design element that represents a means of providing the differentiation required by the principle generally has a strong evidence-based support individually, it is difficult to assess any one of them within the larger ULD “multiple means” milieu of options. It is especially difficult to do this in regard to learners associated with any particular disability category. When it comes to targeted instruction, learner characteristics matter. It follows then that when it comes to developing an instructional design, that the learning characteristics of a targeted population be first and foremost considered as the point of departure in the design and development process. This chapter considers a wide range of instructional targets within the context of specific disability groups with a focus on learning goals, instructional design supports for those goals, and underlying cognitive processes that may help clarify the goals themselves as well as the instructional supports to achieve those goals.