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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

J. Colin Dodds and Richard Dobbins

Although the focus of this issue is on investment in British industry and hence we are particularly concerned with debt and shares, the transactions and holdings in these…

Abstract

Although the focus of this issue is on investment in British industry and hence we are particularly concerned with debt and shares, the transactions and holdings in these cannot be separated from the range of other financial claims, including property, that are available to investors. In consequence this article focuses on an overview of the financial system including in Section 2 a presentation of the flow of funds matrix of the financial claims that make up the system. We also examine more closely the role of the financial institutions that are part of the system by utilising the sources and uses statements for three sectors, non‐bank financial institutions, personal sector and industrial and commercial companies. Then we provide, in Section 3, a discussion of the various financial claims investors can hold. In Section 4 we give a portrayal of the portfolio disposition of each of the major types of financial institution involved in the market for company securities specifically insurance companies (life and general), pension funds, unit and investment trusts, and in Section 4 a market study is performed for ordinary shares, debentures and preference shares for holdings, net acquisitions and purchases/sales. A review of some of the empirical evidence on the financial institutions is presented in Section 5 and Section 6 is by way of a conclusion. The data series extend in the main from 1966 to 1981, though at the time of writing, some 1981 data are still unavailable. In addition, the point needs to be made that the samples have been constantly revised so that care needs to be exercised in the use of the data.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 11 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

M.C. Meyer‐Pretorius and H.P. Wolmarans

The vast global unit trust/mutual fund industry was worth more than $16 trillion by the end of June 2005. Over time, investors’ interests seem to have shifted from…

Abstract

The vast global unit trust/mutual fund industry was worth more than $16 trillion by the end of June 2005. Over time, investors’ interests seem to have shifted from individual shares to share funds. The unit trust industry in South Africa is no exception. Over the 40‐year period from its inception in 1965 to 2005, the industry has grown from only one fund to 567 different funds, worth more than R345 billion. This study highlights some of the most important changes that have occurred in the South African unit trust industry over the last 40 years. These shifts are compared to changes that the USA mutual fund industry has experienced in the 60 years of its existence. An attempt is then made to answer the question whether South African investors are better off with these changes or not.

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Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1022-2529

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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2007

Fauziah, Taib and Mansor Isa

This paper seeks to focus on examining unit trust performance in Malaysia over the period 1991‐2001.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to focus on examining unit trust performance in Malaysia over the period 1991‐2001.

Design/methodology/approach

The broad based study covers full economic cycles using 7 different performance measures: raw return, market adjusted return, Jensen's alpha, adjusted Jensen's alpha, Sharpe Index, adjusted Sharpe Index, and Treynor Index.

Findings

The results show that on average the performance of Malaysian unit trust falls below market portfolio and risk free returns. However, the variance of unit trust monthly returns is less than the market. Performance by type of funds indicates that bond funds show relatively superior performance, over and above the market and equity unit trusts. This is due to the high interest rate kept during the crisis period. Findings also suggest that there is no persistency in performance as there is no significant inter‐temporal correlation between past and current performance.

Research limitations/implications

The issue of inferior performance needs further investigations to adjust for great importance placed on maintaining consistent dividend distribution. In addition, ill‐managed funds must be separately analysed to see if limited budget, less qualified managers, use of limited information and less sophisticated software could explain the poor performance.

Practical implications

A very useful source of information for potential investors and portfolio management companies looking for opportunities to invest.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the present body of knowledge by offering broad based performance evidence from an emerging market with strong government back up for unit trusts investment.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2010

Ross Fowler, Robin Grieves and J. Clay Singleton

This article aims to explore three facets of the historical performance of a sample of actively managed unit trusts available to New Zealand investors: asset allocation…

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to explore three facets of the historical performance of a sample of actively managed unit trusts available to New Zealand investors: asset allocation, style analysis, and return attribution.

Design/methodology/approach

Because New Zealand does not require unit trusts to disclose their security holdings, the paper used returns‐based style analysis to infer how these trusts have allocated their funds among asset classes.

Findings

The research has found that, for unit trusts available to New Zealand investors, asset allocation can explain a significant amount of the differences in return across time and between trusts. Across time, asset allocation accounts for about 80 per cent of the variation in actual return. Between trusts, asset allocation explains about 60 per cent of the variation in returns. From either perspective, the choice of asset allocation is an important factor in explaining returns.

Originality/value

The paper suggests that active management barely earns its fees and that passive investments might do as well or better.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1978

Michael Firth

A unit trust is a vehicle by which a large number of investors can pool their varying amounts of money into one trust fund. In return they are issued with “units” in…

Abstract

A unit trust is a vehicle by which a large number of investors can pool their varying amounts of money into one trust fund. In return they are issued with “units” in proportion to the fraction of the fund that they own. The fund is then invested, by the managers, on the Stock Exchange. Investors buy units from the managers at what is known as the offer price and can sell them back to the managers at what is known as the bid price. These purchases and sales can be made through direct contact with the managers or via an agent such as a bank, stockbroker, accountant or solicitor.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Ahmad Ridhuwan Abdullah and Nur Adiana Hiau Abdullah

The purpose of this paper is to examine the risk-adjusted performance of rated funds and determine the usefulness of Lipper Leader rating of unit trusts in Malaysia during…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the risk-adjusted performance of rated funds and determine the usefulness of Lipper Leader rating of unit trusts in Malaysia during the period 2000 to 2010.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper utilizes the Sharpe ratio, Treynor ratio, Jensen’s alpha and Fama-French three-factor model to measure performance.

Findings

During the period of study, the performance of the market index and risk-free rate outperformed that of 68 equity unit trust funds in the 3-year, 5-year and 10-year investment horizons. The ranking, based on four performance measures, corresponds to Lipper rating for the lowest rated and leader funds, but not for the three- and four-key rated funds. Further, there is a significant difference in the performance of the five-key, four-key and three-key rated funds which outperform the lowest rated funds, indicating that Lipper rating is able to distinguish superior and inferior unit trust funds.

Research limitations/implications

Some of the limitations in this study are that the indexes could be self-constructed. The existing index might not represent the asset allocation of the funds concerned. Additional variables might have to be considered when examining fund performance as they should correspond to the characteristics of a fund.

Practical implications

The results indicate that Lipper rating classification could identify the highest and lowest performing funds. Therefore, investors could use this rating to make informed investment decisions without undertaking time-consuming analysis to ascertain the good- and bad-quality funds in the market.

Social implications

The findings of this study could be used by the academia as another source of reference to enhance their understanding of the applicability of Lipper rating for unit trust funds in an emerging market.

Originality/value

The contribution of this study is that it analyzes the effectiveness and capability of Lipper Leader rating in identifying quality funds in the context of an emerging market. Performance comparison between Lipper Leader rating and methods used in the portfolio theory bridges the theory-practice gap between practitioners and academics. To date, there have been no attempts to study and compare the ratings of advisory firms with theoretical performance measures, particularly in the context of Malaysia.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 26 June 2019

Syahnaz Sulaiman, Aznan Hasan, Azman Mohd Noor, Muhd Issyam Ismail and Nazrul Hazizi Noordin

This paper aims to present the viability of unit trust waqf (Islamic endowment) as an alternative asset class for waqf creation.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the viability of unit trust waqf (Islamic endowment) as an alternative asset class for waqf creation.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper starts with the conceptual exploration of the literature in the areas of waqf. The sources of the literature cover authentic sources of the Qurʾān and ḥadīth, as well as secondary sources such as books, journal articles and online resources.

Findings

This paper provides the conceptual framework of five models of unit trust waqf and their investment management parameters.

Originality/value

The novelty of this paper lies in its attempt to highlight the importance of waqf investment strategy in ensuring sustainable returns for waqf. It does so by introducing the conceptual models of unit trust waqf as viable mechanisms to pool more cash waqf from individual investors. The sustainability of the capital waqf assets in the form of unit trusts is maintained through the parameters for its application proposed towards the end of the paper.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2010

Norma, Saad, M. Shabri Abd. Majid, Salina Kassim, Zarinah Hamid and Rosylin Mohd. Yusof

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the efficiency of selected conventional and Islamic unit trust companies in Malaysia during the period 2002 to 2005.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the efficiency of selected conventional and Islamic unit trust companies in Malaysia during the period 2002 to 2005.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to investigate efficiency, as measured by the Malmquist index, which is decomposed into two components: efficiency change and technical change indexes.

Findings

The study indicates that technical efficiency is the main contributor to enhancing the efficiency of the Malaysian unit trust industry. In addition, the larger the size of the unit trust companies, the more inefficient the performance. In comparing the efficiency of unit trust companies, the study finds that some of the Islamic unit trust companies perform better than their conventional counterparts.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to five Islamic unit trust companies. Thus, the findings of this study are indicative, but inconclusive for the unit trust industry as a whole.

Practical implications

The results have two important implications for both conventional and Islamic unit trust companies in Malaysia. First, the deterioration of total factor productivity (TFP) in the unit trust industry in Malaysia is due to the deficiency of innovation in technical components. Second, the size of the unit trust companies has an adverse effect on the TFP performance.

Originality/value

The contribution of this study is that it analyzes the efficiency of the two types of unit trust industry which are important and relevant for Malaysia. This significance arises from the dual financial system, in which the Islamic unit trust companies operate in parallel with their conventional counterparts. The comparison sheds some light on the performance of the Islamic unit trust companies, whose operations are based on profit‐sharing, in contrast to the conventional unit trust companies.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

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Article
Publication date: 15 October 2010

M. Kabir Hassan, Abu Nahian Faisal Khan and Thiti Ngow

The growing demand for alternative investment vehicle which adheres to shari'a principles has prompted other measures to boost the Islamic capital market. Unit trust funds…

Abstract

Purpose

The growing demand for alternative investment vehicle which adheres to shari'a principles has prompted other measures to boost the Islamic capital market. Unit trust funds in Malaysia have been growing exponentially and their existence signifies the extent of development in the Malaysian financial market. For foreign and domestic investors who have low risk tolerance and wish to diversify, unit trust funds offer the opportunity to invest. The increasing relevance of unit trust funds as an investment instrument has driven us to analyze the fund's performance. This paper addresses these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines the comparative performance of Malaysian unit trust funds vis‐à‐vis their non‐Islamic counterparts using a variety of measures, such as Sharpe, Treynor, Jenson and Fama's selectivity, net selectivity and diversification. The paper also examines the persistence of performance using Carhart's four‐factor pricing models. Lastly, the paper employs an analysis of cointegration to examine how the Islamic unit trust funds are related in long term with their non‐Islamic counterparts, as well as their respective market portfolios.

Findings

The paper finds no convincing performance differences between Islamic and non‐Islamic Malaysian unit trust funds. Controlling performance for style differences, the paper finds that non‐Islamic unit trust funds in Malaysia are value‐focused while Islamic unit trust funds are small cap oriented. In addition, similar reward to risk and diversification benefits exist only between Islamic and non‐Islamic Malaysian unit trust funds.

Research limitations/implications

The Worldscope data are used to construct four‐factor models as opposed to Malaysian‐based data – given that Malaysia is an open economy that attracts global investors. Also, US T‐Bill rate is used rather than Malaysian risk‐free rate because no other securities are as riskless as US Treasury Bills.

Practical implications

The paper observes a significant long‐term relationship between Islamic unit trust funds portfolio and non‐Islamic unit trust funds portfolio. The implication here suggests that investors in Malaysian unit trust funds will most likely benefit from international diversification of financial risks. They do not, however, stand a good chance to gain from portfolio diversification in the local unit trust funds market.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the existing Islamic investment literature by pursuing an empirical analysis on the performance of both Islamic and non‐Islamic Malaysian unit trust funds by using more recent data and further investigating the long‐run relationship between Islamic and non‐Islamic unit trust funds.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

Ian Ellingham

The first authorized property unit trusts in the UK were created inSeptember 1991, and have operated unspectacularly since then, as thecurrent property climate has not, in…

Abstract

The first authorized property unit trusts in the UK were created in September 1991, and have operated unspectacularly since then, as the current property climate has not, in general, been encouraging. Similar Canadian investment vehicles first appeared in the early 1980s, and experienced significant growth through the property boom of the mid‐1980s. Since then, with decreasing property values many of these funds have been forced to reorganize. Yet, the structure of the Canadian funds would have complied with the most significant aspects of the UK regulations. The consideration of the nature of the manifold difficulties of the Canadian funds suggests that the regulations established in the UK may not prevent similar problems. Accordingly, the specifics of the Canadian funds and the manner in which their structure added further levels of risk to that inherent in their underlying assets should be considered relative to the possible future performance of similar vehicles in the UK.

Details

Journal of Property Finance, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0958-868X

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