Search results1 – 10 of over 5000
Purpose – European social protection arrangements have undergone significant transformations since the mid-1970s. However, while the existing literature has focused on…
Purpose – European social protection arrangements have undergone significant transformations since the mid-1970s. However, while the existing literature has focused on reforms in public welfare arrangements, an analysis of both public and private social protection is needed to understand the social protection status of European workers. Recent reforms have led to varying degrees of social protection dualism between insiders and outsiders. After showing the existence of dualization processes in Germany, France, and the United Kingdom, the chapter explores the structural and political sources of these processes.
Methodology/approach – We conduct a comparative historical analysis and process tracing of policy change and its drivers in three major European political economies. A combination of qualitative evidence and quantitative measurements are used.
Findings – We find that de-industrialization has contributed to unsettling the skill composition that sustained both public and private postwar social protection arrangements. This development has affected the preferences of employers, for whom cost containment has become a critical issue. Furthermore, we show that the capacity of employers to realize their preferences depends on the governance structures of social policy arrangements and on domestic political institutions.
Originality/value – The chapter suggests new perspectives on employers' preferences in Coordinated and Liberal political economies which differ from those which have informed the Varieties of Capitalism approach.
This article focuses on a set of issues concerning unemployment insurance costs. The effect on unemployment insurance costs of variables under the control of the state legislature, such as the maximum benefit amount paid per week to unemployed workers, is analysed, as are the problems of abusing the system through “lay‐off” management and the topic of underemployment. The main policy thrust of the article is to argue that there are likely to be important trade‐offs between liberal benefit policies which typically increase business costs, and long‐term employment opportunities. Therefore, liberal policies towards the unemployed need to be offset by other business cost reductions in order to allow individual states to remain desirable locations for new business capacity. The legislature′s role in this process is argued to be of crucial importance.
While there is a vast literature on the effect of unemployment insurance on unemployment duration, in almost all of these studies the replacement ratio is the key…
While there is a vast literature on the effect of unemployment insurance on unemployment duration, in almost all of these studies the replacement ratio is the key explanatory variable. Does not contest the almost universal findings that the higher the ratio of unemployment income to that of previous earnings, the longer is unemployment duration, but finds that when pre‐unemployment income itself is considered, duration is positively related to that income. Supports the positive view of the merits of unemployment insurance. While past studies emphasize the leisure aspect, unemployment insurance incorporates the ability to improve search through the use of unemployment insurance funds. This use of funds is particularly applicable to high income recipients.
Unemployment Insurance (UI) is a valuable social programme designed to provide support for millions of unemployed workers. The interest in UI has already generated a large…
Unemployment Insurance (UI) is a valuable social programme designed to provide support for millions of unemployed workers. The interest in UI has already generated a large stock of theoretical and empirical studies. Because UI is a keystone programme to the solution of unemployment — a critical national problem — it justifies subjecting it to continuous analysis to adapt it to present day economic conditions.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate China's employment stabilization policies in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to discuss the…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate China's employment stabilization policies in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to discuss the accessibility of these policies in practice. In addition, by focussing on the problems and dilemmas encountered during the implementation of these policies, this paper proposes some future directions for reforming employment protection and social insurance to adapt to the changing employment structure and mode in China.
The design and methodology of this paper utilises open sources and documentary materials on China's employment stabilization policies, employment protection and social insurance measures.
The employment stabilization policies/measures launched during the COVID-19 pandemic were formulated under an initial policy framework designed only for employees in a definite employment relationship and do not match the current employment structure and model. As a result, the accessibility of employment stabilization policies/measures is limited because some worker groups that are the most affected are not covered by the policies.
This paper provides timely analysis on the China's employment stabilization policies and evaluates the accessibility of these policies.
This paper studies the estimation of quantile regression panel duration models. We allow for the possibility of endogenous covariates and correlated individual effects in…
This paper studies the estimation of quantile regression panel duration models. We allow for the possibility of endogenous covariates and correlated individual effects in the quantile regression models. We propose a quantile regression approach for panel duration models under conditionally independent censoring. The procedure involves minimizing ℓ1 convex objective functions and is motivated by a martingale property associated with survival data in models with endogenous covariates. We carry out a series of Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the small sample performance of the proposed approach in comparison with other existing methods. An empirical application of the method to the analysis of the effect of unemployment insurance on unemployment duration illustrates the approach.
This chapter reviews the existing empirical evidence on how social insurance affects health. Social insurance encompasses programs primarily designed to insure against health risks, such as health insurance, sick leave insurance, accident insurance, long-term care insurance, and disability insurance as well as other programs, such as unemployment insurance, pension insurance, and country-specific social insurance programs. These insurance systems exist in almost all developed countries around the world. This chapter discusses the state-of-the art evidence on each of these social insurance systems, briefly reviews the empirical methods for identifying causal effects, and examines possible limitations to these methods. The findings reveal robust and rich evidence on first-stage behavioral responses (“moral hazard”) to changes in insurance coverage. Surprisingly, evidence on how changes in coverage impact beneficiaries’ health is scant and inconclusive. This lack of identified causal health effects is directly related to limitations on how human health is typically measured, limitations on the empirical approaches, and a paucity of administrative panel data spanning long-time horizons. Future research must be conducted to fill these gaps. Of particular importance is evidence on how these social insurance systems interact and affect human health over the life cycle.
Between 1900 and 1950 most of today’s legally required employee benefits were developed. Political and social forces influenced a transformation of individual and societal…
Between 1900 and 1950 most of today’s legally required employee benefits were developed. Political and social forces influenced a transformation of individual and societal value systems, including a shift of substantial personal welfare responsibility from the individual to governments and businesses. Workers’ compensation, America’s first social insurance, ushered in legally required strategies designed to provide for workers’ particular needs. In addition, the Social Security Act of 1935 provided old age retirement payments and created an unemployment insurance program, among other things. Each of these came into being amid much debate, and America’s political, economic, social, and business structures were changed forever with their passage.
Unemployment insurance (UI) reduces the opportunity cost of leisure, but it is unknown whether this additional leisure time is physically active. To obtain unbiased estimates of the effect of UI on physically active leisure participation, I exploit changes in UI program legislation across US states and time. Using nationally representative monthly data between 2003 and 2010 from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the American Time Use Survey (ATUS), I find evidence that both state UI eligibility expansions and increases in maximum allowable state UI benefits coincide with greater probability of physical activity among the recently unemployed. Based on point estimates, state UI eligibility expansions increased the probability of physical activity participation by 8–10 percentage points among the unemployed with less than a high school education, while a 10% increase in the maximum allowable state UI benefit increased the probability of physical activity by 0.3 to 0.6 percentage points among the unemployed who have completed high school or some college.