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Article
Publication date: 21 July 2020

Tomasz Rogalski, Paweł Rzucidło and Jacek Prusik

The paper aims to present an idea of automatic control algorithms dedicated to both small manned and unmanned aircraft, capable to perform spin maneuver automatically…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to present an idea of automatic control algorithms dedicated to both small manned and unmanned aircraft, capable to perform spin maneuver automatically. This is a case of maneuver far away from so-called standard flight. The character of this maneuver and the range of aircraft flight parameters changes restrict application of standard control algorithms. Possibility of acquisition full information about aircraft flight parameters is limited as well in such cases. This paper analyses an alternative solution that can be applied in some specific cases.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses theoretical discussion and breakdowns to create basics for development of structures of control algorithms. Simplified analytical approach was applied to tune regulators. Results of research were verified in series of software-in-the loop, computer simulations.

Findings

The structure of the control system enabling aerobatic flight (spin flight as example selected) was found and the method how to tune regulators was presented as well.

Practical implications

It could be a fundament for autopilots working in non-conventional flight states and aircraft automatic recovery systems.

Originality/value

The paper presents author’s original approach to aircraft automatic control when high control precision is not the priority, and not all flight parameters can be precisely measured.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2007

Nikolaos Kehayas

A review is attempted with the objective to indicate the most promising aeronautical technology for application to future subsonic civil transport aircraft.

Abstract

Purpose

A review is attempted with the objective to indicate the most promising aeronautical technology for application to future subsonic civil transport aircraft.

Design/methodology/approach

A methodology is put forward, according to which direct operating costs (DOC) are examined in order to identify those that can be reduced, and, then, specific technology is assessed in relation to its efficiency in reducing these DOC, operational feasibility and cost‐effectiveness.

Findings

This assessment suggests the selection of propfan and powered lift as the leading future aeronautical technology. These findings are supported by a comparison of a number of advanced technology designs.

Originality/value

Provides a starting point for further investigation of advanced aeronautical technology and unconventional configurations for large subsonic civil transport aircraft.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 79 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2021

Tomasz Rogalski, Paweł Rzucidło, Stanisław Noga and Jacek Prusik

The purpose of this paper is to present the idea of automatic flight control algorithms capable of performing an Immelmann turn manoeuvre automatically. This is a case of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the idea of automatic flight control algorithms capable of performing an Immelmann turn manoeuvre automatically. This is a case of a manoeuvre far removed from so-called standard flight. The character of this manoeuvre and the range of changes in the aircraft flight parameters restrict the application of standard control algorithms. Furthermore, the possibility of acquiring full and detailed information about the aircraft’s flight parameters is limited in such cases. This paper seeks to analyse an alternative solution that can be applied in some specific cases.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses theoretical discussion and breakdowns to create the basics for development of structures of control algorithms. A simplified analytical approach was applied to tune regulators and the results of the research were verified in a series of software-in-the loop computer simulations.

Findings

The structure of the control system enabling aerobatic flight (with the Immelmann turn as the selected example) was identified and the method for tuning the regulators is also presented.

Practical implications

It could serve as a foundation for autopilots working in non-conventional flight states and aircraft automatic recovery systems.

Originality/value

This paper presents the author’s original approach to aircraft automatic control when high control precision is not the priority and not all flight parameters can be precisely measured.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Zdobyslaw Goraj

The present study aimed to demonstrate different computational models, data and stability results obtained in a wide number of projects of various aircrafts such as…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aimed to demonstrate different computational models, data and stability results obtained in a wide number of projects of various aircrafts such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), general aviation and big passenger flying airliners in blended wing body (BWB) configurations. Many details of modeling and computing are shown for unconventional configurations, namely, for a BWB aircraft and for tailless UAVs.

Design/methodology/approach

Mathematical models for analysis of static and dynamic stability were built and investigated based on equations of motion in the linearized form using the so-called state variable model for a steady-state disturbed, generally asymmetric, flight.

Findings

Flight dynamics models and associated computational procedures appeared to be useful, both in a preliminary design phase and during the final assessment of the configuration at flight tests. It was also found that the difference between thresholds for static and dynamic stability conditions was equal to 9 per cent of mean aerodynamic chord (MAC) in the case of BWB and 3 per cent of MAC in the case of tailless UAVs.

Practical implications

Many useful information about aircraft dynamics can be easily obtained from computational analyses including time to half/double and periods of oscillation, undamped frequencies, damping ratio and many others. Stability analysis of different unconventional configurations will be easier and faster if an access to such configurations is available.

Originality/value

This paper presents a very efficient method of assessment of the designing parameters, especially in an early stage of the design process. In open literature, there are a great number of datasets for classical configurations, but it is hard to find anything for passenger BWB and tailless UAVs. Stability computations are performed based on equations of motion derived in the stability frame of the reference fixed with one-quarter of MAC. It can be considered as an original, not typical but a very practical approach because values of stability and control derivatives do not change even if the centre of gravity is travelling.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal, vol. 86 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Giorgio Guglieri, Barbara Pralio and Fulvia Quagliotti

The purpose of this paper is to present an original design procedure for a flight control system.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an original design procedure for a flight control system.

Design/methodology/approach

An optimization process, based on a genetic algorithm (GA), is used to meet the frequency domain handling qualities requirements in the longitudinal plane for an unconventional platform characterized by nonlinear aerodynamics. The parameters are implemented in the search process as fitness functions related to the expected magnitude of bandwidth and delay for an existing micro aerial vehicle. The bandwidth and the delay of the longitudinal short‐term attitude response are estimated before and after the inclusion of the flight control system in the simulation model, and the parameters are compared with the expected handling qualities levels. A qualitative analysis of handling qualities levels is also performed by implementing the augmented aircraft in a simulator with a realistic visual environment.

Findings

The results show that an optimal search process based on a GA can implement the handling qualities requirements with a computational procedure that is straightforward.

Research limitations/implications

Even if the requisites for bandwidth and delay implemented in the search process are general in use as no specific aircraft response type is taken as a reference for the estimation of handling qualities requirements, only future experimental work will provide insight for the definition of specific Level 1 boundaries for micro aerial vehicles in remotely piloted flight.

Originality/value

The virtual environment is useful to test remote piloting with unconventional onboard visual cues. This is important in applications in which technical limitations may preclude complete real time data link during flight tests in the first development phase of the vehicle.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 78 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2018

Marcin Figat

This paper aims to present the results of aerodynamic calculation of the aircraft in tandem wing configuration called VTOL. A presented vehicle combines the capabilities…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the results of aerodynamic calculation of the aircraft in tandem wing configuration called VTOL. A presented vehicle combines the capabilities of the classic aircraft and helicopters. The aircraft is equipped with two pairs of tilt-rotors mounted on the tips of the front and the rear wing. The main goal of the presented research was to find the aerodynamic impact of both pairs of tilt-rotors on aerodynamic coefficients of the aircraft. Moreover, the rotors impact on the static stability of the aircraft was investigated too.

Design/methodology/approach

The CFD analysis was made for the complete aircraft in the tandem wing configuration. The computation was performed for the model of aircraft which was equipped with the four sub-models of the front and rear rotors. They were modeled as the actuator discs. This method allows for computing the aerodynamic impact of rotating components on the aircraft body. All aerodynamic analysis was made by the MGAERO software. The numerical code of the software was based on the Euler flow model. The used numerical method allows for the quick computation of very complex model of aircraft with a satisfied accuracy.

Findings

The result obtained by computation includes the aerodynamic coefficients which described the impact of the tilt rotors on the aircraft aerodynamic. The influence of the angle of attack, sideslip angle and the change of rotor tilt angle was investigated. Evaluation of the influence was made by the stability margin analysis and the selected stability derivatives computation.

Practical implications

Presented results could be very useful in the computation of dynamic stability of unconventional aircraft. Moreover, results could be helpful during designing the aircraft in the tandem wing configuration.

Originality/value

This paper presents the aerodynamic analysis of the unconventional configuration of the aircraft which combines the tandem wing feature with the tilt-rotor advantages. The impact of disturbance generated by the front and rear rotors on the flow around the aircraft was investigated. Moreover, the impact of rotors configuration on the aircraft static stability was found too.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Tomasz Goetzendorf-Grabowski and Tomasz Antoniewski

Unconventional configuration aircrafts are not often designed because of many problems, mainly with stability and trim. However, they could be very promising. The problems…

Abstract

Purpose

Unconventional configuration aircrafts are not often designed because of many problems, mainly with stability and trim. However, they could be very promising. The problems can be compensated by extraordinary performance and some flying characteristics. The three-surface aircraft, presented in the paper, is such a configuration – problems and profits are both present, but advantages seem to be more prevalent. This paper aims to present main assumptions for a new, three-surfaces aircraft design, its evaluation according to flying quality requirements and the discussion on selected performance characteristics. The paper completes with the first experimental results of flight tests of a 40 per cent scaled model.

Design/methodology/approach

Aerodynamic computations were made using panel method code (KK-AERO, PANUKL). Stability analysis was done using SDSA package, developed within the SimSAC project.

Findings

Initial design assumptions and numerical analysis results were proven during flight tests.

Practical implications

The paper contains results of numerical analysis, which were crucial in designing the layout of the new, three-surface aircraft.

Originality/value

This paper presents an original approach to design a new, unconventional aircraft. The approach and results could be useful in other projects.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal, vol. 88 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2011

Ngoc Anh Vu, Young‐Jae Lee, Jae‐Woo Lee, Sangho Kim and In Jae Chung

The purpose of this paper is to study the conceptual design and optimisation of a compound gyroplane. A study of a compound gyroplane configuration and its characteristics…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the conceptual design and optimisation of a compound gyroplane. A study of a compound gyroplane configuration and its characteristics was performed to develop a sizing program.

Design/methodology/approach

The vertical takeoff and landing capabilities of a helicopter are particularly important. The need for efficient hover and the effectiveness of forward flight in the helicopter can cause conflicts within the design process. The designers usually wish to increase the helicopter's maximum forward speed. Recently, the compound aircraft is one of the concepts considered for the purpose of expanding the flight envelope of rotorcraft. The study of the compound gyroplane showed its advance capabilities for this purpose. Understanding its characteristics, a number of calculations are conducted to implement a sizing program for compound gyroplanes based on the conventional helicopter sizing process.

Findings

The results of the sizing program were validated using existing aircraft data such as the Challis Heliplane, Carter Copter, FB‐1 Gyrodyne, and Jet Gyrodyne. The program is appropriate to size a compound gyroplane at the conceptual design phase. An optimisation study was also performed to enhance sizing results. The compromise between the rotor lift sharing factor and the ratio of the wing span (Bw) to rotor diameter (D) was solved by choosing the total gross weight (TOGW) as the objective function, while the design variables are compromising factors. The optimum results showed that the TOGW of all four kinds of compound gyroplanes was considerably reduced.

Originality/value

A conceptual sizing program for unconventional compound aircraft was developed. The study showed that an optimum design process is necessary to enhance the sizing results.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 83 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Jozsef Rohacs and Daniel Rohacs

The purpose of this paper is to present the first-year results of the EU-supported GABRIEL project on the possible use of magnetic levitation (MagLev) technology to assist…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the first-year results of the EU-supported GABRIEL project on the possible use of magnetic levitation (MagLev) technology to assist aircraft take-off and landing (ATOL).

Design/methodology/approach

Developing a radically new technology is a complex task. It is based on extensive expert analysis, use of technology identification evaluation and selection methods, principle of the design philosophies and development of the radically new technologies.

Findings

A possible solution of using the MagLev technology to assist ATOL was developed and defined, including several original ideas, such as the cart-sledge concept or the unconventional climb principle.

Research limitations/implications

This is a typical “out-of-the-box” project without limitations on the developing new principles and technologies, but it is working on the development of a possible solution within the predictable technical and technological envelopes.

Practical implications

The developed concept should assess whether MagLev technology for the ATOL is feasible, cost-effective and safe.

Social implications

The developed GABRIEL principle may significantly reduce the noise and chemical emissions in airport regions and increase the efficiency of the air transportation system.

Originality/value

The GABRIEL concept is the first concept for using the MagLev technology to assist the takeoff and landing processes related to the commercial civil aviation.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal, vol. 86 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Howard Smith

The systems aspects of an uninhabited tactical aircraft (UTA) preliminary design are detailed. The study, performed at the post‐graduate level at Cranfield University…

Abstract

The systems aspects of an uninhabited tactical aircraft (UTA) preliminary design are detailed. The study, performed at the post‐graduate level at Cranfield University, looks to investigate the feasibility of unmanned combat aircraft in a number of roles to reduce the risk to pilots and reduce life cycle costs (LCC). The scope of the work includes stealth, vulnerability, mission effectiveness, avionics, landing gear, secondary power, fuel systems, propulsion, performance and cost. The unusual depth to which the design work progressed enables insights to be gained that far exceed those available at the conceptual design phase. A Northrop Grumman concept of near‐identical configuration has subsequently reached the public domain.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 73 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

1 – 10 of 305